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Ancient 
Landmarks of Plymouth. 



Part I. 

HISTORICAL SKETCH AND TITLES OF ESTATES. 
Part II. 

GENEALOGICAL REGISTER OF PLYMOUTH FAMILIES. 



Br WILLIAM T. DAVIS, 

FORMER PRESIDENT OF THE PILGRIM SOCIETY. 



BOSTON : 
DAMRELL & UPH AM, 
(Horner ^ookstow. 

MDCCCLXXXVII. 



Copyright, 
1883, 

By William T. Davis. 




I DEDICATE THIS BOOK 

TO 

2Tfje Inhabitants of mg Natt'bt Eaton; 

BOTH 

THE LIVING, WHOSE FRIENDSHIP I ESTEEM, 
AND THE DEAD, WHOSE MEMORY 
I CHERISH. 



PREFACE. 



Tnis book is neither a history of the Old Colony nor a his- 
tory of Plymouth. It contains matter lying, for the most 
part, outside of the domain of history, and will therefore, it 
is hoped, fill a place in Pilgrim literature not already occupied. 
Its division into two parts seems necessary in consequence 
of the widely differing nature of the materials of which it 
is composed. 

The First Part, largely devoted to abstracts of titles of 
estates, is prefaced by so much matter of a purely historical 
nature as is needed to throw clear light on the methods by 
which the estates were originally secured to the Plymouth 
colonists. While not a few readers may find in the prelimi- 
nary narrative something to interest and instruct them, it is 
believed that all descendants of the Pilgrims will follow the 
abstracts with an eye eager to identify localities associated 
with the lives of their ancestors. 

The Second Part consists of a Genealogical Register, based 
on the records of the town of Plymouth, and includes all the 
marriages and births therein entered, down to the present 
generation. To this has been added a large amount of ma- 
terial gathered from the records of other towns ; from family 
Bibles and old papers , from the Probate Records and the 

Registry of Deeds ; and from tradition. It is believed to 

v 



vi 



PREFACE. 



contain nearly every name connected with Plymouth before 
the present century. In both parts ancient dates, unless 
otherwise stated, are made conformable to the present 
style. 

It is hoped that the chapters on the Burial Hill, the streets, 
the ancient local names, the Fire Department, the schools, 
and the churches will enhance the interest of the book to 
many readers. 

Three maps accompany the work. That of the harbor and 
bay of Plymouth in 1605 is taken from a translation of 
Champlain's voyages, published by the Prince Society in 1878, 
b}' the kind permission of Rev. Edmund F. Slafter, the ed- 
itor. This map has a special interest, because it shows the 
configuration of the harbor of Plymouth, with its islands and 
headlands, when visited by the first European of whose ex- 
plorations in that quarter we have any positive knowledge. 
The map of Burial Hill delineates its boundaries, paths, an- 
cient graves, and other interesting features, and designates the 
burial-places of many families. The map of Plymouth in 
1701 is the result of the author's investigations. It exhibits 
the streets and ways existing at or near that time, with the 
houses of about two-thirds of the inhabitants, and the names 
of their occupants within what was called the mile-and-a-half 
tract. 

It was the intention of the author to add a chapter on the 
modes of living of our ancestors, as disclosed by the inven- 
tories of their estates, but want of space in a volume already 
larger and more cumbersome than he designed forbids. These 
inventories are recorded in the OL1 Colony records beginning 
A. D. 1033. They are very minute, and enumerate not only 
the houses, lands, and live stock, but also all household and 



PREFACE. Vii 

farm utensils, all books and every article of furniture or ap- 
parel, and furnish ample material for an accurate judgment 
of both the habits and customs of early times, and the tastes, 
culture, and worldly condition of the early colonists. In the 
light of these inventories many articles, inconsiderately claimed 
by their possessors to have been brought to New England in 
the Mayflower, must be referred to a later period. It will 
not be safe to exhibit a china or porcelain teapot or mug as a 
Pilgrim relic when no article of either china or porcelain is 
found in these tell-tale lists before 1660. The fact that tea 
was a rare luxury in England as late as 1657, and was sold at 
that date at £6 per pound, fortifies the story which these 
inventories tell. 

Neither were forks used in England when the Pilgrims left 
it ; and h*avellers of that period speak of the use in Italy of 
forks instead of napkins as a new and curious one. The 
English were in the habit of holding their food in a napkin 
with the left hand, while with the right they cut it with a knife 
and carried it to the mouth. A habit now esteemed vulgar 
was once universal, and, like many a good old Saxon word, 
has been borne down to the present generation on the under- 
current of the uncultivated and unrefined portion of society. 
It was the back of the knife, however, which entered the 
mouth, and the protuberance on the back of old-fashioned 
knives, which doubtless many now living have seen, is a relic 
of an old custom which lingered after the habit of eating 
with a knife had disappeared. We accordingly find in the 
early inventories large numbers of napkins and an entire 
absence of forks. 

Chairs were, in early Pilgrim days, articles of luxury, the 
use of stools being almost universal. Only a few families 



viii 



PEEFACE. 



indulged in these luxuries, and up to 1650 the inventories 
contain a smaller number than is probably now claimed to 
have been a part of the burden of the first ship. 

It is to be hoped that at an early day the publication of the 
Old Colony Records by the Commonwealth will be resumed, 
and that these interesting inventories of the estates of the 
Pilgrim Fathers will be permitted to reveal the secrets of 
Pilgrim days. 

In a work of this character, the author cannot expect that 
either his Abstracts of Titles or his Genealogical Register 
will be found entirely free from errors. He is content to 
claim credit only for faithful labor and an honest purpose, and 
as he has corrected many errors of others, he leaves as a legacy 
to those who come after him the correction of his own. 



Plymouth, Mass., Jan. 22, 1883. 



CONTENTS. 



Part I. 
CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

The Pilgrims in Holland. — Arrangements Preliminary to 
their Departure. — Virginia Company. — Merchant Ad- 
venturers. — Passengers in the Mayflower. — Destina- 



tion. — Arrival at Plymouth 1 

CHAPTER II. 

Early Voyages to New England. — Champlain. — John Smith. 
— Thomas Dermer. — Treaty with Massasoit. — Patent of 
1621. — Land Grants. — Old Colony Patent. — Settlement 
with the Adventurers. — Further Land Grants .... 33 



CHAPTER III. 

The Compact. — Governor and Assistants. — The General 
Court. — Freemen. — Judicial Powers. — Laws of the Col- 
ony. — Declaration of Independence. — Constables. — 
Organization of Towns. — Purchases of Indian Lands. — 



Selectmen. — Tithingmen. — Colony and Town Records . . 64 

CHAPTER IV. 
Church History. — History of Schools. — Fire Department . 94 

CHAPTER V. 

Burial Hill. —Town Brook. — Ancient Names of Localities. 

— Ancient Streets 129 

CHAPTER VI. 

Ab>tracts of Titles of Estates 161 

$att EI. 

Genealogical Register of Plymouth Families 3 



HISTORICAL SKETCH 

AXD 

TITLES OF ESTATES. 



Part I. 

OF ANCIENT LANDMARKS OF PLYMOUTH. 



jForsan ct fjacc olt'm mnmni'ssc ju&afatt. 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



CHAPTER I. 

The Pilgrims in Holland. — Arrangements Preliminary to their Departure. 
— Virginia Company — Merchant Adventurers. — Passengers in the 
Mayflower. — Destination. — Arrival at Plymouth. 

In the winter of 1607-8 the members of the Pilgrim Church, 
which, during the previous year, had held its Sabbath- 
meetings in the Manor House at Scrooby, under the minis- 
trations of Richard Clyfton and John Robinson, made an 
unsuccessful attempt to reach Holland from Boston in Lincoln- 
shire. Why their departure should have been interfered 
with, when the penalty for the offence of Separatism was 
banishment, many have found it difficult to understand. But 
the king had issued a proclamation against emigration to the 
English colony of Virginia without a ro} al license, and a sus- 
picion was entertained, either real or feigned, that such was 
the destination of the Scrooby band. During the spring of 
1608 they succeeded in effecting their escape from England, 
and, after vexatious delays and annoyances, reached Amster- 
dam in safety. It was intended at first to make that city 
their home, but dissensions between John Smith and Francis 
Johnson, English Separatists, already settled there, which 
they feared might become contagious, induced them to re- 
move in the spring of 1609 to Leyden, twenty-two miles 
distant ; and that place, for nearly twelve years, they made 
their residence. 

Precisely how many, and who at that time composed the 
Pilgrim Church besides William Bradford, and the families 



2 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



of Robinson and Brewster, is not known, though it is probable 
that members of the Wright, Southworth, Morton, and Butten 
families were among the number. Either at that time, or at 
a later day, they were joined by William White, Isaac Aller- 
ton, Samuel Fuller, Degory Priest, and Edward Winslow from 
London, Robert Cushman from Canterbury, John Jenney 
from Norwich, Richard Masterson from Sandwich, and John 
Carver and Miles Standish, and other exiles from various 
parts of England. 

Before leaving Amsterdam a letter was addressed to the 
burgomaster of Ley den representing that John Robinson, 
minister of the divine word, and some of the members of the 
Christian reformed religion, born in the kingdom of Great 
Britain, to the number of one hundred persons, or there- 
abouts, men and women, were desirous of going to live in 
that city, and to have the freedom thereof in carrying on 
their trades "without being a burden in the least to any one." 
This request, the records at Leyden say, was granted. It is 
probable that some members of the church remained in 
Amsterdam with Richard Clyfton, who it is known con- 
tinued his residence in that city until his death. Bradford's 
Dialogue, published in Young's Chronicles of the Pilgrims, 
states that, before 1620, accessions to the church had in- 
creased its number to about three hundred. Bradford says 
that the church of Johnson, before their division and breach, 
contained "about three hundred communicants," "and for the 
church in Leyden these were sometimes not much fewer in 
number, nor at all inferior in able men." Edward Winslow 
says also in his brief narrative, published in the Chronicles, 
in reference to the final departure from Leyden : " These 
things being agreed, the major part stayed and the pastor 
with them for the present, but all intended (except a few 
who had rather we would have stayed) to follow after. The 
minor part, with Mr. Brewster, their elder, resolved to enter 
upon this great work (but, take notice, the difference of num- 
ber was not great"). It is a matter of record that one 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



3 



hundred and twenty set sail from England in the Mayflower 
and Speedwell, and they being the " minor part," it is probable 
that one hundred and fifty or more remained. It is known 
also that one hundred and two finally sailed in the Mayflower, 
thirty-six in the Fortune in 1621, sixty in the little James 
and Anne in 1G23, thirty-five with their families in the 
Mayflower in 1(!29, and sixty in the Handmaid in 1630. 
making in all three hundred or more as the probable num- 
ber of the Pilgrim Church after twelve years' residence in 
Holland. 

Nor is it known what was the precise social condition in 
life of the Pilgrims. It is recorded at Leyden that William 
Bradford was a fustian maker (maker of cotton cloth), that 
Robert Cushman and William White were wool carders, 
Samuel Fuller and Stephen Tracy say (silk) makers, that 
John Jenney was a brewer's man, that Edward Winslow and 
William Brewster were printers, and that Degory Priest was 
a hatter, but these occupations throw little light on the sub- 
ject, as we know that Brewster and White and Winslow and 
Cushman were educated men, and that the sacrifice of worldly 
possessions in escaping from ecclesiastical bondage imposed 
on the Pilgrims the necessity of manual labor for the support 
of themselves and families. It is fair to presume, with all the 
evidence before us, that the Pilgrim community in Leyden 
was made up of members representing all the different classes 
of English life, outside of the circle of noble families, bound 
together by a common religious faith regardless of those 
differences in education and culture and social standing, 
which were insignificant indeed in comparison with their real 
bond of union. It was doubtless this disregai'd of social dis- 
tinctions, forced on them by the necessities of their situation, 
which planted in their hearts that democratic seed, which at 
a later day germinated and grew in the soil of New England. 
It was the life of labor, too, led by them in Holland, which 
hardened their hands for the duties and hardships of a life in 
the wilderness, and which developed in their natures those 



4 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



capacities for practical, economical, and thrifty work, without 
which their attempt at colonization would have been a failure. 
Thus Holland became a school in which they were shaping 
and preparing themselves for the great task before them. 
They sought it simply as a refuge from oppression, — as a 
home where the}' might live in peace and die in the faith they 
loved. But Providence had another refuge in store for them 
beyond the sea, which they were not to find until in com- 
parative comfort and ease they were fully weaned from those 
memories of home, which the perils and trials of New 
England life might render too seductive for the successful 
accomplishment of that great enterprise in the New World, in 
which in the inexorable progress of events it was destined 
that they should be the pioneers. 

Nor did the providential plan stop here. Holland itself 
seemed to have been prepared for their reception. The war 
between the United Provinces and Spain, which had been 
waged for more than thirty years, was suspended for a 
season, and on the 19th of April, 1G09, a date almost 
identical with that of their arrival in Leyden, a twelve years' 
truce was concluded. A period of peace and tranquillity fol- 
lowed, disturbed only in the last years of their residence on 
Dutch soil by the acts of the Synod of Dort, which resulted 
in the execution of Earneveldt and the imprisonment of 
Grotius, the story of whose escape, as told by Motley, is as 
full of interest as the most stirring fiction or drama. During 
this period the Pilgrims led tranquil but active lives, grad- 
ually dissolving the ties which bound them to their English 
homes, and at the same time softening and mellowing their 
natures under the chastening influence of exile, and imbibing 
so much of that sweet and liberal spirit, which pervaded the 
life of their pastor, that no room was left in their hearts for 
that harshness and bigotry with which by the ignorant they 
have been credited, but from which their whole subsequent 
career, shaped and directed in obedience to his teachings, was 
always free. 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



5 



But the time was coming when they were destined to leave 
Holland. The freedom from molestation in their worship, 
which they were enjoying, — the happiness of themselves and 
families, which they had secured, — were an incomplete 
fruition of their aspirations and hopes. The twelve years' 
truce would soon he ended, and it was not unreasonably 
feared that a renewal of hostilities might result in the triumph 
of Catholic Spain, and a persecution of the little band more 
serious than any they had before encountered. There was 
danger, too, of their gradually losing their identity among 
strange people with strange language and habits, with whom, 
like a river flowing to the sea, they might be merged and lost. 
But they had higher aims than merely the preservation of 
their identity. They believed that the river, instead of flow- 
ing to the sea and being lost forever, might, in other lands, 
flow on with ever-increasing breadth and depth, and perhaps 
be a blessing to the world. Having determined then to leave 
Leyden, — much to the regret of the city authorities, who 
publicly commended their peaceful ways and exemplary 
industry, — their place of destination became the subject. of 
prolonged and serious discussion. New Amsterdam (New 
York) was urged by the Dutch ; Virginia, named after their 
virgin queen, and already colonized, was preferred by some, 
and others still were tempted by the stories they had heard 
of Guiana with its fertile soil and perpetual spring. Virginia, 
however, was finally decided on, and, as early as September, 
1617, arrangements were initiated for their departure. In 
that month John Carver and Robert Cushman were sent to 
England for the double purpose of asking of the king freedom 
of worship for their colony in the New World, and of obtaining 
from the Virginia Company a patent of lands on which they 
might settle. It is the latter purpose with which our narra- 
tive is chiefly concerned. Of the former, it is only necessary 
to say that the request was made in vain. In the language 
of Bradford : " Thus far they prevailed in sounding His 
Majesty's mind, that he would connive at them and not 



6 



PLYMOUTH COLOXY. 



molest them provided they carried themselves peaceably. 
But to allow or tolerate them by his public authority under 
his seal they found it would not be granted." In these 
unavailing negotiations they were assisted by Sir Edwin 
Sandys and Sir Robert Naunton, the former a son of Arch- 
bishop Sandys, and the latter principal Secretary of State to 
the king. Sir Edwin was a brother of Sir Samuel Sandys, 
lessee of Scrooby Manor, which at an early day had been 
occupied by William Brewster, and it is not improbable that 
it was as a friend of Brewster that he rendered his services to 
the Pilgrims. His influence, however, with the king must 
have been small. Though, according to Hume, he was in 
Parliament, "a member of great authority," he was the leader 
of the party opposed to the ministry, and in 1621 was com- 
mitted to the Tower for an unwarranted exercise of the 
freedom of speech. Afterwards, as a prominent member of 
the Virginia Company and its treasurer and governor, chosen 
May 7, 1619, his services were more appreciable. 

The Virginia (Southern) Company was established in 1606. 
On the 16th of April in that year King James, by letters- 
patent, divided between two companies a strip of land, one 
hundred miles wide, along the Atlantic coast of North 
America, extending from the thirty-fourth to the forty-fifth 
degree of north latitude, a territory which then went under 
the name of Virginia. This territory extended from Cape 
Fear to Passamaquoddy Bay. The patent to the first or 
Southern Company, which seems to have appropriated the 
name of Virginia Company, was granted to certain knights, 
gentlemen, merchants, and adventurers of London, who were 
permitted to claim between the thirty-fourth and forty-first 
degrees, or between Cape Fear and a line running through 
Port Chester on Long Island Sound and the easterly corner 
of New Jersey on the Hudson. That to the second, or 
Northern Company, was granted to persons of the same 
description in Bristol, Exeter, and Ptymouth, who might 
claim between the thirty-eighth and forty-fifth degrees, or 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



7 



between the southeastern corner of Maryland and Passama- 
quoddy Bay. That portion of the whole strip lying between 
the thirty-eighth and forty-first degrees, which was included 
in both patents, was to be granted to that company which 
should first occupy it, and it was specially provided that 
neither company should plant a colony within a hundred 
miles of a settlement previously made by the other. The 
first company was that to which application was made by the 
Pilgrims through their agents, John Carver and Robert Cush- 
man, in September, 1617. In November following, the 
agents returned to Holland, reporting the unfavorable disposi- 
tion of the king and the readiness of the Virginia Company 
to enter into negotiations concerning a patent. The fol- 
lowing letter, of which they were probably the bearers, 
written by Sir Edwin Sandys to John Robinson and Wil- 
liam Brewster, at Leyden, and dated London, November 
22, 1617, will show what progress was made in their nego- 
tiations : — 

"After my hearty salutations, — The agents of your congregation, 
Rohert Cushman and John Caryer, have been in communication with 
divers select gentlemen of His Majesty's Council for Virginia; and by 
the writing of seven articles, subscribed with your names, have given 
them good degree of satisfaction, which hath carried them on with a 
resolution to set forward your desire in the best sort that may be for 
your own and the public good; divers particulars whereof we leave to 
their faithful report, having carried themselves here with that good dis- 
cretion as is both to their own and their credit from whom they came. 
And whereas being to treat for a multitude of people they have requested 
further time to confer with them that are to be interested in this action 
about the several particulars, which in the prosecution thereof will fall 
out considerable, it hath been very willingly assented unto; and so they 
do now return unto you. If therefore it may please God so to direct 
your desires as that on your parts there fall out no just impediments, I 
trust by the same direction it shall likewise appear that on our parts all 
forwardness to set you forward shall be found in the best sort, which 
with reason may be expected. And so I betake you with this design 
(which T hope verily is the work of God) to the gracious protection and 
blessing of the Highest. Your very loving friend, 

Edwin Sandys." 



8 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Under date of Leyden, the 25th of December, 1617, Mr. 
Robinson and Mr. Brewster sent the following answer : — 

" Right Worshipful. 

Our humble duties remembered, in our own, our messengers' and our 
church's name with all thankful acknowledgement of your singular love, 
expressing itself, as otherwise, so more especially in your great care and 
earnest endeavor of our good in this weighty business about Virginia, 
which the less able we are to requite, we shall think ourselves the more 
bound to commend in our prayers unto God for recompense; whom as 
for the present you rightly behold in our endeavors, so shall we not be 
wanting on our parts, (the same God assisting us) to return all answer- 
able fruit and respect unto the labor of your love bestowed upon us. We 
have, with the best speed and consideration withal that we could, set 
down our requests in writing, subscribed, as you willed, with the hands 
of the greatest part of our congregation, and have sent the same unto 
the council by our agent, a deacon of our church, John Carver, unto 
whom we have also requested a gentleman of our Company to adyone 
himself; to the care and discretion of which two we do refer the pros- 
ecuting of the business. Now we persuade ourselves, right worshipful, 
that we need not to provoke your godly and loving mind to any further 
or more tender care of us, since you have pleased so far to interest us in 
yourself, that, under God, above all persons and things in the world, we 
rely upon you expecting the care of your love, the counsel of your wis- 
dom, and the help and countenance of your authority. Notwithstanding, 
for your encouragement in the work so far as probabilities may lead, we 
will not forbear to mention these instances of inducement. 

1. We verily believe and trust the Lord is with us, unto whom and 
whose service we have given ourselves in many trials, and that he will 
graciously prosper our endeavors according to the simplicity of our 
hearts therein. 

2. We are well weaned from the delicate milk of our mother country, 
and inured to the difficulties of a strange and hard land, which yet in 
great part, we have by patience overcome. 

3. The people are, for the body of them, industrious and frugal, we 
think we may safely say, as any company of people in the world. 

4. We are knit together as a body in a more strict and sacred bond 
and covenant of the Lord, of the violation whereof we make great con- 
science; and by virtue whereof we do hold ourselves stoutly tied to all 
care of each other's good, and of the whole by every, and so mutual. 

5. And lastly, it is not with us as with other men, whom small things 
can discourage, or small discontentments cause to wish themselves at 
home again. We know our entertainment in England and Holland. 
We shall much prejudice both our arts and means by removal; where if 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



9 



we should be driven to return, we should not hope to recover our pres- 
ent helps and comforts, neither indeed look ever to attain the like in any 
other place during our lives, which are now drawing towards their 
periods. 

These motives we have been bold to tender unto you, which you in 
your wisdom may also impart to any other our worshipful friends of the 
Council with you, of all whose godly dispositions and loving towards 
our despised persons we are most glad, and shall not fail by all good 
means to continue and increase the same. We shall not be further 
troublesome, but do, with the renewed remembrance of our humble 
duties to your worship, and (so far as in modesty we may be bold) to 
any other of our well-willers of the Council with you, we take our 
leaves, committing your persons and counsels to the guidance and pro- 
tection of the Almighty. 

Yours much bounden in duty, 

John Robinson, 
William Brewster." 

This letter discloses the fact that after the return of Carver 
and Cushnian to Holland, in November, Carver was again sent 
to England in December, to continue the negotiations. There 
is little reason to doubt that the gentleman of the company 
" requested to adyone himself" was Cushman, and that the 
embassy was the same as before, commissioned anew, after a 
conference with the Ley den congregation, to resume and com- 
plete its mission. For some unexplained reason the negotia- 
tions were still further delayed, and a letter from Robinson 
and Brewster to Sir John Wolstenholme, a member of the 
Virginia Company, dated February 6, 1618, followed by a 
letter to its writers from the messenger who bore it, dated 
the 24th of February following, shows that at the latter date 
the negotiations were still pending. Precisely when Carver 
and Cushman returned from their second mission is not known. 
It is certain, however, that they did return without accom- 
plishing its objects. After a longer or shorter interval a new 
embassy was sent, consisting of Robert Cushman and William 
Brewster, commissioned, in the language of Bradford, " to 
end with the Virginia Company as well as they could, and to 
procure a patent with as good and ample conditions as they 



10 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



might by any good means obtaine, as also to treat and con- 
clude with such merchants and other freinds us had mani- 
fested their forwardness to provoke too and adventure in this 
vioage. For which end they had instructions given them 
upon wnat conditions they should proceed with them, or els 
to conclude nothing without further advice." On the 18th of 
May,' 1619, Robert .Cushman, one of the embassy, explained 
in a letter from London to his " loving friends " at Leyden 
the obstacles which still embarrassed them : — 

"I had thought," he wrote, "long since to have write unto you, hut 
could not effecte that which I aimed at, neither can yet sett things as I 
wished; yet notwithstanding, I doubt not but Mr. B. (Brewster) hath 
written to Mr. Robinson. But I think my selfe bound also to doe some- 
thing, least I be thought to neglecte you. The maine hinderance of our 
proseedings in the Virginia business is the dissentions and factions, as 
they terme it, amogs the Counsell and Company of Virginia; which are 
such, as that ever since we came up no busines could by them be dis- 
patched. The occasion of the trouble amongst them is, that a while 
since Sir Thomas Smith, repining at his many offices and troubls, 
wished the Company of Virginia to ease him of his office in being 
Treasurer and Governor of the Company. Wereupon the Company 
tooke occasion to dismisse him, and chose Sir Edwin Sands Treasurer 
and Governor of the Company. He having CO. voyces, Sir John AVoss- 
tenholme 16. voyces, and Alderman Johnsone 21. But Sir Thomas Smith 
when he saw some parte of his honour lost, was very angrie, and raised 
a faction to cavill and contend aboute the election, and sought to taxe 
Sir Edwin with many things that might both disgrace him, and allso put 
him by his office of Governour. In which contentions they yet stick, 
and are not fit nor readie to intermedle in any business; and what issue 
tilings will come to we are not yet certaine. It is most like Sir Edwin 
will carrie it away, and if he doe, things will goe well in Virginia; if 
otherwise, they will goe ill enough allways. We hope in some 2. or 3. 
Court days things will settle. ^Vlean space I thinke to goe downe into 
Kente, and come up againe aboute 14. days or 3. weeks hence; excepte 
either by these a {foresaid contentions, or by the ille tidings from Vir- 
ginia, we be wholy discouraged, of which tidings I am now to speake. 
. . . Mr. B. (Brewster) is not well at this time; whether he will come 
back to you or goe into the north, I yet know not. For my selfe, I hope 
to see an end of this bussines ere I come, though I am sorie to be thus 
from you ; if things had gone roundly forward, I should have been with 
you within these 14. days. I pray God directe us, and give us that 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



11 



spirite which is fitting for such a bussines. Thus having sumarily pointed 
at things which Mr. Brewster (I thinke) hath more largely write of to 
Mr. Robinson, I leave you to the Lords protection. 

Yours in all readines etc 

ROBART CUSHMAN." 

The first line of this letter, "I had thought lorn; since to 
have write unto you," would seem to indicate that Carver 
and Cushruan had, at the date of the letter, been in England 
on this last mission a long time, certainly several months. 
But we know that Sir Edwin Sandys was chosen Treasurer 
and Governor of the Virginia Company on the 7th of May, 
1019, and consequently the later statement in the letter, that 
" ever since we came up no business could be dispatched," on 
account of troubles in the company having their origin in his 
election, is conclusive that the embassy could not have been 
in England many weeks when the letter of Mr. Cushman was 
written, on the 18th of May. 

The affairs of the company appear, however, to have become 
soon settled, and on the 19th of June, 1619, a patent was 
issued. "By the advice of freinds (Bradford says) this 
pattente was not taken in the name of any of their owne, but 
in the name of Mr. John Wincob (a religious gentleman then 
belonging to the Countess of Lincoline), who intended to 
goe with them. But God so disposed as he never went, nor 
they even made use of this patente, which had cost them so 
much labour and charge as by the sequel will appeare. This 
patente being sente over for them to veivv and consider, as 
also the passages aboute the propositions between them and 
such marchants and freinds as should either goe or adventure 
with them, and espetially with those on whom they did 
cheefly depend for shipping and means, whose proffers had 
been large, they were requested to fitt and prepare them- 
selves with all speed. A right emblime, it may be, of the 
uncertine things of this world ; that when men have toyld 
themselves for them, they vanish into smoke." What became 
of this patent is not known, but as it was never used it is 



12 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



probable that it was returned to the Virginia Company. 
John AVincob, or John Whincop, was one of three brothers, 
all clergymen, and is supposed to have been a chaplain in the 
family of the Earl of Lincoln. It is probable that his interest 
in American colonization arose from his connection with a 
family intimately connected with Pilgrim and Puritan move- 
ments. Frances, sister of the earl, was the wife of John, son 
of Ferdinando Gorges ; Susan, another sister, was the wife of 
John Humphrey, the first Deputy-Governor of Massachusetts ; 
and Arbella, a third, was the wife of Isaac Johnson, and came 
to America with her husband in the Eagle, a ship belonging 
to the fleet of Winthrop, the name of which was changed to 
Arbella in her honor. 

On the 12th of February, 1620, another patent was issued 
in the name of John Pierce and his associates, which probably 
included a grant of land in the neighborhood of the Hudson 
River. There is little doubt that Pierce intended to come 
with the Pilgrims, as the records of the Virginia Company state, 
under date of February 20, 1G20, eight days after the issue 
of the patent, that John AVolstonholme proposed that "the 
five hundred pounds which had been anonymously presented 
by some person signing himself 'dust and ashes' for the ben- 
efit of Indian children in America should be expended under 
the direction of Mr. Pierce and his associates." The terms 
and conditions of this patent are unknown, but after the 
settlement of the Pilgrims outside of its limits it was probably 
surrendered. The records of the Virginia Company state, 
under date of the 26th of July, 1621, that "it was moved, 
seeing that Mr. John Pierce had taken a patent of Sir 
Ferdinando Gorges, and therefore seated his company within 
the limits of the northern plantations, as by some was sup- 
posed, whereby he seemed to relinquish the benefit of the 
patent he took of this company, that therefore the said patent 
might be called in unless it might appear he would plant 
within the limits of the southern colony." 

The Pierce patent of February 12, 1620, having been 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



13 



secured, further arrangements were at once initiated for 
a final departure from Holland. About the time of the issue 
of the patent, negotiations were pending between Amsterdam 
merchants and Robinson with a view to the removal of the 
Pilgrims to New Amsterdam. Mr. Charles Deane, the intel- 
ligent editor of Bradford's History, says in a note that " on 
the 22d of February, 1620, application was made on their 
behalf (the Pilgrims) to the Stadtholder by these merchants 
stating the conditions on which 'this English preacher at 
Leyden' and his associates would consent to colonize that 
country, namely., that they could be assured of the protection 
of the United Provinces ; and praying that such protection be 
granted, and that two ships-of-war be sent to secure, pro- 
visionally, the lands to that government. The Stadtholder 
referred the subject of this memorial to the States General, 
who, after repeated deliberations, resolved on the 21st of 
April to reject the prayer of the petitioners." AVhile, how- 
ever, these negotiations were pending between Robinson and 
the merchants, Bradford says that "one Mr. Thomas Weston, 
a merchant of London, came to Leyden (who was well ac- 
quainted with some of them and a furtherer of them in their 
former proceedings), haveing much conference with Mr. 
Robinson and others of the cheefe of them persuaded them 
to goe on (as it seems) and not to medle with the Dutch or 
too much depend on the Virginia Company ; for if that failed, 
if they came to resolution, he and such marchants as were his 
freinds (togeather with their owne means) would sett them 
foi - th ; and they should make ready, and neither feare wante 
of shipping nor money ; for what they wanted should be pro- 
vided. And not so much for him selfe as for the satisfinf 
of such freinds as he should procure to adventure in this 
bussiues, they were to draw such articles of agreemente, and 
make such propossitions, as might the better induce his 
freinds to venture." Robinson says also in a letter to Carver 
dated the 24th of June following, "You know right well we 
depended on Mr. "Weston alone, and upon such means as he 



14 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



would procure for this commone bussincs ; and when we had 
in hand another course with the Dutchman, broke it of at his 
motion, and upon the conditions by him shortly after pro- 
pounded." These extracts tend to prove that the negotiations 
with the Amsterdam merchants were broken off by the 
Pilgrims themselves before the decision of the States General 
was rendered. 

In accordance with the proposition of Mr. Weston, arti- 
cles were at once drawn up and agreed to by him and the 
Pilgrims. Mr. Weston returned to England, and Carver 
and Cushman followed to receive money subscribed by him 
and his associates, " both for shiping and other things for the 
vioage ; with this charge not to exseede their commission, 
but to proseed according to their former articles." Mr. 
Weston and his associates have been known in history as " the 
Merchant Adventurers." Little is known of them, and their 
names even have not been preserved. Captain John Smith, 
writing in 1624, says that "the adventurers which raised the 
stock to begin and supply this plantation, were about seventy, 
some gentlemen, some merchants, some handicraftsmen, some 
adventuring great sums, some small, as their estates and 
affection served. These dwell most in London. They are 
not a corporation, but knit together by a voluntary combina- 
tion in a society without restraint or penalty, aiming to do 
good and to plant religion." The following, however, is a 
later list, comprising those who subscribed an agreement 
made with the Plymouth Colony, November 25, 162G : — 



Robert Allden. 
Emnu Alltham. 
Richard Andrews. 
Thomas Andrews. 
Lawrence Anthony. 
Edward Bass. 
John Beauchamp. 
Thomas Brewer. 
Henry Browning. 
William Collier. 



Thomas Coventry. 
Thomas Fletcher. 
Thomas Goffe. 
Peter Gudburn. 
Timothy Hatherly. 
Thomas Heath. 
William Hobson. 
Robert Holland. 
Thomas Hudson. 
Robert Kean. 



John King. 
Eliza Knight. 
John Knight. 
Myles Knowles. 
Thomas Millsop. 
Thomas Mott. 
Fria Newbald. 
William Pennington. 
William Penrin. 
John Pocock. 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



15 



Daniel Pointer. 
William Quarles. 
John Revell. 
Newman Rooks. 



Samuel Sharp. 
James Shirley. 
John Thornell. 
Matthew Thornhill. 



Joseph Tiltlen. 
Thomas Ward. 
John White. 
Richard Wright. 



It is probable that most of those whose names are borne 
on this list were numbered among the adventurers in 1620, 
and that, besides many unknown names, those certainly of 
Thomas Weston, who left them, however, before 1622, Wm. 
Greene, and Edward Pickering, must be added to make the 
original list complete. Of these it is known that William 
Collier and Timothy Hatherly and John Revell finally came 
to New England, the last, however, to return, and that per- 
sons bearing the names of Thomas Andrews, Thomas 
Brewer, Henry Browning, John Knight, Samuel Sharp, 
Thomas Ward, and John White became permanent settlers 
here before 1640. It is probable that Thomas Brewer was 
the member of the Leyden University who assisted Brewster 
in the publication of books prohibited in England, and who 
was arrested by Sir Dudley Carleton, English ambassador at 
the Hague, by order of King James. 

The articles of agreement concluded with the Adventurers 
were as follows : — 

"1. The adventurers and planters do agree, that every person that 
goeth, being aged sixteen years and upward, be rated at ten pounds, and 
ten pounds to be accounted a single share. 

2. That he that goeth in person, and furnisheth himself out with ten 
pounds, either in money or other provisions, be accounted as having 
twenty pounds in stock, and in the division shall receive a double share. 

3. The persons transported and the adventurers shall continue their 
joint stock and partnership together the space of seven years, (except 
some unexpected impediments do cause the whole company to agree 
otherwise,) during which time all profits and benefits that are got, by 
trade, traffic, trucking, working, fishing, or any other means, of any per- 
son or persons, shall remain still in the common stock until the division. 

4. That at their coming there they choose out such a number of fit 
persons as may furnish their ships and boats for fishing upon the sea; 
employing the rest in their several faculties upon the land, as building 
houses, tilling and planting the ground, and making such commodities 
as shall be most useful for the colony. 



16 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



5. That at the end of the seven years, the capital and profits, viz., 
the houses, lands, goods, and chattels, be equally divided among the 
adventurers and planters ; which done, every man shall be free from 
other of them of any debt or detrimente concerning the adventure. 

6. Whosoever cometh to the colony hereafter, or putteth any into the 
stock, shall at the end of the seven years be allowed proportionally to 
the time of his so doing. 

7. He that shall carry his wife and children or servants shall be 
allowed for every person now aged 16. years and upward, a single share 
in the division; or if he provide them necessaries, a double share, or if 
they be between 10. years old and 16. then two of them to be reckoned 
for a person, both in transportation and division. 

8. That such children as now go and are under the age of ten years, 
have no other share in the division, but 50 acres of unmanured land. 

9. That such persons as die before the seven years be expired, their 
executors to have their parte or share at the division, proportionally to 
the time of their life in the Colony. 

10. That all such persons as are of this Colony are to have their 
meat, drink, apparel and all provisions out of the common stock and 
goods of the said Colony." 

These, however, were not the articles originally agreed 
upon by Weston and the Pilgrims at Ley den. Those articles 
provided, in the language of Bradford, "that the houses and 
lands improved, espetialy gardens and home lotts should 
remaine undevided wholy to the planters at the 7. years end 
and that they should have had 2. days in a weeke for their 
owne private imploymente, for the more comforte of them- 
selves and their families, espetialy such as had families." 
The changes were made in England in conformity with the 
determined wishes of the adventurers, and acceded to with- 
out authority by either Carver or Cushman, or both, on be- 
half of the Pilgrims. Bradford says, "that now another dif- 
ficultie arose, for Mr. Weston and some other that were for 
this course, either for their better advantage or rather for the 
drawing on of others, as they pretended, would have some 
of those conditions altered that were first agreed on at Ley- 
den. To which the 2. agents sent from Leyden (or at least 
one of them who is most charged with it) did consente ; 
seeing els that all was like to be dashte and the opportunitie 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



17 



lost, and that they which had put of their estats and paid in 
their moneys were in hazard to be undon. They presumed 
to conclude with the marchants on those termes, in some 
things contrary to their order and commission, and without 
giving them notice of the same ; yea it was conceled least it 
should make any furder delay ; which was the cause after- 
ward of much trouble and contention." Robinson, in a letter 
to John Carver, then in England, dated June 14, 1620, new 
style, says; "Mr. Weston makes himselfe mery with our 
endeavors about buying a ship, but we have done nothing in 
this but with good reason, as I am perswadcd, nor yet that I 
know in anything els, save in those two ; the one that we 
employed Robart Cushman, who is known (though a good 
man and of spetiall obilities in his kind yet) most unfitt to 
deale with other men, by reason of his singularitie, and too 
great indifferancie for any conditions and for (to speak truly) 
that we have had nothing from him but termes and presump- 
tions. The other that we have so much relyed by implicite 
faith as it were, upon generalities without seeing the pertic- 
uler course and means for so wacrhtie an affaire set down 
unto us." 

In a letter, too, written jointly by Samuel Fuller, Edward 
Winslow, William Brewster, and Isaac Allerton, to Carver 
and Cushman, dated June 20, they say: "For the former 
whereof w r hereas Robart Cushman desirs reasons for our dis- 
like, promising thereupon to alter the same, or els saing we 
should thinke he hath no brains, we desire him to exercise 
them therein, refering him to our pastors former reasons, 
and them to the censure of the godly wise. But our desires 
are that you will not entangle yourselvs and us in any such 
unreasonable coui-ses as those are, viz. that the marchants 
should have the halfe of mens houses and lands at the divi- 
dente ; and that persons should be deprived of the 2. da} r s 
in a weeke agreed upon, yea every momente of time for their 
owne perticuler ; by reason whereof we cannot conceive why 
any should carie servants for their owne help and comfort ; 



18 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



for that we can require no more of them than all men one of 
another. This we have only by relation from Mr. Nash and 
not from any writing of your owne and therefore hope you 
have not proceeded far in so great a thing without us. But 
requiring you not to exseed the bounds of your commission, 
which were to proceed upon the things on conditions agred 
upon and expressed in writing (at your going over about it), 
we leave it, not without marveling, that your selfe, as you 
write, knowing how smale a thing troubleth our consulta- 
tions, and how few, as you fear, understands the busnes 
aright should trouble us with such matters as these are." 

But these complaints of the act of Cushman should not be 
suited without his defence. In a letter without date he thus 
writes : — 

" Brethren I understand by letters and passages that have come to 
me, that there are great discontents, and dislike of my proceedings 
amongst you. Sorie I am to hear it, yet contente to beare it, as not 
doubting but that partly by writing and more principally by word when 
we shall have come togeather, I shall satisfie any reasonable man. I 
have been perswaded by some, espetialy this bearer, to come and clear 
things unto you ; but as things now stands I cannot be absente one day, 
excepte I should hazard all the viage. Neither conceive I any great 
good would come of it. Take then, brethren, this as a step to give you 
contente. First, for your dislike of the alteration of one clause in the 
conditions, if you conceive it right, there can be no blame lye on me at 
all. For the articles first brought over by John Carver were never seene 
of any of the adventurers hear, excepte Mr. Weston, neither did any of 
them like them because of that clause; nor Mr. Weston him selfe, after 
he had well considered it. But as at the first there was 500. pounds 
withdrawne by Sir George Fairer and his brother upon that dislike, so 
all the rest would have withdrawne (Mr. Weston excepted) if we had 
not altered the clause. Now whilst we at Leyden conclude upon points, 
as we did, we reckoned without our host, which was not my falte. Be- 
sides, I shewed you by a letter the equitie of the condition and our 
inconveniencies, that without the alteration of that clause, we could 
neither have means to gett thither, nor supplie wherby to subsiste when 
we were there. Yet notwithstanding all those reasons, which were not 
mine, but other mens wiser then my selfe. without answer to any one of 
them, here cometh over many qnirimonies, and complaints against me, 
of lording it over my brethren, and making conditions fitter for theeves 



FLYMOUTH COLONY. 



19 



and bond-slaves then honest men, and that of my owne head I did what 
I list. And at last a paper of reasons, framed against the clause in the 
conditions, which as they were delivered me open, so my answer is 
open to you all. And first as they are no other but inconveniences, such 
as a man might frame 20. as great on the other side, and yet prove nor 
disprove nothing by them, so they misse and mistake both the very 
ground of the article and nature of the project. For, first it is said, that 
if ther had been no division of houses and lands, it had been better 
for the poore. True, and that showeth the inequalitie of the condition ; 
we should more respecte him that ventureth both his money and his 
person, then him that ventureth but his person only. 

2. Consider wheraboute we are, not giveing almes, but furnishing a 
storehouse; no one shall be porer than another for 7. years, and if any 
be rich, none can be pore. At the least, we must not in such bussines 
crie, Pore, pore, mercie, mercie. Cliaritie hath its life in wraks not in 
ventures; you are by this most in a hopefull pitie of makeing, therefore 
complaine not before you have need. 

3. This will hinder the building of good and faire houses, contrarie 
to the advice of pollitiks. A. So we would have it: our purpose is to 
build for the presente such houses as, if need be, we may with litle greefe 
set a fire, and rune away by the lighte; our riches shall not be in pompe, 
but in strenght; if God send us riches, we will imploye them to provid 
more men, ships, munition &c. You may see it amongst the best polli- 
tiks, that a comonwele is readier to ebe than to flow, when once fine 
houses and gay cloaths come up. 

4. The Government may prevente excess in building. A. But if it 
be on all men beforehand resolved on, to build mean houses, the Govern- 
ment laboure is spared. 

5. All men are not of one condition. A. If by condition you mean 
wealth, you are mistaken; if you mean by condition qualities, then I 
say he that is not contente his neighbor shall have as good a house, fare, 
means &c as himselfe, is not of a good qualitie. 2.1y. Such retired 
persons, as have an eie only to themselves, are fitter come wher catching 
is, then closing; and are fitter to live alone, then in any societie, either 
civill or religious. 

6. It will be of little value, scarce worth 5. pounds. A. True, it may 
be not worth half 5 pounds. If then so smale a thing will content them, 
why strive we thus aboute it, and give them occasion to suspecte us to 
be worldly and covetous? I will not say what I have heard since these 
complaints came first over. 

7. Our freinds with us that adventure mind not their owne profite, as 
did the old adventurers. A. Then they are better than we, who for a 
litle matter of profite are readie to draw back, and it is more apparente 
brethren looke to it, that make profite your maine end ; repent of this, 



20 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



els goe not least von be like Jonas to Tarshis. 2.1y. Though some of 
them mind not their profite yet others doe mind it; and why not as well 
as we? ventars are made by all sorts of men, and we must labour to 
give them all contente if we can. 

8. It will break the course of comunitie, as may be showed by many 
reasons. A. That is but said, and I say againe, it will best foster 
comunion, as may be showed by many reasons. 

9. ' Great profite is like to be made by trucking, fidiing &c. A. As it 
is better for them, so for us; for lialfe is ours, besids our living still upon 
it, ami if such profite in that way come, our labour shall be the less on 
the land, and our houses and lands must and will be of less value. 

10. Our hazard is greater than theirs. A. True but doe they put us 
upon it? doe they urge or egg us? hath not the motion and resolution 
been always in our selves? doe they any more then in seeing us resolute 
if we had means, help us to means upon equall termes and conditions? 
If we will not goe, they are contente to keep their moneys. Thus I 
have pointed at a way to loose those knots, which I hope j-ou will con- 
sider seriously, and let me have no more stirre about them. Now fur- 
der I hear a noise of slavish conditions by me made ; but surly this is all 
that I have altered, and reasons I have sent you. If you mean it of the 
2. days in a week for perticuler, as some insinuate, you are deceived ; 
you may have 3. days in a week for me if you will. And when I have 
spoken to the adventurers of times of working, they have said they hope 
we are men of discretion and conscience, and so fitte to be trusted our 
selves with that. But indeed the ground of our proceedings at Leyden 
was mistaken, and so here is nothing but tottering every day &c. 

As for them of Amsterdam I had thought they would as soone have 
gone to Rome as with us; for our libertie is to them as ratts bane, and 
their riggour as bad to us as the Spanish Inquisition. If any practise of 
mine discourage them, let them yet draw back; I will undertake they 
shall have their money again presently paid hear. Or, if the company 
thinke me to be the Jonas, let them cast me of before we goe; I shall be 
content to stay with good will, having but the cloaths on my back; only 
let us have quietness, and no more of these clamors: full litle did I 
expecte these things which are now come to pass &c. 

Yours R. Cushmax." 

It is evident that the alteration of the articles of agree- 
ment, for which Cushman was mainly responsible, created 
great dissatisfaction. In the light of to-day, however, the 
only verdict which can be rendered is, that he acted wisely ; 
for, with the articles unchanged, the whole enterprise of the 
Pilgrims would have fallen through, and the current of events 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



21 



which has resulted in the establishment of a great and free 
republic on these western shores would have been seriously 
diverted, if not wholly checked. It is not strange, with the 
unpleasant feeling entertained towards him by his associates, 
that Cushman remained behind, and abandoned, at least tem- 
porarily, the undertaking in which he had acted so prominent 
a part and taken so deep an interest. 

By the 11th of June, however, everything was in readi- 
ness. Those of the Leyden company who were going to 
Xew England had sold their estates, putting their money into 
the common stock ; the agents of the company in England 
had hired the Speedwell, of sixty tons, and sent her to Delft- 
haven, to convey the colonists to Southampton, and the May- 
flower, of one hundred and eighty tons, had been engaged to 
meet them at that place, and join her consort for the voyage. 
On the 31st of July, in the language of Bradford, "they left 
the goodly and pleasant citie which had been their resting 
place near 12. years; but they knew they were pilgrimes, 
and looked not much on those things but lift up their eyes to 
the heavens, their dearest countrie, and quieted their spirits." 
The story of their voyage is a familiar one. On or about 
the 1st of August the}' set sail in the Speedwell from Delft- 
haven, and on the loth both the Mayflower and Speedwell, 
with one hundred and twenty passengers on board, some 
of whom were for the first time joining the company, sailed 
from Southampton. On the 23d they put into Dartmouth, 
with the Speedwell leaking, and on the 31st sailed again. 
Further disasters to the Speedwell obliged a return to Ply- 
mouth, where the Speedwell was abandoned, and eighteen 
passengers, including Robert Cushman, gave up the voyage. 
On the lGth of September* a final departure from Plymouth 
took place, and on the 21st of November, after a passage of 
sixty-six days, the Mayflower dropped anchor in Cape Cod 
harbor. Like the down of the thistle they were wafted 
across the sea, and the seed they bore of popular govern- 
ment and religious freedom was planted on these western 



22 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



shores. How striking is the contrast between the voyages of 
Carver and Winthrop ! The Plymouth colonists, hunted ami 
imprisoned like felons, and glad to escape by artitice and 
stealth into Holland, finally embarked for America, unknown, 
unhonored, and unsung. The Massachusetts colonists set 
out in grand array, filling a fleet of eleven ships, the admiral 
of the fleet, the Arbella, earning fifty-two seamen and 
twenty pieces of ordnance, and as they sailed by the fort at 
Yarmouth they were saluted by its royal guns as adventurers 
whose enterprise, under the broad seal of the king, would 
reflect honor and renown on the British empire. If the 
Mayflower had sunk in mid-ocean with her living freight, the 
incident would never have reached the page of history. The 
loss of the Arbella, with her sister ships, would have been 
a disaster as sad to the nation as the loss of the Armada, less 
than half a century before, had been joyful and happy. 

While the company were at Southampton two letters were 
received from Robinson. One addressed to Carver, dated 
August 6, was as follows : — 

"My Dear Brother, — I have received enclosed in your last leter 
the note of information, which I shall carefully keepe and make use of 
as ther shall be occasion. I have a true feeling of your perplexitie of 
mind and toyle of body, but I hope that you who have all ways been able 
so plentifully to administer comforte unto others in their trials, are so well 
furnished for your selfe as that farr greater difficulties than you have yet 
undergone (though I conceive them to have ben great enough) cannot 
oppresse you, though they press you as the apostle speaks. The spirite 
of a man (sustained by the spirite of God) will sustaine his infirmitie, I 
dout not so will yours. And the beter much when you shall enjoye the 
presence and help of so many godly and wise brethren, for the bearing 
of part of your burthen, who also will not admitte into their hearts the 
least thought of suspicion of any the least negligence, at \er.st presump- 
tion, to have been in you, what so ever they thinke in others. Now 
what shall I say or write unto you and your goodwife my loving sister? 
even only this, I desire (and allways shall) unto you from the Lord, as 
unto my owne soule; and assure your selfe that my harte is with you, 
and that I will not forslowe my bodily coming at the first opportunitie. 
I have writen a large leter to the whole, and am sorie I shall not rather 
6peak than write to them ; and the more, considering the wante of a 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



23 



preacher, which I shall also make surae spurr to my hastening after you. 
I doe even comend my best affection unto you, which if I thought you 
made any doubte of, I would express in more, and the same more ample 
and full words. And the Lord in whom you trust and whom you serve 
even in this bussines and journey, guid you with his hand, protecte you 
with his winge, and shew you and us his salvation in the end, and bring 
us in the mean while togeather in the place desired, if shuch be his good 
will, for his Christe sake. Amen. 

Yours &c Jno R " 

This letter, aside from its sweet and loving spirit, is sig- 
nificant as indicating that Carver was then occupying a post 
of authority, having probably been already chosen governor, 
an office in which he was confirmed at a later day, after the 
arrival of the Mayflower and the signing of the compact. 
The record of Bradford states that " a Governor and two or 
three assistants for each shipe " were chosen " to order the 
people by the way, and see to the disposing of their pos- 
sessions and shuch like affairs." It is fair to presume that 
Carver was chosen governor of the party on board of the 
Mayflower, and that after the detachment of the Speed- 
Avell he was recognized as the governor of the whole com- 
pany. His letter is further significant as being addressed to 
" My dear Brother," and as alluding to the goodwife of 
Carver as * my loving sister." If, as may be reasonably sup- 
posed, this endearing appellation implies something more 
than a sisterhood and brotherhood in the church, it discloses 
what has been until now unsuspected, that the wife of Car- 
ver was Catherine Robinson, sister of the Pilgrim pastor. 
The other letter from Robinson was addressed to his " lovimre 
Christian friends," the whole company. Full of advice as to 
the spirit which should characterize them in their undertaking, 
he thus alludes to what more especially concerns this narra- 
tive : " Lastly, wheras you are become a body politik, using 
amongst yourselves civill governmente, and are not furnished 
with any persons of spetiall eminence above the rest, to be 
chosen by you, into office of government, let your wisdome 
and godlines appeare, not only in chusing shuch persons as 



24 



FLYMOL'TII COLON V. 



doe entirely love and will promote the comone good, but 
also in yeelding unto them all due honour and obedience in 
their lawfull administrations ; not behouldin<r in them the 
ordinarinesse of their persons, but Gods ordinance for your 
good, not being like the foolish multitud who more honour 
the gay coate, then either the vertuous minde of the man, or 
glorious ordinance of the Lord." 

With one hundred and two passengers the Mayflower 
sailed from Plymouth. Of these "William Butten, called 
a servant of Samuel Fuller, died at sea ; but as Oceanus, 
son of Stephen Hopkins, was born on the passage, the 
original number w r as kept good. The following, taken from 
Bradford's history, is a correct list of the passengers arriv- 
ing in Cape Cod harbor, and shows the subsequent fate of 
each : — 



John Carver, Died in April, 1620. 

Kathrine Carver, his wife, . " the first summer. 

Desire Minter, returned to England and there 

died. 

8 { John Howland, died in Plymouth, 1673. 

Roger Wilder, " the first winter. 

William Latham, .... "in the Bahama Islands. 

Maid servant, " in a year or two. 

L Jasper More " December 6, 1620. 

-William Brewster, .... "in Duxbury, 1644. 
Mary Brewster, his wife, . . "in Plymouth, before 1627. 

Love Brewster, "in Duxbury, 1650. 

Wrestling Brewster, ... " died a young man. 

Richard More, afterwards called Mann, died in 

Scituate, 1656. 

-His brother, died first winter. 

r Edward Winslow " at sea, 1654. 

I Elizabeth Winslow, his wife, " March 24, 1621. 

J George Soule, "in Duxbury, 1680. 

I Elias Story, " first winter. 

l_ Ellen More, " first winter. 

( William Bradford "in Plymouth, 1657. 

{ Dorothy Bradford, his wife, . drowned in Cape Cod Harbor, Dec. 

7, 1620. 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



25 



Isaac Allerton, . . . 
Mary Allerton, his wife, 
Bartholomew Allerton, 
Remember Allerton, . 



Mary Allerton, 



5 i 



John Hooke, .... 
Samuel Fuller, . . . 
J John Crakston, . . . 
[John Crakston, Jr., 
f Miles Standish, . . . 
1 Rose Standish, his wife, 
C Christopher Martin, 

! His wife, 

1 Solomon Power, . . . 
' John Langernore, . . 
William Mullins, . . 

His wife, 

Joseph, 

Robert Carter, . . . 
Priscilla Mullins, . . 



5 \ 



William White, 

Susanna White, his wife, . . 

Resolved White, . . . . 

William Holbeek 

Edward Thompson, . . . 
Stephen Hopkins, . . . . 
Elizabeth Hopkins, his wife, 

Giles Hopkins 

Constance Hopkins, . . . 



Damaris Hopkins, 



Oceanus, 

Edward Doty, 

Edward Leister 

Richard Warren, . . . . 

John Billington 

Eleanor Billington, his wife, 

John Billington 

Francis Billington, . . . . 



died in New Haven, 1659. 

" February 25, 1621. 
returned to England and there died, 
m. Moses Maverick, and died in 

Salem, after 1652. 
m. Thomas Cushman, and died in 

Plymouth, 1699. 
died first winter. 

" in Plymouth, 1633. 

" first winter. 

" in Plymouth, 1628. 

" in Duxbury, 1656. 

" January 29, 1621. 

" January 8, 1621. 

" first winter. 

" December 24, 1620. 

" first winter. 

" February 21, 1621. 

" first winter. 

" first winter. 

" first winter, 
m. John Alden, and died in Dux- 
bury, after 1650. 
died February 21, 1621. 
m. Edward Winslow, and died in 

Marshfield, 1680. 
died in Salem, after 1680. 

" first winter. 

" December 4, 1620. 

" in Plymouth, 1644. 

" in Plymouth, after 1640. 

" in Yarmouth, 1690. 
m. Nicholas Snow, and died in 

Eastham, 1677. 
m. Jacob Cooke, of Plymouth, and 

died between 1666 and 1669. 
died in 1621. 

" in Yarmouth 1655. 
removed to Virginia and there died, 
died in Plymouth, 1628. 
executed, 1630. 
m. Gregory Armstrong, 1638. 
died before 1630. 

" in Yarmouth, after 1650. 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



f 
I 

4 \ 

3 

2 
2 

3 
2 

3 4 

I 
f 



3 I 



3 -! 



)2 



Edward Tilley died first winter. 

Ann Tilley, his wife, ... " first winter. 
Henry Sampson, .... "in Duxbury, 1684. 

Humility Cooper returned to England and there died. 

John Tilley, died first winter. 

His wife, ' first winter. 

Elizabeth Tilley, . m. John Howland, and d. in Plymouth, 1687. 

Francis Cooke, died in Plymouth, 1663 

John Cooke, "in Dartmouth, after 1694. 

Thomas Rogers "in 1621. 

Joseph Rogers, "in Eastham, 1678. 

Thomas Tinker, " first winter. 

His wife " first winter. 

His son, " first winter. 

John Rigdale, " first winter. 

Alice Rigdale. his wife, . . " first winter. 

James Chilton, " December 8, 1620. 

His wife " first winter. 

Mary Chilton, m. John Winslow, and died in 

Boston, 1679. 

Edward Fuller, died the first season. 

His wife, " the first season. 

Samuel Fuller, "in Barnstable, 1683. 

John Turner, " first winter. 

His son, " first winter. 

Another son, • " first winter. 

Francis Eaton, "in Plymouth, 1633. 

Sarah Eaton, his wife, . . " soon after 1624. 

Samuel Eaton "in Middleboro, 1684. 

Moses Fletcher, " the first season. 

Thomas Williams, .... " the first season. 

Digory Priest, " January 1, 1621. 

John Goodman, " first season. 

Edmond Margeson, .... " first season. 
Richard Britteridge, ... " December 21, 1620. 

Richard Clarke, " first season. 

Richard Gardiner, .... became a seaman, and d. in England. 

Gilbert Winslow, .... returned to England and there died. 

Peter Browne, died in Plymouth, 1633. 

John Alden "in Duxbury, 1687. 

Thomas English, .... " the first winter. 

John Allerton, " the first winter. 

William Trevore hired for a year and returned. 

Ely " for a year and returned. 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



27 



Before the 19th of November, 1621, the date of the arrival 
of the Fortune, fifty deaths had occurred, — six in December, 
1620; eight in January, 1621; seventeen in February, 
thirteen in March, and six during the remaining seven months. 
Of the survivors remaining in the country, the average length 
of life after the arrival was more than thirty-seven years. It 
is evident that if the extreme exposure of wading to the shore 
at Provincetown in wintry weather had been avoided, and 
the arrival at Plymouth been two months earlier, the health 
and longevity of the colonists in the wilderness would have 
been more marked than even those of New England life 
to-day with all the comforts of its extreme civilization. 

On the 21st of December an exploring party in the shallop 
of the Mayflower landed on Plymouth Rock, and on the 
26th the Mayflower dropped her anchor in the harbor of 
Plymouth. It is probable that her anchorage was not, as 
has been supposed, and as has always been represented in 
pictures of the scene, at the end of the beach in what has 
long been known as the cow-yard, but in the channel directly 
opposite to the town, a spot thoroughly sheltered from the 
waves and winds of the ocean. The record states that the 
shallop party sounded the harbor, and if so they must have 
discovered this channel, which is now, and has always, even 
at the lowest stage of the tide, been traversed and used as an 
anchorage by larger vessels than the Mayflower. Nor are 
we left in this matter wholly to conjecture. De Rasieres, in 
October, 1627, was despatched on an embassy from New 
Amsterdam to the Plymouth Colony. In a letter to Mr. 
Samuel Blommaert, one of the directors of the West India 
Company, written after his return to Holland, he describes 
the town of Plymouth, and says : " Directly before the -com- 
menced town lies a sand-bank, about twenty paces broad, 
whereon the sea breaks violently with an easterly and north- 
easterly wind; on the north side there lies a small island, 
where one must run close along in order to come before the 
town ; then the ships run behind that bank, and lie in a very 



28 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



good roadstead." And Mourt's Relation further states: "For 
our ship drew so much water that she lay a mile and almost 
a half off, though a ship of seventy or eighty tons, at high 
water, may come to the shore." The beach directly opposite 
to the town is nearly a mile and a half distant, while the cow- 
yard, according to the measurements of the coast survey, is 
more than two miles. It is reasonable to suppose that the 
Mayflower initiated the practice prevailing when De Rasieres 
wrote in 1627, and that a safe and convenient anchorage near 
the town would have been preferred to a more distant one 
exposed to easterly gales and involving serious dangers to 
boats loaded with passengers and freight in their frequent 
trips to and from the land. 

Various reasons have been given for the abandonment by 
the Pilgrims of the territory of the Southern Virginia Com- 
pany, whose patent they held, such as the difficult navigation 
in Vineyard Sound, and the bribery of the captain by the 
Dutch. One circumstance, however, has never been alluded 
to as having had any bearing on the intended voyage. It 
is well known that in 1619 Thomas Dermer, sent out by 
Sir Ferdinando Gorges on a voyage of discovery, visited 
Plymouth, and in a letter, dated July 9, 1620, written to 
his patron, he said, in speaking of that place : " I would that 
the first plantation might here be seated, if there come to the 
number of fifty persons or upwards." Had the letter been 
sent to England soon after its date, it would have arrived at 
Plymouth, of which Sir Ferdinando was governor, and which 
was the last port of departure of the Mayflower, while the Pil- 
grims were making their final preparations for their voyage, 
and, having come to the knowledge of the captain or pilot or 
passengers, may have had some influence in determining the 
place of settlement. The language of the compact, too, "we 
whose names are underwritten, having undertaken for the 
glory of God and advancement of the Christian faith and 
the honor of our king and country, a voyage to plant the first 
colony in the northern parts of Virginia," seems to deepen the 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



29 



mystery concerning the supposed deviation from the intended 
voyage. At that time Plymouth was within the limits of the 
Northern Virginia Company so far as the Pilgrims knew, and 
was, therefore, correctly described in the compact as in the 
northern parts of Virginia. It was not until November, 
1620, while the Mayflower was on her passage that by new 
letters-patent the Northern Company was changed to "the 
President and Council of New England," or the Plymouth 
Company. It is worthy of consideration then whether there 
was really any wholly unexpected deviation, and whether 
Plymouth was not, regardless of the patent they held, within 
the general scope of their voyage. This suggestion derives 
additional importance from the language of Bradford, who as 
one of the leaders of the company, would have been well 
aware of any serious change in their destination. " Having 
reached Cape Cod," he says, " after some deliberation had 
amongst themselves and with the master of the ship, they 
tacked about and resolved to stand for the southward, the 
wind and weather being fair, to find some place about 
Hudson's river for their habitation. But after they had sailed 
the course about half the day, they fell amongst dangerous 
shoals and roaring breakers, and they were so far entangled 
therewith as they conceived themselves in great danger ; and 
the wind shrinking upon them withall, they resolved to bear 
up again for the Cape, and thought themselves happy to get 
out of these dangers before night overtook them, as by God's 
Providence they did." There seems to be a plain indication 
here of doubt as to a landing-place, but, "the wind being 
fair," it was then decided to seek some place near the Hudson. 
There is not a word about any deviation from the contem- 
plated route, nor a word expressive of disappointment at not 
being able to carry out their original plan. If they had the 
patent issued to John Pierce, it is by no means certain that 
they were relying on its provisions for their guidance and 
protection. It is worthy also of consideration that the 
Virginia Company in their vote passed in July, 1621, already 



30 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



quoted, calling on Pierce to surrender his patent, gave, as a 
reason, the fact that he had "seated his company within the 
limits of the northern plantations as by some was supposed." 
The words "as by some was supposed," can bear no other 
construction than " as by some it was supposed he would," 
and serve to reinforce the suggestion that a landing in New 
England, and a settlement on lands for which they could sub- 
sequently secure a patented grant from a company which, 
before their departure from England, had within their ascer- 
tained knowledge applied for a new charter from the king, 
were among the possibilities of their enterprise. 

The suggestion that Captain Jones, of the Ma}"flower, had 
been bribed by the Dutch, was first made by Morton, in his 
Memorial, published in 1(369, and has never received credit 
among historians. Morton says, " Of the plot between the 
Dutch and Mr. Jones I have had late and certain intelli- 
gence." The wonder has been often expressed how it was 
possible, after the silence of Winslow and Bradford on the sub- 
ject, that recent information could have reached Morton forty- 
nine years after the landing. But there was a hidden chan- 
nel coming for the first time to the surface while the Memo- 
rial was in preparation, through which some story might 
have come down su<™:estin«' the statement of Morton. In 

DO v? 

1664 Thomas "VVillet, of Plymouth, joined the expedition of 
the United Colonies against the Dutch, and on the surrender 
in that year of New York to the English was made its first 
mayor. After a short service in that capacity he returned to 
Plymouth, and the result of such examination into the Dutch 
archives as he might have made while mayor, he could have 
communicated to Morton as " late and certain intelligence." 

Nor were the antecedents of Jones of such a character as 
to render his complicity in such a scheme improbable. In 
1617, as is learned from the investigations of Rev. E. D. 
Neill, for some years United States consul at Dublin, the 
coming Earl of Warwick sent two ships to the East Indies, 
one of which was the Lion, commanded by Captain Thomas 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



31 



Jones. Shortly after Martin Pring, having been sent out in 
the Royal James to suppress buccaneering, captured the Lion 
in piratical pursuit of a junk. Jones was sent home, but 
released by the intercession of the earl. In January, 1620, 
new style, the East India Company complained of him for 
hiring alvay their men for the Danish service, and he was 
again released through the influence of Warwick, on the 
ground that he was engaged to take a cargo of cattle to Vir- 
ginia. In February he sailed thither in the Falcon, of fifty 
tons, with thirty-six passengers, four mares, and fifty-two 
kine. He returned to England in season to take charge of 
the Mayflower, arriving home from Plymouth May 16, 1621. 
In the latter part of that year he went again to Virginia in 
the Discovery, of sixty tons, trafficking along the coast, and 
was complained of by the Council for New England for rob- 
bing the natives. In 1622, on his way home, he stopped at 
Plymouth, and took advantage of the distress of the colony 
by the charge of extortionate prices for supplies. In July, 
1625, he appeared again in Virginia, in possession of a 
Spanish frigate, thought to have been captured in one of his 
buccaneering enterprises, but died before any investigation 
could be had. But the history of the Dutch settlement at 
New Amsterdam offers almost conclusive evidence that no 
attempt at bribery, such as is charged by Morton, could have 
been made. The death of Barneveldt and the exile of Gro- 
tius, leaders of the conservative party which had opposed the 
organization of the Dutch West India Company, under whose 
auspices the settlement on the Hudson by the Dutch was to 
be made, removed all opposition, and one of the first prop- 
ositions in anticipation of a charter was for the Pilgrims to 
establish a colony under their auspices. And after the charter 
of the company was granted, among the first to take advan- 
tage of its liberal provisions were French emigrants, a people 
as foreign to the Dutch as the Pilgrim exiles of Holland. 
The only existing doubt then is, whether, alone in obedience 
to the storms and shoals of a dangerous coast, or partly in 



32 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



accordance with a half-formed plan, Plymouth became their 
final resting-place. This, however, is certain, that the hand 
of Providence, by a devastating pestilence, had prepared the 
spot for their reception, and left no Indian foe to meet them 
on the shore and dispute their rightful possession. 



FLYMOUTH COLONY. 



33 



CHAPTER II. 

Early Voyages to New England. — Champlain. — John Smith. — Thomas 
Dermer. — Treaty with Massasoit. — Patent of 1621. — Land Grants. 
— Old Colony Patent. — Settlement with the Adventurers. — Further 
Land Giants. 

The spot selected by the Pilgrims for a permanent settle- 
ment was not unknown to Europeans. As early as the reign 
of Edward VI. mariners from England were engaged in 
the Newfoundland fisheries ; and before the opening of the 
seventeenth century more than three hundred English, 
Portuguese, Spanish, and French vessels went home annually, 
laden with the treasures of the sea, from the American coast. 
It is not improbable that by many of these the shores of New 
England had been repeatedly explored. Of those who had 
been led by the spirit of adventure to sail along the coast, 
more than one had visited Plymouth itself. Verazzano had 
doubtless passed it, and Gosnold after him, in 1602, giving 
the name as he sailed to Cape Cod, along whose shores he 
took abundance of fish, and in one of whose harbors he landed, 
the first Englishman who is known to have stepped on the 
soil of Massachusetts. Martin Pring followed, in 1603, the 
footsteps of Gosnold, leaving the bay of Plymouth far out of 
sight as he steered from what is now the coast of Maine to 
the waters of Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard. Nor did 
"Waymouth in 1605 enter the bay. In his voyage across the 
Atlantic, making his landfall at Nantucket, he steered north 
for the coast of Maine, and returned to England after a fruit- 
less expedition. To a French explorer is due, so far as is 
known, the discovery of Plymouth. In 1603, Sieur de 



34 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Monts, a conspicuous member of the Protestant party in 
France, obtained from King Henry IV. a patent for the 
principality of Acadie, defined as the American coast from 
the fortieth to the forty-sixth degree of north latitude, or 
from a little north of Barnegat, on the New Jerse} r coast, to 
a line running through the middle of Cape Breton, with 
provisions for the government of the country and the control 
of trade within those limits. French discovery was relied on 
to establish a claim to this territory, which might either have 
been "iost to the English, or secured only against serious 
opposition, had not the first attempt of French enterprise to 
utilize it proved a failure. On the 17th of April, 1004, 
De Monts set sail with four vessels from Havre de Grace, 
with Sieur de Champlain for his pilot. In 1G13 Champlain 
published in Paris an account of the voyage, illustrated with 
charts of the various coasts and harbors which he visited. 
After exploring the coast of Nova Scotia, he proceeded to 
Massachusetts, and thus describes his visit to Plymouth, 
which he called Port St. Louis : — 

"The next day (July 28, 1605) we doubled Cape St. Louis (Branches 
Island) so named by Sieur de Monts a land rather low and in latitude 
42° 45'. The same day we sailed two leagues along a sandy coast; as we 
passed along which we saw a great many cabins and gardens The 
wind being contrary we entered a little bay to await a time favorable 
for proceeding. There came to us two or three canoes which had just 
been fishing for cod and other fish, which are found there in large 
numbers. These they catch with hooks made of a piece of wood, to 
which they attach a bone in the shape of a spear, and fasten it very 
securely. The whole has a fang-shape, and the line attached to it is 
made out of the bark of a tree. The bone is fastened on by hemp, and 
they told me that they gathered this plant without being obliged to 
cultivate it, and indicated that it grew to the height of four or five feet. 
Some of them came to us and begged us to go to their river. We 
weighed anchor to do so, but were unable to enter on account of the 
small amount of water, it being low tide, and were accordingly obliged 
to anchor at the mouth. I made an examination of the river, but saw 
only an arm of water extending a short distance inland, where the land 
is only in part cleared up. Running into this is merely a brook not deep 
enough for boats except at full tide. The circuit of the bay is about a 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



35 



league. On one side of the entrance to this bay there is a point (Gurnet) 
which is almost an island, covered with wood, principally pines, and 
adjoins sand-banks which are very extensive. On the other side the 
land is high. There are two islets in the harbor (Clark's Island and 
Saquish) which are not seen until one has entered and around which it is 
almost entirely dry at low water. This place is very conspicuous, for 
the coast is very low, excepting the cape at the entrance to the bay. We 
named it tbe Port du Cap St. Louis, distant two leagues from the above 
cape and ten from the Island Cape (Cape Anne)." 

Champlain's map of Plymouth bay and harbor is exceed- 
ingly interesting as a competent witness to the condition of 
these shores and islands two hundred and seventy-seven years 
ago. It throws special light on three questions on which 
heretofore only the uncertain rays of tradition have been 
shed ; it dissipates the popular belief that Brown's Shoal was 
ever an island ; it shows that Plymouth Beach was once 
wooded, and that Saquish was detached from the Gurnet 
peninsula and was once an island. The river referred to in 
the description was doubtless the harbor, and the brook 
running into it, which appears on the map to be its continua- 
tion, was the town brook, which in early days, without the 
causeway and dam now crossing its mouth, opened into the 
harbor, Avith a widening channel and receding shores. The 
voyage of De Monts and Champlain was little known by the 
general reader until 1878, Avhen Champlain's history was 
translated by Mr. Charles Pomeioy Otis, and published by 
the Prince Society of Boston, under the intelligent editor- 
ship of Rev. Edmund F. Slafter. The map of Champlain 
which precedes this narrative was taken by permission from 
this valuable publication. Our school-books and maps 
have laid down Cape Malabar on the eastern shore of Cape 
Cod ; but our schoolboys and our sailors have for years 
repeated its name without knowing that it is the Malle-Barre 
of Champlain, and the only monument left on our coast to 
remind us of his voyage. 

In 1609 Henry Hudson, in the service of the Dutch East 
India Company, sailed along the coast of Massachusetts, but, 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



though he landed on Cape Cod, he failed to enter the bay. 
So far as history informs us John Smith was the next Euro- 
pean after Champlain to visit Plymouth. After his expedi- 
tion to Virginia, in lti06, in the service of the Southern 
Virginia, or London Company, and some years' connection 
with the Virginia colony, he returned to England, and in 
1(314 sailed with two ships, under the auspices of certain 
private adventurers, as he says in his narrative, "to take 
whales and also to make trials of a mine of gold and cop- 
per." Arriving at Morihegan, near the mouth of the Penob- 
scot, he anchored his vessels, and sailed with eight men in 
a shallop along the coast as far as Cape Cod, giving the name 
of New England to the country, and " drawing a map from 
point to point, isle to isle, and harbor to harbor, with the 
soundings, sands, rocks, and landmarks." After his return 
to England he submitted a copy of his map to Prince 
Charles, afterwards Charles I., who attached names to 
many places on the coast. Of these only Plymouth, 
Charles River, named after himself, and Cape Anne, after 
Anne of Denmark, his mother, still adhere to the localities 
they then designated. Among the many names affixed to the 
map by Charles were Cape James for Cape Cod, Milford 
Haven for Provincetown Harbor, Stuards Bay for Barnstable 
Bay, Point George for Brant Point, Oxford for Marshfield, 
London for Cohasset, Cheviot Hills for the Blue Hills, Tal- 
bott's Bay for Gloucester Harbor, and Dartmouth, Sandwich, 
and Cambridge for places near Portland. 

In 1619 Captain Thomas Dermer, who had been one of 
Smith's lieutenants, was again despatched by Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges on account of the Northern Virginia or Plymouth 
Company. He brought with him Squanto, or Tisquantum, 
a native, earned away by Captain Hunt, another of Smith's 
lieutenants, to be sold into slavery, who in some manner 
escaped and found his way to London, where, in the family 
of a Mr. Slancy, treasurer of the Newfoundland Company, 
he was employed and kindly treated. The subsequent career 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



37 



of this Indian, who returned home to find his tribe swept 
away by disease, and who, with his knowledge of the Eng- 
lish language, became interested in the Pilgrims, and attached 
himself to them as a faithful and indispensable friend, seems 
to have been another feature in that providential plan which 
continually encompassed and protected the infant colony. 
Dermer found that the Patuxet tribe, which had occupied 
Plymouth at the time of the visit of Smith, had at some time 
been carried oft' by a contagion. Mourt's Relation says that 
"Samoset told us the place is called Patuxet, and that about 
four years ago all the inhabitants died of an extraordinary 
plague, and there is neither man, woman, or child remaining, 
as indeed we have found none." Dermer wrote to Gorges, 
his patron, a letter, dated July 9, 1620, and in speaking of 
Plymouth, said, " I would that the first plantation might here 
be seated, if there come to the number of fifty persons or 
upwards." Whether Gorges might not have influenced 
Pierce, in whose name the patent of the Pilgrims had been 
issued, and whether both together might not have seduced 
Captain Jones, are further considerations to be weighed in 
solving the problem, of a deviation from the intended voyage 
of the Mayflower. 

When the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth they were not only 
outside of the limits of their patent, on a territory of a 
company from which they had received no grant, but they 
had settled themselves where the natives of the soil niijrht 
dispute their right of occupation. At that time the territory, 
whic h was afterwards included within the limits of the Old 
Colony, was occupied by a family of tribes known by the 
name of Pokanokets. These tribes consisted of the Wam- 
panoags of Bristol, the particular tribe of Massasoit, num- 
bering about sixty warriors ; the Pocasetts of Swansea, 
Rehoboth, Somerset, and Tiverton, under the Sagamore Cor- 
bitant ; the Saconets of Little Compton ; the Nemaskets of 
Middleboro ; the Nausites of Eastham ; the Mattachees of 
Barnstable ; the Monamoys of Chatham ; the Saukatucketts 



38 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



of Marshpee ; and the Nobsquassetts of Yarmouth. To 
complete the family, the Patuxets of Plymouth must he 
added, which had been swept away by pestilence. All these 
tribes were under the dominion of Massasoit, and though 
reduced by the recent contagion to five hundred warriors, 
could at an earlier date raise at least three thousand. Their 
enfeebled condition rendered them less than ever a match 
against the Xarragansetts, with whom thev were engaged in 
frequent and deadly hostilities, and though naturally jealous 
of European encroachments, they manifested a desire at an 
early date to form with the Pilgrims an offensive and defen- 
sive alliance. 

On the 1st of April Massasoit appeared with sixty men 
on what is now Watson's Hill, and sent Squanto with Samo- 
set to the settlement to announce his presence. Winslow 
was sent with presents to the chief, and told him that " King 
James saluted him with the words of love and peace, and did 
accept of him as his friend and ally, and that the governor 
desired to see him and trade with him, and to live on friendly 
terms with his near neighbor." "While Winslow remained in 
the Indian camp, the chief, with twenty attendants, unarmed, 
crossed the brook, where he met Standish, with six musket- 
eers, and was by him attended to the common house of the 
settlement. There, seated on a rug and cushions, he met 
the governor, who entered, preceded by drum and trumpet, 
and saluted him with all the honors of a royal prince. 
After a season of eating and drinking, the governor proposed 
the following treaty, which was agreed to by the chief: — 

1. "That neither he, nor any of his, should injure or do hurt to any 
of their people. 

2. That if any of his did any hurt to any of theirs, he should send 
the offender, that they might punish him. 

3. That if anything were taken away from any of theirs, he should 
cause it to be restored; and they should do the like to his. 

4. That if any did unjustly war against him, they would aid him : 
and if any did war against them, he should aid them. 

5. That he should send to his neighbor confederates, to inform them 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



39 



of this, that they might not wrong them, but might likewise be com- 
prised in the conditions of peace. 

6. That when his men came to them upon any occasion, they should 
leave their bows and arrows behind them. 

7. That so doing, their sovereign lord King James would esteem him 
as his friend and ally." 

All which Morton says, " he liked well, and withall at the 
same time acknowledged himself content to become the sub- 
ject of our sovereign lord the king aforesaid, his heirs and 
successors ; and gave unto them all the lands adjacent, to 
them and their heirs forever." This treaty, more sacredly 
kept than many which Christian nations have since entered 
into, secured peace and safety to the colony for a period of 
fifty-five years. The lands granted to the settlers by this 
treaty were those formerly occupied by the extinct tribe 
of Patuxets, and included what are now the townships of 
Plymouth, Duxbury, Kingston,' Carver, Plympton, Marsh- 
field, and a part of Halifax. Other portions of the colony 
were, from time to time, purchased of the natives, and finally 
incorporated into towns. By the gift from Massasoit, the 
Pilgrims, without charter from the king, or patent from 
the Northern Virginia Company, obtained a foothold and pos- 
session, which under a charter or patent alone would have 
been usurpation and robbery. A patent, however, was 
necessary to establish their rightful claim, and the Mayflower 
carried the news to England of the place of their landing, as 
well as an application to the Northern Virginia Company for 
a suitable grant. After the Pilgrims sailed from England, 
the Northern or Plymouth Company secured a new charter 
from the king, dated the 3d of November, 1620. The king, 
having fallen out with Sir Edwin Sand3 r s, the governor and 
treasurer of the Southern Company, forbade his re-election ; 
but the Earl of Southampton being chosen in his place, a 
person equally obnoxious to him, he was inclined to show 
special favor to the Northern Company, and granted it a new 
act of incorporation under the title of " The council estab- 



40 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



lishcd at Plymouth, in the county of Devon, for the planting, 
ordering, ruling, and governing of New England in America," 
and empowered it to hold territory extending from sea to 
sea, and in breadth from the fortieth to the forty-eighth 
degree of north latitude. This immense territory included 
all between Central New Jersey and the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
on the Atlantic coast, and the northern part of California, 
Oregon, and nearly all of Washington Territory on the 
Pacific ; with a line running through Lake Superior for its 
northern boundary, and one through Pennsylvania, Ohio. 
Indiana, and Illinois for its southern. By this company 
a patent was issued, under date of June 1, 1621, to John 
Pierce and his associates, which was in trust for the company. 
This patent is now preserved in Pilgrim Hall in Plymouth. 
It is engrossed on parchment, and bears the signatures of 
the Duke of Lenox, the Marquis of Hamilton, the Earl 
of Warwick, Lord Sheffield, and Sir Ferdinando Gorges. 
Another signature is illegible, and the seal of the instrument, 
together with the seals of Hamilton and Sheffield, is missing. 
As the oldest state paper in New England, it is worthy of a 
place in this narrative : — 

"This Indenture made the first day of June 1621 And in the yeares 
of the raigne of our soveraignc Lord James by the grace of god King of 
England Scotland Fraunceand Ireland defendorof the faith &c That is to 
say of England Fraunce and Ireland the nynetenth and of Scotland the 
fowre and fiftith Betwene the President and Counsell of New England 
of the one ptie And John Peirce Citizen and Clothworker of London and 
his Associates of the other ptie Witnesseth that whereas the said John 
Peirce and his Associates have already transported and undertaken to 
transporte at their cost and chardges themselves and dyvers pson's into 
New England and there to erect and build a Towne and settle dyver's 
Inhabitants for the advancement of the generall plantacon of that 
Country of New England Now 1he Sayde President and Counsell in con- 
sideracon thereof and for the furtherance of the said plantacon and 
incoragement of the said Undertakers have agreed to grant assigne 
allott and appoynt to the said John Peirce and his associates and every 
of them his and their heires and assignes one hundred acres of grownd 
for evry pson so to be transported besides dyvers other pryviledges 
Liberties and comodyties hereafter menconed, And to that intent they 



PLYMOUTH COLOXT. 



41 



have granted allotted assigned and confirmed And by theis presents doe 
grant allott assigne and confirme unto the said John Peirce and his 
Associates his and their heires & assignes and the heires and assignes 
of evry of them sevrally and respectyvelie one hundred sevrall acres 
of grownd in New England for evry pson so transported or to be 
transported yf the said John Peirce or his Associates contynue there 
three whole yeeres either at one or sevrall tymes or dye in the 
meane season after he or they are shipped with intent there to inhabit. 
The same land to be taken & chosen by them their deputies or as- 
signes in any place or places wheresoever not already inhabited by 
any English and where no English pson or psons are already placed or 
settled or have by order of the said President and Councell made choyce 
of, nor within Tenne myles of the same unles it be on the opposite syde 
of some great or Navigable Ryver to the former particuler plnntacon, 
together with the one half of the Ryver or Ry vers, that is to say to the 
middest thereof as shall adjoyne to such lands as they shall make choyce 
of together with all such Liberties pryviledges profitts & comodyties as 
the said Land and Ryvers which they shall make choyce of shall yeild 
together with free libertie to fishe on and upon the coast of New England 
and in all havens ports and creeks Thereunto belonging and that no 
pson or psons whatsoever shall take any benefitt or libertie of or to any 
of the grounds on the one half of the Ryvers aforesaid excepting the free 
use of highwayes by land and Navigable Ryvers, but that the said under- 
takers & planters their heires and assignes shall have the sole right and 
use of the said grounds and the one half of the said Ryvers with all their 
profitts and appurtenances. And forasmuch as the said John Peirce and 
his associates intend and have undertaken to build Churches, Schooles, 
Hospitalls, Towne houses, Bridges and such like workes of charytie As 
also for the maynteyning of Magistrates and other inferior officers In 
regard whereof and to the end that the said John Peirce and his Asso- 
ciates his and their heires & assignes may have wherewithall to beare 
& support such like charges Therefore the said President and Councell 
aforesaid do graunt unto the said Undertakers their heires & assignes 
Fifteene hundred acres of Land moreover and above the aforesaid pro- 
porcon of one hundred the pson for evry undertaker and planter to be 
ymployed upon such publiq usis as the said Undertakers & Planters shall 
thinck fitt, And they do further graunt unto the said John Peirce and 
his Associates their heires and assignes, that for evry pson that they 
or any of them shall transport at their owne proper costs & charges into 
New England either unto the Lands hereby graunted or adjoyninge to 
them within seaven yeares after the feast of St John Baptist next coming 
yf the said pson transported contynue there three whole yeeres either at 
one or sevrall tymes or dye in the meane seasin after he is shipped with 
intent there to inhabit tha.t the said pson or psons that shall so at his 01' 



42 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



their owne charges transport any other shall have graunted and allowed 
to him and them and his & their heirs respeetyvelie for every pson so 
transported or dyeing after he is shipped one hundred acres of Land, and 
also that every pson or psons who by contract & agreament to be had & 
made with the said Undertakers shall at his & their owne charge trans- 
port liim & themselves or any others and setle and plant themselves in 
Xew England within the said Seaven Yeeres for three yeeres space as 
aforesaid or dye in the meane tyme shall have graunted & allowed unto 
evry pson so transporting or transported and their heires & assignes 
respectively the like nomber of one hundred acres of Land as aforesaid 
the same to be by him & them or their heires and assignes chosen in any 
entyre place together and adjoyning to the aforesaid Lands and not 
straglingly not before the tyme of such choyce made possessed or 
inhabited by any English Company or within tenne myles of the same 
except it be on the opposite syde of some great Navigable Ryver as afore- 
said. Yielding and paying unto the said President and Counsell for evry 
hundred acres so obteyned and possessed by the said John Peirce and his 
said Associates and by those said other psons and their heires & assignes 
who by contract as aforesaid shall at their owne charges transport them- 
selves or others the Yerely rent of Two shillings at the feast of St 
Michael Tharchaungell to the hand of the Rent gatherer of the President 
& Counsell and their successors forever the first payment to begyn after 
the xpiracon of the first Seaven Yeeres next after the date hereof And 
further it shal be lawful to and for the said John Peirce and his Asso- 
ciates and such as contract with them as aforesaid their Tennants & 
servants upon dislike of or in the Country to returne for England or 
elsewhere with all their goods & chattells at their will & pleasure without 
lett or disturbaunce of any paying all debts that justly shal he demaunded. 
And likewise it shal be lawfull and is graunted to and for the said John 
Peirce his Associates & Planters their heires & assignes their Tennants 
& servants and such as they or any of them shall contract with as afore- 
said and send and ymploy for the said plantacon to goe & returne trade 
traffiq import and transport their goods & merchaundize at their will & 
pleasure into England or elsewhere paying only such dueties to the 
Kings majestie his heires & successors as the President & Counsell of 
New England doe pay without any other taxes Tmposicons burthens or 
restraints whatsoever upon them to be ym posed the rent hereby reserved 
being only excepted. And it shal be lawfull for the said Undertakers & 
Planters their heires & successors freely to truck trade & traffiq with the 
Salvages in New England or neighboring thereabouts at their wills & 
pleasures without lett or disturbaunce, As also to have libertie to hunt, 
hauke, fish or fowle in any place or places not now or hereafter by the 
Enelish inhabited. And the said President & Counsell do covenant & 
promyse to and with the said John Peirce and his Associates and others 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



43 



contracted with as aforesaid his and their heires & assignes. That upon 
lawfiill survey to be had & made at the charge of the said Undertakers 
& Planters and lawfull informacon geven of the bounds, meets and 
quantytie of Land so as aforesaid to be by them chosen & possessed they 
the said President & Counsell upon surrender of this presente graunt & 
Indenture and upon reasonable request to be made by the said Under- 
takers & Planters their heires & assignes within seaven Yeeres now next 
coming shall and will by their Deede Indented and under their Comon 
Seale graunt enfeoffe and continue all and evry the said lands so sett 
out and bounded as aforesaid to the said John Peirce and his Associates 
and such as contract with them their heires & assignes in as large & 
beneficiall manner as the same are in these presents graunted or intended 
to be graunted to all intents & purposes with all and every particuler 
pryviledge & freedome reservacon & condicon with all dependancis herein 
specyfied & graunted. And shall also at any tyme within the said terme 
of Seaven Yeeres upon request unto the said President & Counsell made, 
graunt unto them the said John Peirce and his Associates Undertakers 
& Planters their heires & assignes, Letters & Graunts of Incorporacon by 
some usual & fitt name & tytle with Liberty to them and their successors 
from tyme to tyme to make orders Lawes Ordynanncis & Constitucons 
for the rule government ordering & dyrecting of all psons to be trans- 
ported & settled upon the lands hereby graunted, intended to be graunted 
or hereafter to be graunted and of the said Lands & profiitts thereby 
arrysing. And in the meane tyme untill such graunt made yt glial be 
lawfull for the said John Peirce his Associates & Undertakers & Planters 
their heires & assignes by consent of the greater part of them. To 
establish such Lawes & ordynaunces as are for their better government, 
and the same by such Officer or Officers as they shall by most voyces 
elect & choose to put in execucon. And lastly the said President and 
Counsell do graunt and agree to and with the said John Peirce and his 
Associates and others contracted with and ymployed as aforesaid their 
heires and assignes. That when they have planted the Lands hereby to 
them assigned & appoynted That then it shal be lawfull for them with 
the piyvitie & allowance of the President & Counsell as aforesaid to 
make choyce of to enter into and to have an addition of fiftie acres more 
for every pson transported into New England with like reservacons con- 
ditions and priviledges as are above graunted to be had and chosen in 
such place or places where no English shal be then setled or inhabiting 
or have made choyce of and the same entered into a Book of Acts at the 
tyme of such choyce so to be made or within tenne Myles of the same 
excepting on the opposite syde of some great Navigable Ryver as afore- 
said. And that it shal and may be lawfull for the said John Peirce and 
his Associates their heires & assignes from tyme to tyme and at all 
tymes hereafter for their sevei'all defence and savetie to encounter, 



44 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



expulse, rcpell & resist by force of Armes as well by Sea as by Land and 
by all wayes anil meanes whatsoever all such pson & psons as without 
the especiall lycense of the said President or Counsell and their suc- 
cessors or the greater part of them shall attempt to inhabit within the 
severall presincts & lymitts of their said Plantacon. Or shall enterpryse 
or attempt at any time hereafter distruccon, Invation, detiyment or 
annoyance to the said Plantacon. And the said John Peirce and his 
Associates and their heires & assignes do covenant & promyse to & witli 
the said President & Counsell and their successors That they the said 
John Peirce and his Associates from tyme to tyme during the said Seaven 
Yeeres shall make a true Certificat to the said President & Counsell & 
their successors from the chief officers of the places respectyvely of every 
pson transported & landed in New England or shipped as aforesaid to be 
entered by the Secretary of the said President & Counsell into a Register 
book for that purpose to be kept And the said John Peirce and his 
Associates Jointly and severally for them their heires and assignes do 
covenant promyse & graunt to and with the said President & Counsell 
and their successors That the psons transported to this their particular 
Plantacon shall apply themselves & their Labors in a large & competent 
manner to the planting, setting, making and procuring of good & staple 
comodyties in & upon the said Land hereby graunted unto them as 
Corne & silkgrasse, hemp, flax, pitch & tarre, sopeashes and potashes, 
yron, clapboard and other the like materialls. In witness whereof the 
said President & Counsell have to the one part of this present Indenture 
sett their seales. And to the other part hereof the said John Peirce in the 
name of himself and his said Associates have sett to his seale given the 
day and yeeres first above written. 1 ' 

In 1622 Mr. Pierce, in whose name the patent was taken, 
succeeded in obtaining another patent superseding the first, 
running to himself, his heirs, associates, and assigns forever. 
The fraudulent character of this act was apparent. He had 
obtained the patent in the interest of the Pilgrims dated June 
1, 1621, and on the twenty-second day of April, 1622, he 
granted formal letters of association to the merchant adven- 
turers, making them jointly interested with him in the lands 
which the patent granted. On the same day he received the 
new patent, under which it was believed that he intended to 
hold the settlers as his tenants, and control the destinies of the 
colony. He actually set sail for New England, armed with 
his patent, and was only prevented by providential storms, 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



45 



which twice drove him back, from consummating- his inffeu- 
ious scheme. The adventurers remonstrated with him in 
vain, and he demanded five hundred pounds in considera- 
tion of the surrender of his grant. It has been often stated, 
and widely believed, that the paient was eventually pur- 
chased by the adventurers, and that it superseded the old 
one. The records of the Council for New England, how- 
ever, show, as quoted by Mr. Palfrey in his History of 
New England, that the following order was passed by that 
company : — 

" Whereas there were several differences between John Pierce citizen 
and clothniaker of London and the Treasurer and other the associates of 
him the said John Pierce that were undertakers with him for the settling 
and advancement of the plantation at Plymouth, in the parts of Xew 
England, said differences, after the full hearing and debating thereof^ 
before us were finally concluded upon by the offer of the said John 
Pierce, and mutual adoption of the said Treasurer and Company then 
present, in behalf of themselves and the rest of the said Company, that 
the said associates with their undertakers and servants now settled or to 
be settled in Plymouth aforesaid should remain and continue tenants 
unto the Council established for the managing of the aforesaid affairs of 
New England, notwithstanding a grant, bearing date the 20th of April, 
1622, by said Pierce obtained without the consent of the said associates, 
from the said Council, contraiy to a former grant to the said Pierce 
made in behalf of himself and his said associates dated the 1st of 
June, 1621." 

Thus it is clear that whether any consideration was paid by 
the adventurers to Pierce or not, the new patent was can- 
celled, and that the patent issued in 1621, and now in Ply- 
mouth, remained in force. This patent was brought over in 
the Fortune, a small vessel of fifty-five tons, which arrived 
in November, 1021, and brought thirty-five passengers to be 
added to the colony, besides Robert Cushman, who came to 
return. A letter was received by him from Mr. Weston, one 
of the adventurers, directed to Governor Carver, then dead, 
and, in the language of Bradford, full of complaints and 
expostulations concerning the return of the Mayflower, long 



46 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



delayed and without a cargo. That part of the letter pre- 
served in Bradford's history says : — 

" I durst never acquainte the adventurers with the alteration of the 
conditions first agreed on betweene us, which I have since been very 
glad of, for I am well assured had they knowne as much as I doe, they 
would not have adventured a halfe-penny of what was necessary for this 
ship. That you sent no lading in the ship is wonderfull and worthily 
distasted. I know your weaknes was the cause of it, and I beleeve more 
weaknes of Judgmente, than weaknes of hands. A quarter of the 
time you spent in discoursing, arguing & consulting, would have done 
much more; but that is past. If you mean, bona fide, to performe the 
conditions agreed upon, doe us the favore to coppy them out faire, and 
subscribe them with the principall of your names. And likewise give 
us accounte as perticulerly as you can how our moneys were laid out. 
And then I shall be able to give them some satisfaction, whom I am now 
forsed with good words to shift of. And consider that the life of the 
bussness depends on the lading of this ship, which, if you doe to any 
good purpose, that I may be freed from the great sums I have disbursed 
for the formir, and must doe for the later, I promise you I will never 
quit the bussness, though all the other adventurers would. 

We have procured you a Charter the best we could, which is beter 
than your former, and with less limitation. For any thing that is els 
worth writting, Mr. Cushman can informe you. I pray write instantly 
for Mr. Robinson to come to you. And so praying God to blesse you 
with all graces necessaiy both for this life & that to come I rest. 

Your very loving friend, Tuomas Weston. 
London, July 6, 1621. 

Mr. Cushman, who came in the Fortune, came clearly as 
the agent of the adventurers. He returned in the same ves- 
sel, carrying with him the contract, now for the first time 
signed, and a freight of clapboard, and heaver and otter 
skins, valued at five hundred pounds. The sermon which he 
preached during his short visit on the sin and danger of self- 
love, from the text, 1 Cor. x. 24, "Let no man seek his own, 
but every man another's wealth," was simply an appeal to the 
settlers to deal liberally with the adventurers, and sign the 
contract. Bradford says, "Mr. Cushman returned backe 
also with this ship, for so Mr. Weston & the rest had 
apoynted him for their better information. And he doubted 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



47 



not, nor themselves neither, but they should have a speedy 
supply ; considering allso how by Mr. Cushman's pcrswation, 
and letters received from Leyden, Avheroin they willed them so 
to doe, they yielded to the aforesaid conditions, and sub- 
scribed them with their hands." There is no reason, how- 
ever, to suspect that Cushman acted as the advocate of the 
adventurers, to the prejudice of the Pilgrims. He had 
changed the conditions of the contract in good faith, and, as 
a man of honor, was only anxious that the settlers should 
carry out the only arrangement which he believed could have 
secured a transfer of the colony to a home in the new world. 
That he brought with him his son, a lad fourteen years of 
age, and left him behind on his return to England, is suffi- 
cient evidence of his intention to continue his connection with 
his Pilgrim brethren, and of his devotion to their interests. 

Another passenger in the Fortune was William Wright, 
who may with some reason be added to the list of those sup- 
posed to have been members of the church at Scrooby. 
Among the baptisms recorded in the church at Austerfield, 
adjoining Scrooby, is that of William, son of William 
"Wright, under date of the 10th of March, 1588, and it is at 
least a fair presumption that he was the Pl} r mouth immigrant 
of 1621, and, with or without his father, was one of the 
worshippers in the old manor house in 1607. 

The Fortune was captured by the French on her return 
voyage, her cargo lost to the adventurers, and Cushman sub- 
jected to vexatious hinderances and delays. In 1625, before 
he could again visit New England he died, and his continued 
friendly relations with the colony is shown by the tribute paid 
by Gov. Bradford to his memory, "That he was as their right 
hand with their freends the adventurers, and for divers years 
had done & agitated all their bussiness with them to their 
great advantage." In 1622 two ships, the Charity and Swan, 
visited Plymouth, sent out by Thomas Weston, with colonists 
for his plantation at Wessagusset, or Weymouth, and bringing 
letters from him to the Pilgrims stating, that, notwithstanding 



48 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



his protestations of everlasting devotion to their interests, he 
had sold out his share in the joint-stock of the adventurers, 
and "that he was quit of them and they of him." In 1623 
the Ann and Little James, the former of one hundred and 
forty tons, and the latter of forty-four tons, arrived with sixty 
persons to be added to the colony, and a number of others 
who had come at their own charge and on their own account. 
Bradford, in speaking of these vessels, says, " That they 
brought about 60 persons for the general, some of them 
being very usefull persons, and became good members to the 
body, and some were the wives and children of shuch as were 
hear allready, and besids these there came a company that did 
not belong to the generall body, but came on their perticuler, 
and were to have lands assigned them, and be for themselves, 
yet to be subjecte to the generall Government." Between 
those who came on their "perticuler" and the colony, it was 
agreed : — 

"1. That the Governor in the name and with the consente of the 
company, doth in all love and friendship receive and embrace them; and 
is to allote them competente places for habitations, within the towne. And 
promiseth to shew them all such other curtesies as shall be reasonable 
for them to desire, or us to performe. 

2. That they, on their parts, be subjecte to all such laws & orders as 
are already made or hear after shal be for the publick good. 

3. That they be freed and exempte from the generall employments of 
the said company (which their presente condition of comunitie requireth) 
excepte commune defence & such other employments as tend to the per- 
petuall good of the collony. 

4. Towards the maintenance of Government & publick officers of the 
said collony, eveiy male above the age of 16 years shall pay a bushell of 
Indean wheat, or the worth of it into the commone store. 

5 That (according to the agreemente the marchants made with them 
before they came) they are wholy debared from all trade with the Indeans 
for all sorts of furrs, and such like commodities till the time of the comu- 
nallitie be ended." 

Some thoughtless writers have described the "comunallitie" 
alluded to in the above agreement as a species of communism 
which reflected no credit on the social views of the Pilgrims. 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 49 

But it must be remembered that they formed, with the 
merchants of London, a joint-stock company, whose lands 
and houses and goods must remain in common until the 
expiration of their contract. The passengers in the Ann and 
Little James completed the list of those who are usually 
called the first-comers. The Ann returned to England in 
September, carrying Mr. Winslow to negotiate with the 
merchants for needful supplies, and the Little James remained 
at Plymouth in the service of the company. Lists of the pas- 
sengers in these vessels have, from time to time, been 
published, but they are so incomplete as to be unworthy of 
record in this narrative. As far, however, as these lists go, 
and that also of the passengers in the Fortune in 1621, their 
names will appear in the statement of the division of lands 
which was made in the spring of 1624. In 1623, at a time 
when the colony was reduced to a short allowance in conse- 
quence of the insufficiency of the crops of the previous years, 
it had been a question for serious consideration as to what 
measures should be adopted to secure better harvests in the 
future. Up to that time the company had worked together 
on the company lands, and each sharing in the fruits of 
another's labors, felt little of that personal responsibility 
which was necessary to secure the largest returns. " So they 
begane to think how they might raise as much corne as they 
could, and obtaine a beter crope then they had done, that 
they might not still thus languish in miserie. At length, 
after much debate of things, the Governor (with the advise 
of the cheefest amongest them) gave way that they should 
set corne every man for his owne perticuler, and in that 
regard trust to themselves ; in all other things to goe on in 
the generall way as before. And so assigned to every 
family a- parcell of land, according to the proportion of their 
number for that end, only for present use (but made no 
devision for inheritance), and ranged all boys & youth under 
some familie. This had very good success ; for it made all 
hands very industrious, so as much more corne was planted 



50 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



then other waise would have bene by any means the Governor 
or any other could use, and saved him a great deall of trouble, 
and gave farr better eontente. The women now wente will- 
ingly into the field, and took their litle-ons with them to set 
corne, which before would aledg weaknes and inabilitie : 
whom to have compelled would have been thought great 
tiranie and oppression." 

Such is the language of Bradford concerning a measure 
which was adopted from motives of necessity, but which was, 
to a certain extent, an infringement of the provisions of the 
contract with the adventurers. Before the planting season 
of the next year a more emphatic violation of the contract 
was committed. " They (the colony) begane now highly to 
prise corne as more pretious then silver, and those that had 
some to spare begane to trade one with another for smale 
things, by the quarte, potle & peck &C : for money they had 
none, and if any had, come w T as prefered before it. That 
they might therfore encrease their tillage to better advan- 
tage, they made suite to the Governor to have some portion 
of land given them for continuance, and not by yearly lotte, 
for by that means, that which the more industrious had 
brought into good culture (by such pains) one year, came to 
leave it the nexte, and after another might injoye it ; so as the 
dressing of their lands, were the more sleighted over & to 
lese profite. Which being well considered, their request 
was granted. And to every person was given only one acre 
of land, to them and theirs, as nere the towne as might be, 
and they had no more till the 7 years were expired." 

This experience gradually led the colony in the right track, 
and the growing necessity for some other circulating medium 
than silver secured abundant harvests. In accordance with 
the plan of division adopted by the Governor, the following 
allotments were made : Sixty-nine acres were granted to 
those who came in the Mayflower. Of these, twenty-nine 
were granted, — to Robert Cushman, 1 ; William Brewster, 6 ; 
William Bradford, 3 ; Richard Gardener, 1 ; Francis Cooke, 2 ; 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 51 

George Soule, 1 ; Isaac Allerton, 7 ; John Billington, 3 ; 
Peter Brown, 1 ; Samuel Fuller, 2 ; Joseph Rogers, 2 ; and 
these twenty-nine were situated on the south side of town 
brook, between Sandwich street and the harbor, and extend- 
ing south nearly, if not quite, as far as Fremont street. 
Sixteen acres were granted, — to John Howland, 4 ; Stephen 
Hopkins, 6 ; Edward Leister, 1 ; Edward Doty, 1 ; Gilbert 
Winslow, 1 ; and Samuel Fuller, Junior, 3 ; and these six- 
teen included what is now Watson's Hill. Five acres were 
granted to William White, between the Burial Hill and Mill- 
dock's Pond. It is not clear why this grant was made to Mr. 
White, as he had been dead three years, and his widow had 
long before become the wife of Edward Winslow, and 
received her acre in the allotment to her second husband. 
It is probable, however, that he had contributed a sufficient 
sum of money to entitle his family, under the provisions of 
the contract, to the acres allotted to them. Nineteen acres 
were granted, — to Edward Winslow, 4 ; Richard Warren, 2 ; 
John Goodman, 1 ; John Crakstone, 1 ; John Alden, 2 ; Mary 
Chilton, 1 ; Miles Standish, 2 ; Francis Eaton, 4 ; Henry 
Samson, 1 ; Humilitie Cooper 1 ; and these nineteen were 
situated between Court street and the harbor, and bounded 
on the north almost precisely by the railroad park. In these 
acres it is worthy of notice that John Goodman had been 
dead three years, and that Standish was granted two acres, 
though his first wife died in 1621, and his second Avife, Bar- 
bara, received her acre separately as a passenger in the Ann. 
In the records, the figures annexed to Goodman, Crakstone, 
Alden, and Chilton are obliterated, but as Alden was. at that 
time married, it is fair to presume that his acres were two. 

Thirty-three acres were granted to those who came in the 
Fortune. Six of these were granted, — to William Hilton, 1 ; 
John Winslow, 1 William Conner, 1 : John Adams, 1 ; 
William Tench, 1 ; and John Cannon, 1 ; and these six were 
situated immediately north of the railroad park, on the east 
side of the street. Eight were granted, — to Hugh Statie, 1 ; 



52 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



William Beale, 1 ; Thomas Cushman, 1 ; Austin Nicolas, 1 ; 
Widow Foord, 4 ; and these eight were situated immediately 
north of the Woolen Mill Brook. Nineteen acres were 
granted, — to William Wright, 1; William Pitt, 1; Robert 
Hickes, 1 ; Thomas Prence, 1 ; Stephen Dean, 1 ; Moses 
Simonson, 1 ; Phillip de la Noye, 1 ; Edward Bompasse, 1 ; 
Clement Briggs, 1 ; James Steward, 1 ; William Palmer, 2 ; 
Jonathan Brewster, 1 ; Bennet Morgan, 1 ; Thomas Flavell 
and his son, 2 ; Thomas Morton, 1 ; William Bassite, 2 ; and 
these nineteen extended from Shaw's Brook to the Woolen 
Mill Brook, on the westerly side of the street. 

Ninety-five acres were granted to those who came in the 
Ann. Of these forty-five were granted, — to James Rande, 
1 ; Francis Sprague, 3 ; Edward Flood, 1 ; Christopher Co- 
nant, 1 ; Francis Cooke, 4 ; Edward Burcher, 2 ; John 
Jenings, 5 ; Goodwife Flavell, 1 ; Manasseh and John 
Faunce, 2 ; George Morton and Experience Mitchell, 8 ; 
Christian Penn, 1 ; Thomas Morton, Junior, 1 ; wife and two 
children of William Hilton, 3 ; Alice Bradford, 1 ; wife and 
three children of Robert Hickes, 4 ; Bridget Fuller, 1 ; Ellen 
Newton, 1 ; Patience and Fear Brewster, 2 ; Robert Long, 1 ; 
William Heard, 1 ; Barbara Standish, 1 ; and these forty-five 
were situated on both sides of Cold Spring Brook, on the 
east side of the road. Fifty acres were granted, — to Marie 
Buckett, 1 ; John Oldham and Company, 10 ; Cuthbert Cuth- 
bertson, 6 ; Anthony Anable, 4 ; Thomas Tilden, 3 ; Richard 
Warren, 5; Edward Bangs, 4; Robert Rattlifte, 2; Nicolas 
Snow, 1 ; Anthony Dix, 1 ; two servants of Mr. Pierce, 2 ; 
Ralph Wallen, 2 ; Stephen Tracey, 3 ; Thomas Clarke, 1 ; 
Robert Bartlett, 1 ; Edward Holman, 1 ; Francis Palmer, 1 ; 
Joshua and Phineas Pratt, 2 ; and these fifty were located 
on both sides of Wellingsly Brook, and so on towards Eel 
River. The precise situation of many of these lots will be 
defined in the chapter tracing the titles of estates. 

But long before the above division of lands, immediately 
after the lauding, a temporary allotment was made of meer- 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



53 



The South Side. 
Peter Brown 
John Goodman 
Mr. Brewster 



HIGHWAY 



steads and garden plots on which houses might be built for 

immediate shelter. Nineteen house lots were laid out on 

both sides of what is now Leyden Street, corresponding to the 

number of families in the colony, and each family was allowed 

half a rod in breadth and three rods in depth for each member. 

Mourt's Relation says, under date of the 19th of January', 

1621, "We went to labor that day in the building of our 

town in two rows of houses for more safety." It has been 

often stated that the plan here copied from the first page of 

the Old Colon}' Records is incomplete, and it may be, so far 

as the omission of the com- 

, . , The meersteads & garden plots of 

pany houses is concerned. ... - . , , ' 

1 _ J which came first layd out 1620. 

It is probable, however, that ^ g v or $ Side 
in the rapidly-reduced con- 
dition of the colony the 
seven houses laid down on 
the plan were all that could 
be built or were needed to 
furnish shelter from the win- 
ter's cold, and that the plan 
is to that extent correct. 
Edward Winslow, in a letter to George Morton, dated 
December 21, 1621, and sent by the Fortune which sailed on 
the 23d of that month says, "We have built seven dwelling 
houses and four for the use of the plantation." All these 
structures were doubtless built on the south side of Leyden 
Street, and extended from near the foot of the street to 
Spring Street, which was laid out at an early date at a right 
angle with Leyden Street, having the Fort or Burial Hill for 
the corner of the angle and a protection for both streets. 
Edward Winslow's lot was at the upper end of Leyden 
Street, with three lots between his and Market Street, and 
the lot of Peter Brown was the lowest on the street, with a 
house for the sick, the common-house and two storehouses 
below it. The exact site of one of the storehouses is defined 
in a deed from William Bradford to John Dyer, in 1698, of 



John Billington 
Mr Isaac Allerton 
Francis Cooke 
Edward Winslow 



54 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



a lot of land on which the house with a brick end stands, now 
occupied by Mr. Frederick L. Holmes, and situated on the 
south side of Ley den Street. The lot is there described as 
running on the street northeasterly " as far as the north- 
easterly corner of the old store house which formerly stood 
on the lot." This lot adjoins that on which tradition states 
that the common-house stood. It is probable that soon after 
the first year the original plan was partially carried out, and 
that houses were built on the other side of the street. 
Records of titles show that John Alden occupied the spot 
where School Street enters Town Square, and that Stephen 
Hopkins, John Howhnd, and Samuel Fuller occupied the 
three lots east of Main Street in the order named. It is 
known also that Governor Bradford's house stood on the upper 
corner of Main Street and Town Square, and, in the absence 
of both record and tradition, it is probable that Standish 
occupied a lot above Alden on what is now Burial Hill, near 
the Fort, of which he doubtless had care and supervision. 
These divisions of land have additional interest as evidence 
of the large amount which had been cleared by the Indians. 
In 1621, according to Winslow, the colonists planted twenty 
acres of Indian corn and six of barley and pease, and in 1(!22 
they planted sixty acres. In 1623 the number of acres was 
increased, and doubtless nearly all of the two hundred acres 
allotted in 1624 were put under cultivation. It is probable 
that a strip of land along the shore, nearly two miles in 
length, had for generations and perhaps centuries been the 
planting-ground of the natives. An Indian burial-ground 
was discovered in 1844 on the line of the Old Colony Rail- 
road near High Cliff, about a mile and a half from the town, 
which may have been the northerly boundary of the native 
settlement. In this ground was exhumed, with bones and 
arrowheads, a curious pipe, now in the possession of the 
author, which must antedate the pestilence of 1616. The 
recent discovery of a similar pipe in the wreck of the Sparrow 
Hawk, lost on Cape Cod in 1628, and until a comparatively 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



55 



recent date buried in the sand, shows it to have had an 
European origin, and perhaps to be a relic of the expedition 
of Champlain or John Smith. 

It is unnecessary to go over the incidents in the life of the 
Pilgrim Colony from this period to the date of the termination 
of their contract with the adventurers. They are twice-told 
tales, and beyond the scope of this narrative. Winslow was 
sent to England, in the Ann, in 1(523, to " informe of all 
things and procure such things as were thought needfull for 
their present condition." In 1624 he returned in the Charity, 
bringing, besides a good supply, "3 heifers & a bull the first 
egining of any catle of that kind in the land." At that 
time there were one hundred and eighty persons in the colony, 
" some cattle and goats, but many swine and poultry and 
thirty-two dwelling houses." In the latter part of the year 
Winslow sailed again for England in the Little James and 
returned in 1625. The news he brought was discouraging to 
the colonists. The debt due to the adventurers was fourteen 
hundred pounds, and the creditors had lost confidence in 
their enterprise. In the year of his return, Standish was 
sent to England in a fishing vessel returning home on business 
with the adventurers and the Council for New England, with 
instructions "to obtain a supply of goods and learn what 
terms could be made for a release." In 1626 he returned, 
having hired one hundred and fifty pounds at fifty per cent., 
which he expended in the most needful commodities. He 
brought news of the death of both Robinson and Cushman, 
the one, though separated from the colonists by the sea, still 
their spiritual as the other was their worldly guide. In the 
same year Mr. Allerton went to England with orders " to 
make a composition with the adventurers, upon as good termes 
as he could (unto which some way had ben made the year 
before by Captaine Standish) ; but yet injoyned him not to 
conclud absolutely till they knew the termes, and had well 
considered of them ; but to drive it to as good an issue as he 
could and refer the conclusion to them." He returned in 1627, 



56 



PLYMOUTH COLOXY. 



having hired two hundred pounds ut thirty per cent., and 
concluded the following agreement with the adventurers, 
subject to the approval of the colony : — 

"To all Christian people, greeting &c. Whereas at a meeting the 
26 of October last past, diverse & sundrie persons, whose names to the 
one part of these presents are subscribed in a schedule hereunto annexed, 
Adventurers to New-Plimouth in New England in America, were con- 
tented and agreed, in consideration of the sume of one thousand and 
eight hundred pounds sterling to be paid (in manner and forme foiling) 
to sell, and make sale of all and every the stocks, shares, lands, mer- 
chandize, and chatles, whatsoever to the said adventurers and others 
their fellow adventurers to New Plimouth aforesaid, any way accruing, 
or belonging to the generalitie of the said adventurers aforesaid; as well 
by reason of any sume or sumes of money or marchandize at any time 
heretofore adventured or disbursed by them, or otherwise howsoever; 
for the better expression and setting forth of which said agreemente, the 
parties to these presents subscribing doe for themselves severally, and 
as much as in them is, grant, bargain, alien, sell, and transfere all & 
every the said shares, goods, lands, marchandice, and chatles to them 
belonging as aforesaid, unto Isaack Allerton, one of the planters resident 
at Plimoth afforesaid, assigned, and sent over as agente for the rest of 
the planters ther, and to such other planters at Plimoth afforesaid, as 
the said Isaack, his heirs or assignes, at his or ther arrivall, shall by 
writing or otherwise thinke fitte to joyne or partake in the premisses, 
their heirs and assignes, in as large, ample and beneficiall maner and 
forme, to all intents and purposes, as the said subscribing adventurers 
here could or may doe or performe. All which stocks, shares, lands, &c 
to the said adventurers in severallitie alloted, apportioned, or any way 
belonging, the said adventurers doe warrant & defend unto the said 
Isaack Allerton, his heirs & assignes, against them, their heirs and 
assignes, by these presents. And therefore the said Isaack Allerton 
doth, for him his heirs & assigns, covenant, promise, and grant too and 
with the adventurers, whose names are hereunto subscribed, ther heirs 
&c well & truly to pay, or cause to be payed unto the said adventurers, or 
5 of them which were at the meeting afforsaid, nominated & deputed 
viz John Pocock, John Beauchamp, Robert Keane, Edward Base and 
James Sherley marchants, their heirs &c too and for the use of the 
generallitie of them, the sume of 1800 pounds of lawfull money of 
England, at the place appoynted for the receipts of money, on the west 
side of the Royall Exchaing in London, by 200 pounds yearly and every 
year on the feast of St Migchell, the first paimenttobe made Anno 1628 &c. 
Allso the said Isaack is to endeavor to procure & obtaine from the 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



57 



planters of N P aforesaid, secnritie, by severall obligations, or writings 
obligatory, to make pairaent of the said sume of 1800 pounds in forme 
aflbrsaid, according to the true meaning of these presents. In testimony 
whereof to this part of these presents remaining with the said Isaack 
Allerton the said subscribing adventurers have sett to their names &c. 
And to the other part remaining with the said adventurers the said 
fsaack Allerton hath subscribed his name the 15 November Anno 1626 
in the 2 year of his Majesties raigne." 

The result of the negotiations was the approval of the 
agreement ; and the debt of eighteen hundred pounds to 
the adventurers and a debt to other parties amounting to six 
hundred more were assumed by William Bradford, Miles 
Standish, Isaac Allerton, Edward Winslow, William Brew- 
ster, John Howland, John Alden, and Thomas Prenee, to 
whom were joined their friends James Shirley, John Beau- 
champ, Richard Andrews, and Timothy Hatherly, of London, 
and payments were to be made by regular annual instalments. 
In consideration of their assumption of the debt the trading 
privileges of the colony were assigned to them as security by 
the following instrument : — 

" Articles of agreemente betweene the collony of New-Plimoth of the one 
partie, and William Bradford, Captain Myles Standish, Isaack Aller- 
ton &c one the other partie; and shuch others as they shall thinke 
good to take as partners and undertakers with them, concerning the 
trade for beaver & other furrs & commodities, &c; made July 1627. 
First it is agreed and covenanted betweexte the said parties, that the 
afforesaid William Bradford, Captain Myles Standish & Isaack Allerton 
&c have undertaken, and doe by these presents, covenant and agree to 
pay, discharge, and acquite the said collony of all the debtes both due 
for the purchass, or any other belonging to them, at the day of the date 
of these presents. 

Secondly, the above said parties are to have and freely injoye the 
pinass latly built, the boat at Manamett, and the shallop, called the 
Bass-boat, with all other implements to them belonging, that is in the 
store of the said company ; with all the whole stock of furrs, fells, beads, 
corne, wampampeak, hatchets, knives &c that is now in the storre, or 
any way due unto the same uppon accounte. 

Thirdly. That the above said parties have the whole trade to them- 
selves, their heires and assignes, with all the privileges thereof, as the 



58 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



said collonie doth now, or may use the same, for 6 full years, to begine 
the last of September next insuing. 

Fourthly. In furder consideration of the discharge of the said debtes, 
every severall purchaser dotli promise and covenante yearly to pay, or 
cause to be payed, to the above said parties, during the full terme of the 
said 6 years, 3 bushells of corne, or 6 pounds of tobacco at the under- 
takers choyse. 

Fifthly. The said undertakers shall dureing the afforesaid terme 
bestow 50 pounds per annum, in hose and shoese, to be brought over 
for the collonies use, to be sould unto them for corne at 6 shillings per 
bushel 1. 

Sixthly. That at the end of the said terme of 6 years, the whole 
trade shall returne to the use and benefite of the said collonie, as 
before. 

Lastly, if the afforesaid undertakers, after they have acquainted their 
freinds in England with the covenants, doe (upon the first returne) 
resolve to performe them, and undertake to discharge the debtes of the said 
collony, according to the true meaning & intente of these presents, then 
they are (upon such notice given) to stand in full force; otherwise all 
things to remaine as formerly they were, and a true accounte to be given 
to the said collonie, of the disposing of all tilings according to the former 
order." 

In accordance with this agreement these gentlemen at once 
entered vigorously into the enterprise, and by the use of 
wampum, as a circulating medium, carried on so extensive a 
trade with the natives in the purchase of furs and other 
articles for export to England as within the prescribed period 
to pay off the entire debt and leave the colony in the undis- 
puted possession of all their lands. No legal-tender scheme, 
in these later days, has been bolder in its conception, or 
more successful in its career than that of the Pilgrim Fathers, 
which, with the shells of the shore, relieved their community 
from debt, and established on a permanent basis the wealth 
and prosperity of New England. Many of the Indian tribes 
not acquainted with the use of wampum, were instructed in 
its use before the enterprise could be successfully carried out, 
and adopted it greedily when it was fully understood. This 
currency of the early days was made from the purple and white 
parts of the quaw-haug shell, round, about a sixteenth of an 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



59 



inch in thickness, and a quarter of an inch in diameter, with 
a hole in the middle for stringing on strings of bark or hemp, 
the purple and white alternating on the string, the purple 
of double the value of the white, and the whole valued at five 
shillings per fathom. Strings of this wampum may be seen 
in Pilgrim Hall in Plymouth, which have been preserved in the 
native families of the old colony, and used as necklaces and 
other ornaments after their use as currency had become obso- 
lete. 

After the contract with the adventurers had expired, in 
1G27, and while the above negotiations were pending, another 
division of land was made, and also a division of the cows and 
goats belonging to the company. " And first accordingly 
the few catle which they had were divided which arose to 
this proportion ; a cowe to 6 persons or shares & 2 goats to 
the same, Avhich were first equalized for age & goodnes, and 
then lotted for ; single persons consorting with others, as 
they thought good, & smaler familys likwise ; and swine 
though more in number yet by the same rule. Then they 
agreed that every person or share should have 20. acres 
of land divided unto them, besids the single acres they had 
allready ; and they appointed were to begin first on the one 
side of the towne & how farr to goe ; and then on the other 
side in like manner ; and so to devid it by lotte ; and ap- 
pointed sundrie by name to do it and tyed them to certain 
ruls to proceed by ; as that they should only lay out settable 
or tillable land, at least & such of it as should butt on the 
water side (as the most they were to lay out did), and pass 
by the rest as refuse and comune ; and what they judged fitte 
should be so taken. . . . Allso every share or 20. acres 
was to be laid out 5. acres in breadth by the water side and 
4. acres in length, excepting nooks & corners which were 
to be measured as they would bear to best advantage. But 
no meadows were to be laid out at all, nor were not of many 
years after, because they were but streight of meadow 
grounds ; and if they had bene now given out it would have 



60 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



hindred all addition to them afterwards ; but every season all 
were appoynted wher they should mowe, according to the 
proportion of catle they had." The division of cattle thus 
described by Bradford was ordered at a General Court held 
May 22, 1627 (old style), and the division of lands at a 
Court held on the 3d of January following. In these 
divisions, those who had come in the Ann in 1623, on their 
own account, were included, and henceforth they were mem- 
bers of the company in full standing. 

After the negotiations with the adventurers had been com- 
pleted, the colonists were anxious to obtain another patent 
from the New England Company conferring larger powers 
and defining their territorial limits. After three visits to 
England, Allerton was sent a fourth time, in 1629, and 
secured a patent dated January 13, 1629 (old style), and 
signed by the Earl of Warwick on behalf of the Council 
of New England, enlarging the original grant, and establishing 
the boundaries of what has been since known as the Old 
Colony. It granted to William Bradford and his associates 
" all that part of New England in America, the tract and 
tracts of land that lie within or between a certain rivolet or 
rundlett, then commonly called Coahasset alias Conahasset, 
towards the north, and the river commonly called Naragan- 
set river towards the south, and the great Western ocean 
towards the east, and between and within a straight line 
directly extending up into the mainland towards the west 
from the mouth of the said river called the Naraganset river, 
to the utmost limits and bounds of a country or place in New 
England called Pokernacutt, alius Puckenakick, alias Sawaam- 
set, westward, and another straight line extending itself 
directly from the mouth of the said river called Coahassett 
towards the west, so far up into the mainland westward 
as the utmost limits of the said place or county called 
Pokernacutt doth extend, together with one half of the said 
river called Narraganset, and the said rivolet called Coahas- 
set." 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



61 



This patent always, remained in the possession of the 
family of Governor Bradford until 1741, when, during the 
controversy concerning the line between Massachusetts and 
Rhode Island, it was, as stated by Josiah Cotton in his diary, 
"after a deal of labor and cost," found at Plympton, and 
used as evidence before the commissioners appointed to settle 
that dispute. In 1820 it was found where it now is, in the 
registry of deeds at Plymouth, by the commissioners ap- 
pointed by the legislature of Massachusetts to superintend 
the work of making a copy of the Old Colony records for 
the State. It was then, as they say in their report, in a 
defaced condition, 'with its seal of the New England Com- 
pany much broken. They further say " that the parts of the 
seal were carefully cemented and secured together by them, 
and enclosed in a case, so that the original impression may be 
seen." The inscription on the seal, which is about four 
inches in diameter, and made of brown wax, it is impossible 
to decipher, but the figures on its face, of wiiich there are 
two, plainly visible except in detail, appear to be those of an 
Indian carrying in one hand a bow and arrow, and in the 
other a club, and of a white man bearing in his left hand an 
olive branch, and in the other some article which cannot be 
distinguished. 

It is unnecessary to trace the grants made at various times 
by the court. It is sufficient on this head to say that grants 
were made from time to time in different parts of the colony, 
and that all remaining land, until finally disposed of, remained 
in common. Finally, towns were incorporated, and ungranted 
lands within the limits of each town became the property of 
the town, to be disposed of as it saw fit. So far as the 
town of Plymouth is concerned, it may be said that in. Feb- 
ruary, 1702, it was voted that a thirty-acre lot should be 
given to each proprietor, and in the following March it was 
voted that the lands remaining ungranted, lying within a 
tract a mile and a half square, and including the central vil- 
lage, should be held by the town in its municipal capacity, 



62 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



and sold from time to time for its- benefit. All common 
lands within the limits of the town outside of this tract were 
granted to the freemen of the town, two hundred and one in 
number, who were called, after the town of Plympton was 
set off and incorporated, " Plymouth and Plympton Proprie- 
tors." This srrant was doubtless made because it was be- 
lieved that, in the hands of individuals, the lands would be 
more productive than in the hands of the town. It was sim- 
ply a dividend of lands to the owners in the common stock. 
The bounds of this mile and a half tract are described in the 
town records, and one or more of its monuments may now be 
seen. After a few years the remaining lots in the mile and 
a half tract had all been sold, with the exception of Burial 
Hill, Court Square, Cole's Hill, Training Green, the Town 
House lot, sundry ministerial lands, and a few strips and 
gores, and thus the home of the Patuxets, the domain of 
Massasoit, the patented grant of the adventurers, and the pos- 
session of the Pilgrims, passed into the hands of individuals, 
under and through whom the present generation holds its 
titles. 

The Plymouth and Plympton proprietors organized by the 
choice of a clerk, whose books, preserved in the office of the 
town clerk of Plymouth, contain their proceedings, and the 
records of their grants and sales. In 1705 the Proprietors 
voted to grant to each of their number a twenty-acre lot, and, 
shortly after, a sixty-acre lot, in addition. In the same 
year all the cedar swamps within the town were divided into 
thirty-nine great lots, which were subdivided into shares, and 
distributed among the proprietors by lot. In 1710 it was 
voted to lay out the remainder of their lands, containing 
thirty thousand acres, in ten great lots, these also to be sub- 
divided into shares, and distributed. It is unnecessary to 
give the bounds of these lots, as they may be easily found on 
the records. The first extends from West Pond and the 
South Meadow road, eight miles, to Wareham ; the seven 
next lie between the first lot and Half-way Pond river ; the 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



63 



ninth is bounded by the Mast road, Half-way Pond, Long 
Pond, the Herring Path, and the Sandwich road; and the 
tenth lies east and west of the Sandwich road, below the 
herring path. Thus the lands of the proprietors, like the 
lands of the town, became the property of individuals, and 
every trace of their former common ownership was lost. An 
attempt has been made to recognize in the common lands of 
the old colony a feature of some social system of which the 
early communisms of the Old "World were types, and of which 
the communism of Russia to-day is a rude illustration. The 
attempt, however, must fail. They were simply the tempo- 
rarily ungranted portion of lands once belonging to a joint 
stock company, which was necessarily obliged to take that 
form of association in order to secure means from their En<r- 
lish partners to carry out their scheme of colonization. At 
the earliest possible date after the termination of their con- 
tract with the adventurers, the Plymouth colonists granted 
and sold and divided their lands, until at last, without oppor- 
tunities for sale, they distributed nearly all that remained, 
and stamped on them the mark of individual ownership. 



64 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



CHAPTER III. 

The Compact. — Governor and Assistants. — The General Court. — 
Freemen. — Judicial Powers. — Laws of the Colony. — Declaration 
of Independence. — Constables. — Organization of Towns. — Pur- 
chases of Indian Lands. — Selectmen. — Tithingmen. — Colony and 
Town Records. 

The first civil act of the Pilgrims, after their arrival in Cape 
Cod Harbor, was to draw up a compact, or "combination," as 
it is called by Bradford, which was signed by the male 
members of the company, and became the foundation on 
which the structure of our government has been built. 
Under date of November 21, Mourt's Relation states that 
"this da} r , before we came to harbour, observing some not 
Avell affected to unity and concord, but gave some appearance 
of faction, it was thought good there should be an association 
and agreement, that we should combine together in one body, 
and to submit to such government and governors as we 
should, by common consent, agree to make and choose, and 
set our hands to this that follows, word for word." 

"In the name of God. Amen. We whose names are undenvriten, 
the loyall subjects of our dread soveraigne Lord, King James, by the 
grace of God, of Great Britaine, Franc and Ireland king, defender of the 
faith &c, haveing undertaken, for the glorie of God, and advancemente 
of the Christian faith, and honor of our king and countrie, a voyage to 
plant the first colonie in the northerne parts of Virginia, doe by these 
presents solemnly and mutualy in the presence of God, and one of an- 
other, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civill body politick, 
for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends 
aforesaid ; and by vertue hearof to enacte, constitute and frame such just 
and equall lawes, ordenances, acts, constitutions and offices, from time to 
time, as shall be thought most meete and convenient for the generall good 



FLYMOUTH COLONY. 



65 



of the colonic unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. 
In witnes whereof wc have hereunder subscribed our names atCap-Codd 
the 11. of November, in the year of the raigne of our soveraigne lord, 
King James of England , France and Ireland the eighteenth and of Scotland 
the fifty fourth. An° Dom 1620." 

And on the same day J ohn Carver was confirmed in the 
office of governor. lie had already been chosen governor on 
board the Mayflower, and his confirmation was doubtless a 
mere form rendered necessary by the adoption of a consti- 
tution of government under which his official duties were to 
be performed. In the cabin of the Mayflower, then, not only 
was the foundation-stone of republican institutions on this 
continent laid, but the first New England town-meeting was 
held and the first elective officer chosen by the will of a 
majority. On the 27th of February the first recorded meeting 
on the land was held in the common house "for appointing 
military orders," and Miles Standish was chosen captain. 
An attempt has been made by a recent writer to attach 
special significance to the fact that " a court of guard " was 
established as early as January 4, and a captain chosen as 
early as February 27. It is claimed that the organization 
of the guard antedated the General Court or town-meeting, 
and that the choice of a " military officer to command in 
affairs " antedated that of civil officers, with the apparent view 
of showing that the Pilgrims were establishing a martial 
colony after some primitive type of which Standish was the 
" Roman praetor, an Earl Marshal, or Lord High Constable." 
The fact is, however, that "the court of sruard " was nothing 
more than a night-watch set to guard the tools and equip- 
ments left on shore after the day's work was done and most 
of the workmen had returned to the Mayflower in the harbor. 
Carver, too, had really been chosen governor three months 
before the appointment of Standish, and this selection of a 
captain was simply due to a fear of the Indians, and to a 
division of labor adopted in establishing a settlement in which 
the part of Standish was plainly indicated by the profession 



66 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



of arms, to ■which he belonged. It is useless to attempt to 
show that the Pilgrims in forming the government of the 
colony or that of the towns into which it was at a later day 
divided, were following any Roman, Teutonic, Saxon, or 
other model. Their government was not like the constitution 
under which our nation now lives, moulded and shaped and 
perfected as a whole. It was evolved from a simple germ, 
demanding and receiving new treatment as it grew, and 
finding in the practical hands of its projectors a ready appli- 
cation of remedies for defects, of measures for the removal of 
obstacles, of new laws for new requirements, and new officers 
for new labors and duties. 

On the 2d of April another meeting was held " on common 
business," at which military orders were concluded, laws 
"convenent for the common state " passed, and Carver was 
again " chosen, or rather confirmed as governor for the fol- 
lowing year." Early in April, however, Carver died, and 
William Bradford was chosen governor in his place, with 
Isaac Allerton as his assistant. If Carver had an assistant it 
was probably Bradford, whose election as governor was 
a promotion from the next highest office. From 1621 to 
1657, the year of his death, Bradford was annually chosen 
governor with the exception of 1633-1636 and 1644, when 
Edward Winslow was chosen, and 1634 and 1638 when 
Thomas Prence was chosen. In 1624, at the annual election, 
he strongly recommended a rotation in office, and it is proba- 
ble that in the excepted years he was dropped at his own 
request. Indeed, it is a matter of record, that in 1633, when 
Edward "Winslow was chosen, Bradford " by importunity got 
off." Until 1624 only one assistant had been chosen, but in 
that year, at the request of the governor, four were added. 
After 1621, in which, and in several succeeding years, Isaac 
Allerton was the assistant, no record shows who, besides 
Mr. Allerton, held that office until 1633, when Winslow was 
chosen governor, with William Bradford, Miles Standish, 
John Howland, John Alden, John Done, Stephen Hopkins, 



PLYMOUTH COL.OXT. 



67 



and William Gilson as assistants. Precisely what the powers 
and duties of the governor and assistants were in the early 
years of the colony is not known. In 1636 they were defined 
by a law, which probably confirmed, with, perhaps, some 
additions, those already exercised. The following was its 
text : — 

" The office of the Governor for the time being consists in the exe- 
cucon of such laws and ordnances, as are or shall be made and established 
fcr the good of this Corporacon according to the severall bounds and 
limits thereof vizt; In calling together or advising with the Assistants or 
Councell of the said Corporacon upon such materiall occasions (or so 
seeming to him) as time shall bring foorth. In which assembly and all 
others the Governor to propound the occasion of the Assembly and have 
a double voice therein. If the Assistants judge the case too great to be 
descided by them and refer it to the Generall Court, then the Governor 
to sunion a Court by warning all the ffreemen aforesaid that are then 
extant, and there also to propound causes, and goe before the Assistants 
in the examinacon of pticulars, and to propound such sentence as shall 
be determined ffurther it shall be lawfull for him to arrest and comit to 
ward any offenders provided that with all convent spede he shall bring 
the cawse to hearing either of the Assistance or General Court according 
to the nature of the offence. Also it shall be lawfull for him to examine 
any suspicious psons for evill against the Colony, as to intercept or 
oppose such as he conceiveth may tend to the overthrow of the same. 
And that this Officer continue one whole yeare and no more without 
renewing by ejecon." 

In the same year it was also enacted " that noe pson or 
psons hereafter shal be admitted to live and inhabite within 
the Government of New Plymouth without the leave and 
liking of the Governor or two of his Assistants at least." 

The Governor was required by a law passed in the same 
year to take the following oath : — 

" You shall sweare to be truly loyall to our Soveraigne Lord King 
Charles the State and Government of England as it now stands his heires 
and successors. Also according to that measure of wisdome understand- 
ing and discerning given unto you faithfully equally and indifferently 
without respect of psons to administer justice in all cases coming before 
you as the Governour of New Plymouth. You shall in like maner faith- 
fully duly and truly execute the lawes and ordnances of the same. And 



68 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



shall labor to advance and further the good of the Colonies and 
Plantacons within the limits thereof to the utmost of your power and 
oppose anything that shall seeme to hinder the same. So helpe you God 
who is the God of truth and punisher of falsehood." 

In the same year it was enacted that on the first Tuesday 
in March, annually, " a Governor and seven Assistants be 
chosen to rule and governe the said plantacons within the 
said limits for one whole yeare and no more. And this 
elecon to be made only by the freemen according to the 
former custome. And that there also constables for each 
part and other inferior officers be also chosen." The earliest 
elections were held on the 23d of March, of the old style, 
and, in later years, in the month of January, until the above 
law was passed in 1636. In the revision of the laws in 1658 
it was further enacted that "by reason of the unseasonable- 
ness of the previous times of election the election Courts bee 
holden the first Tuesday in June annually." The law of 
1636 provided that "the Office of an Assistant for the time 
being consisteth in appearing at the Governor's sumons and 
in giving his best advice both in publick Court and private 
Councell with the Governor for the good of the Colonyes 
within the limits of this Government. Xot to disclose but 
keepe secret such things as concerne the publick good, and 
shall be thought meet to be concealed by the Governor and 
Councell of Assistants ; In haveing a special hand in the 
examination of publick offenders, and in contriving the 
affaires of the Colony. To have a voice in the censuring of 
such offenders as shall not be brought to publick Court. 
That if the Governor have occasion to be absent from the 
Colony for a short time, by the Governor with the consent 
of the rest of the Assistants he may be deputed to governe in 
the absence of the Governor. Also it shall be lawfull for 
him to examine and comit to ward where any occasion ariseth 
when the Governor is absent, provided the pson be brought 
to further hearing with all convenient speede before the 
Governor or the rest of the Assistants. Also it shall be 



PLYMOUTH COLOXY. 69 

lawful! for him in his Majestie's name to direct his warrants 
to any Constable within the Government who ought faithfully 
to execute the same according to the nature and tenure 
thereof. And may binde over psons for matters of crime to 
answer at the next ensuing Court of his Majestie after the 
fact committed or the persons apprehended." The Assistants 
also were required to take an oath as follows : — 

" Yee shall all sweare to be truly loyall to our sovereign Lord King 
Charles his heires and successors. Also ye shall faithfully truly and 
justly according to that measure of discerning and discretion God hath 
given you be assistant to the Governor for this present yeare for the 
execution of justice in all cases and towards all psons coming before you 
without ptiallity according to the nature of the office of an Assistant 
read unto you. Moreover yee shall diligently duly and truly see that 
the Lawes and Ordnances of this Corporacon be faithfully executed ; and 
shall labor to advance the good of the several Plantacons within the 
limits thereof and oppose anything that shall hinder the same to the 
utmost of your power. So help you God who is the God of truth and 
punisher of falsehood." 

In the earliest days of the colony there was no provision for 
a deputy governor. In the law of 1636 the governor was 
authorized, with the consent of the assistants, to appoint one 
of their number to govern during his absence, and in 1651 
absolute authority was given to the governor tf to depute any 
one of the Assistants whom hee shall think meet to bee in his 
rome, when hee is ocasioned to bee absent, as a Deputy Gov- 
ernor." In 1679 it was enacted "that the Deputy Governor 
be under oath as such and therefore annually chosen," and on 
the 1st of June in that year Thomas Hinckly was chosen to 
that office. It does not seem to have been specially provided 
that one of the assistants should be chosen, but the record of 
elections shows that ever after, until the union of the "Ply- 
mouth and Massachusetts colonies, in 1692, the deputy gov- 
ernor was one of the seven assistants required by law. The 
offices both of governor and assistant were obligatory on the 
first election of any person, and by a law passed in 1632 a 
fine of twenty pounds was provided for a refusal of any one 



70 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



"to hold and execute the office of Governor for his 3-ear" 
and one of ten pounds for a refusal to act as assistant. 

Until the year 1640 the governor and assistants were 
chosen at the annual election day by the whole body of 
associates or freemen. In 1636 a law was passed giving 
shape to what had probably been a previous practice, pro- 
viding "that the annuall elecon of officers before expressed 
(Governor, Assistants and Constables be at a Generall Court 
held in his Majestie's name of England. And that the Gov- 
ernors in due season by warrant directed to the several Con- 
stables in his Majestie's name aforesaid give warning to the 
ffreemen to make their apparance ; and for default in case of 
apparance at the Elecon before menconed without due excuse 
each delinquent to be amerced in three shillings sterling." 
By a subsequent law the freemen were permitted to send 
their votes for officers by prox}'. The whole body of free- 
men constituted the General Court, and thus the name came 
into use which has come down to the present day, and is now 
applied to the legislature of Massachusetts. The freemen 
were at first the signers of the compact, and such persons as 
might be added by a majority vote. In 1656 it was ordered 
that "such as are admitted to bee ffreemen of the corpo- 
ration ; the deputies of such Townes where such psons live 
shall propound them to the Court being such as have been 
alsoe approved by the ffreemen in that towne wh^re such 
psons live," and in 1658 these words were added : "and upon 
satisfying Testimony given from the ffreemen of their towne 
by their deputies such to be forthwith received without any 
further delay att the same Court where such Testimony is 
given." In 1658 it was further " enacted by the Court and 
the Authoritie thereof that all such as shal bee admited free- 
men of this Corporation shall stand one whole yeare pro- 
pounded to the Court viz : to bee propounded att one June 
Court and to stand soe propounded untill the June Court fol- 
lowinor and then to bee admited if the Court shall not see 
cause to the contrary." In 1674 it was enacted "by the 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



71 



Court and the authoritie thereof as to the orderly admittance 
of {freemen ; first that the names of the ffreemen in each 
Towne be kept upon Town record ; and that noe mans name 
shal be brought into the Court to be propounded to take up 
his ffreedome unlesse hee have had the approbation of the 
Major part of the ffreemen att home and the same to be sig- 
nify ed to the Court under the Towne Clarkes hand by the 
Deputies." In 1658 it was also enacted by the "Court and 
the authoritie thereof That all such as refuse to take the oath 
of fidelitie as Quakers or such as are manifest encourage rs of 
such shall have noe voyce in choise of publicke officers in 
the place where they dwell or shal bee Imployed in any place 
of trust while they continew such : that noe Quaker Rantor 
or any such corrupt pson shal bee admited to bee a freeman 
of this Corporation ; That all such as are opposers of the 
<Xood and wholesome lawes of this Collonie or manifest 
opposers of the true worship of God or such as refuse to doe 
the Countrey service being called thereunto shall not be ad- 
mitted ffreemen of this Corporation being duly convicted of 
all or any of these ; and that if any pson or psons that are or 
shal bee ffreemen of this Corporation that are quakers or 
such as are manifest encourage rs of them and soe Judged by 
the Court and of the lawes thereof and such as judged by 
the Court grosly Scandalous ; as lyers, drunkards, swearers 
tfce shall lose their freedome of this Corporation." Finally, 
in 1671, it was provided that freemen must be twenty-one 
years of age, of sober and peaceable conversation, orthodox 
in the fundamentals of religion, and possessed of twenty 
pounds of ratable estate in the colony. 

Every freeman was required, by the law of 1636, to take 
the following oath : — 

" You shall be truly loyall to our soverign Lord King Charles his 
heires and successors (the state and government of England as it now 
stands). You shall not speake or doe, devise or advise anything or 
things act or acts directly or indirec by land or water, that doth shall 
or may tend to the destruccon or overthrow of this present plantacons 



PLVMOL'TII COLONY. 



Colonies or Corporacon of New Plymouth. Neither shall you suffer the 
same to be spoken or done but shall hinder oppose and discover the same 
to the Governor and Assistants of the said Colony for the time b>....g or 
some one of them. You shall faithfully submit unto such good and 
wholsome laws and ordnances as either are or shall be made for the 
ordering and government of the same and shall endeavor to advance the 
growth and good of the several plantations within the limits of this 
Corporacon by all due meanes and courses. All which you promise and 
sweare by the name of the great God of heaven and earth simply truly 
and faithfully to pforme as you hope for help from God who is the God 
of truth and punisher of falsehood." 

As the freemen composed the General Court which was the 
original type and model of the Massachusetts Legislature, so 
did the jrovernor and assistants form a body which with some 
change of powers has become the Governor and Council of the 
present Commonwealth. Under the constitution of Massachu- 
setts it was originally provided that the " freeholders and other 
inhabitants of this commonwealth qualified etc shall annually 
elect forty persons to be councillors and senators for the year 
ensuing to be chosen by the inhabitants of the districts into 
which the Commonwealth ma}' from time to time be divided 
by the general court for that purpose " and " nine councillors 
shall be annually chosen from among the persons returned for 
councillors and senators on the last Wednesday in May. by 
the joint ballot of the senators and representatives assembled 
in one room ; and in case there shall not be found, upon the 
first choice, the whole number of nine persons who will 
accept a seat in the council, the deficiency shall be made up 
by the electors aforesaid from among the people at large ; 
and the number of senators left shall constitute the senate for 
the year." Article 13 of the amendments passed in 1840 
provided that nine councillors should be annually chosen 
from the people at large by a joint ballot of the senate and 
house of representatives, and article 16 of the amendments 
now in operation, passed in 1855, provided for the choice of 
eight councillors by the inhabitants of the Commonwealth 
qualified to vote for governor, each councillor to be chosen 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



73 



in one of eight districts into which the legislature is required 
to divide the State at its first session after each decennial 
census. Thus the State has returned to its ancient custom of 
choosing a governor and a board of assistants or council by 
the people, and it is to be earnestly hoped that among the 
innovations which time and new conditions are bringing about 
the extinction of this time-honored body may never be 
numbered. 

On the 27th of December, 1623, it was ordained by the 
court that all criminal facts and also all matters of trespasses 
and debts between man and man shall be tried by twelve 
honest men to be impanelled by authority. Until 1636 all 
trials were had in the General Court, but in that year it was 
enacted that the governor and two assistants might try civil 
cases involving an amount not exceeding forty shillings, and 
criminal cases involving a small fine. In the same year it 
was provided " that a great quest be pannelled by the 
Governor and Assistants or the major part of them and 
warned to serve the king by enquiring into the abuses 
and breaches of such Avholesome lawes and ordnances as tend 
to the preservation of the peace and good of the subject. 
And that they present such to the Court as they either finde 
guilty or probably suspect that so they may be prosecuted 
by the Governor by all due meanes." These provisions of 
law relating to trials of causes continued in force until 16G6, 
when it was enacted that civil cases involving less than forty 
shillings should be tried by the Selectmen, as will be stated 
hereafter in this narrative. In 1685, when the counties of 
Plymouth, Bristol, and Barnstable were established, county 
courts were organized, and, with some exceptions, the 
judicial powers of the General Court, the court of assistants 
and selectmen, ceased, and became vested in the county 
associates or judges. 

Thus far allusion has been made only to the power of the 
General Court to choose the officers of the colony and 
conduct trials for breaches of the law. But it also enacted 



74 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



the laws. Previous to 1636 the number of written and fixed 
laws was small, — chiefly relating to police and military 
regulations, the division of lands, and the settlement of 
estates. In that year, at a General Court held on the 15th 
of October, " the ordnances of the colony and corporacon 
being read, divers were fowned worthy the reforming, others 
the rejecting and others fitt to be instituted and made. It 
was therefore ordered and agreed that foure for the towne 
of Plymouth, two for Scituate and two for Duxburrow should 
as committees for the whole be added to the Governor and 
Assistants to rectitie and prepare such as should be thought 
most convenient, that if approved, they may be put in force 
the next General Court." This was the first revision of the 
laws, and, as printed in the records, contains many bearing 
the date of 1636, which had doubtless been in force for many 
years. In the earliest years of the settlement, the colony 
was little more than a voluntary association controlled by a 
majority, and such laws as Avere enacted related chiefly to 
necessities and conditions in their colonial life not contem- 
plated and met by the English code. Such as they were, 
however, were, until 1639, passed by the whole body of 
freemen constituting the General Court. One of the earliest 
enactments of the court of freemen declared " that now being 
assembled according to order and having read the Com- 
binacon made at Cape Cod the 11th of November 1620 in the 
yeare of the raigne of our late Sovereign Lord King James 

of England, France and Ireland the eighteenth and of Scot- 
ch 7 c 

land the fifty-fourth as also our letters Patents confirmed by 
the honorable Councell his said Majestie established and 
granted the 13th of January 1629 in the fifth yeare of the 
raigne of our Sovereign Lord King Charles. And finding 
that as freeborn subjects of the State of England we hither 
came indewed with all and singular the priviledges belonging 
to such, in the first place we thinke good that it be established 
for an act That according to the due priviledge of the subject 
aforesaid no imposicon law or ordnance be made or imposed 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



75 



upon us by ourselves or others at present or to come but 
such as shall lie made or imposed by consent according to the 
free liberties of the State and Kingdome of England and no 
otherwise." At the same time it was provided " that the 
lawes and ordnances of the Colony and for the Government 
of the same be made onely by the ffreemen of the Corporacon 
and no others." These laws, apparently passed in 1(336, 
were merely recorded revisions of existing laws, and defined 
the practice which had prevailed during the previous years 
of the life of the colony. In these remarkable enactments is 
to be found the first declaration of American Independence. 
The spirit which actuated them once born was destined to be 
immortal, and to become the guiding spirit of our colonial 
life. Like the life-giving stream which, starting from the 
root, flows on through the unseen channels of trunk and 
branch, never betraying its existence unless brought to the 
surface by blow or bruise, until it reaches and perfects the 
flower and fruit of the full-grown tree, it pursued its inevi- 
table course through the mysterious channels of popular 
thought, only revealing its presence under the attacks and 
menaces of despotic hands, until it burst on the gaze of the 
world in the perennial bloom of national independence. It 
came to the surface when the rude hand of Charles demanded 
the surrender of the charter of Massachusetts and appointed 
royal commissioners for the colonies. This act of interference 
with their domestic affairs was looked on by the colonists as 
an invasion of popular rights, and provoked an earnest and 
successful resistance. It again came to the surface under 
the uncertain and hesitating menace of the king when the 
towns and churches of New England were resolved to oppose 
the coming of a royal governor, and Stti3 r vesant sent word to 
the mother country that the "Colony of Boston" remained 
constant to its old maxims of a free state dependent on none 
but God. It again appeared in the revolution of 1689, when the 
declaration read from the balcony of the town-house in Boston 
committed the cause of freedom to God, and called on the 



76 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



neighboring colonies to join the people of Massachusetts in all 
their prayers and acts for the defence of the land. Again it ap- 
peared in 1701, when the lords of trade declared that the inde- 
pendence which the colonies were thirsting for was notorious ; 
and again in 1705, when it was announced in parliament that 
the colonies would surely in the process of time cast off their 
allegiance to England and set up a government of their own. 
It only needed for its final triumph a more determined effort 
for its destruction. The plastic hand of King George com- 
pleted the work. Burdens were to be imposed which could 
not be borne, taxation without corresponding privileges was 
to be levied, the stamp act was to be passed, the port bill 
to be enforced, and, finally, the act of reconstruction to be 
inaugurated before the question was to be settled forever 
whether despotism or freedom was to rule in the land. 

As early as 1633 it was fo id that the office of constable 
was needed. Up to that time many of the duties which 
might properly belong to that office had been performed by 
Miles Standish by virtue of his captaincy. It was now pro- 
vided that constables should be chosen, and Joshua Pratt was 
chosen for Plymouth, Christopher Wadsworth for the ward 
of Duxbury, and Anthony Annable for the ward of Scituate. 
The word "ward" had no other significance than "division," 
or "district," and might have been used synonymously with 
those terms. The constable was required to take the following 
oath : — 

" You shall sweare to be truly loyal to our sovereign Lord King 
Charles his heires and successors (the state and government of England 
as it now stands) which you shall faithfully serve in the office of a con- 
stable in the ward of for this present yeare according to that 

measure of wisdome understanding and discretion God hath given you. 
In which time you shall diligently see that his Majestie's (the) peace 
comanded be not broken but shall carry the pson or psons offending 
before the Governor of this corporacon or some one of his Assistants, 
and there attend the hearing of the case and such order as shall be given 
you. You shall apprehend all suspitious psons and bring them before 
the said Governor or some one of his Assistants as aforesaid. You shall 
duly and truly serve such warrants and give such suruons as shall oe 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 77 
/ 

directed unto you from the Governor or Assistac's before menconed, and 
shall labour to advance the peace and happiness of this corporacon anil 
oppose any thing; that shall seeme to annoy the same by all due meanes 
and courses. So help you God, who is the God of truth and punisher of 
falsehood." 

Nor must we yield to the fanciful claim with regard to 
constable more readily than to that with regard to captain, 
that the office was devised in imitation of any English model. 
It is not the mere name which gives significance to an office. 
It derives its expression and character wholly from its powers 
and functions. If the Pilgrims had borrowed a ceremonial or 
an official method from any English or other foreign custom, 
no matter what might be the name of the officer associated 
with them, they might be said to have followed some pre- 
existing type. But the constable was an officer made neces- 
sary by new conditions growing out of the gradual develop- 
ment of the colony. The number of settlers had increased, 
and a demand arose for increased efforts to preserve the 
peace. The footpaths of the settlement became cart-ways, 
and needed repair. The freemen constituting the General 
Court became scattered, and some one must be delegated to 
warn them of its meetings. New settlements were effected 
in Duxbury and Scituate, and needed peace-officers and 
pound-keepers within their borders. The General Court 
needed a messenger, tates and fines must be collected, and 
executions served. To meet these wants, arising naturally in 
the evolution of government, the office of constable was 
established, bearing little or no resemblance to any office 
ever before bearing the name except in Massachusetts, and 
receiving the best appellation which the vocabulary afforded. 
Until 1638 the constable for Plymouth was the messenger of 
the court, the prototype of the scrgeant-at-arms of the 
Massachusetts Legislature. His duty was to attend the 
General Courts and the Courts of Assistants, to act as keeper 
of the jail, to execute punishment, to give warning of such 
marriages as shall be approved by authority, to seal weights 



78 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



and measures, and measure out such land as shall be ordered 
by the governor or government. In addition to the officers 
already enumerated, the laws provided for the annual choice 
of a treasurer, secretary, coroner, and assessors of rates, and, 
in 1034, persons were chosen to lay out highways. It is 
probable that the colony treasurer included all the towns 
within the sphere of his duties, as no town-treasurer was 
chosen in Plymouth until 1695. Collectors of excise were 
chosen in Plymouth, Duxbury, and Marshfield as early as 
1646, and in some towns collectors of ministers' rates as early 
as 1670, but these offices were short-lived, and were super- 
seded by others. 

In 1639 an important change was effected in the govern- 
ment. At that time Duxbury, Scituate, Sandwich, Yarmouth, 
Taunton, and Barnstable had been incorporated, and it was 
found inconvenient for the whole body of freemen to attend 
the General Court at Plymouth. Since the first settlement 
in 1620, the grand idea of popular government had been ever 
uppermost in the mind of the Pilgrims. In this respect there 
was a wide difference between them and their neighbors of 
the Massachusetts colony. From the first the governor and 
assistants of Plymouth were chosen by the people, and the 
people were the law-making power. In Massachusetts at 
first the people chose the assistants, the assistants the gov- 
ernor, and the governor and assistants enacted the laws. 
Shortly after it was provided that the people should choose 
the governor as well as the assistants, and this was the first 
step in Massachusetts towards a full recognition of popular 
rights. At a subsequent period a General Court was estab- 
lished, and the governments of the two colonies became 
homogeneous. In 1639 the General Court of freemen, having 
become unwieldy in numbers and inconvenient for the at- 
tendance of the entire body, was made a court of delegates, 
chosen by the freemen of the various towns in the colony 
precisely as the representatives of the Legislature were chosen 
at a later day. The recent departure from this system in the 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



79 



establishment of representative districts was an unwarrant- 
able disregard of a principle which secured, what now is lost, 
the right of every town to a voice in the enactment of laws 
affecting its interests and welfare. The text of the law lying 
at the foundation of our representative system is worthy 
of record in this narrative : — 

" Whereas complaint was made that the ffreemen were put to many 
inconveniences and great expenses by their continuall attendance at the 
Courts, It is therefore enacted by the Court for the ease of the severall 
colonies 'and Townes within the Government That every Towne shall 
make choyce of two of their ffreemen and the Towne of Plymouth of 
foure to be Committees or Deputies to joyne with the Bench to enact and 
make all such lawes and ordinances as shal be judged to be good and 
wholesome for the whole Provided that the lawes they doe enact shal be 
ppounded one Court to be considered upon untill the next Court, and 
then to be confirmed if they shal be approoved of (except the case 
require present confirmacon) And if any act shal be confirmed by the 
Bench and Committees which upon further deliberacon shall prove pre- 
judicial to the whole That the ffreemen at the next elecon Court after 
meeting together may repeale the same and enact any other usefull for 
the whole and that every Township shall beare their Committees charges 
and that such as are not ffreemen but have taken the Oath of fidelitio 
and are masters of famylies and Inhabitants of the said Townes as they 
are to beare their part in the charges of their Committees so to have a 
vote in the choyce of them, provided they choose them only of the ffree- 
men of the said Towne whereof they are; but if any such Committees 
shall be insufficient or troublesome that then the Bench and thothcr 
Committees may dismisse them and the Towne to choose other ffreemen 
in their place." 

The General Court thus established had only the power to 
enact laws, and even those the freemen might repeal on the 
next election day. The election of officers still rested with 
the people, and the first Tuesday in June was declared the 
annual election day. The provision in the above law that 
each town should bear the expense of its representatives, and 
that the General Court should have the power to expel such of 
its members as were inefficient or troublesome, must have 
had the wholesome effect of securing for the public service 
the most competent men. The provision that a law should 



80 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



lie over from one court to the next before its consideration 
and enactment, might be adopted to-day as a means of 
securing to the State better and more stable laws. Our 
fathers seem to have foreseen the evils of that fickle legisla- 
tion which now encumbers our statute-book with laws often 
repealed in the year after their passage, and which nothing 
but a two-thirds' vote or the approval of two Legislatures, or 
the provision in the quoted law of the Pilgrims can effectually 
correct. 

After 1633, in which year the office of constable was estab- 
lished for Plymouth, Duxbury, and Scituate, enactments 
relating to town officers applied to all towns which might at 
the time have been incorporated in the colony. Plymouth 
had no formal incorporation, and was at first the colony itself. 
As new towns were created the government of Plymouth, 
including the governor, deputy-governor, assistants, general 
court, coroner, treasurer, secretary or clerk, and assessors of 
rates, became the government of the whole colony, which 
included the various towns within its limits, and Plymouth 
took on the form and character of a town. Its first recogni- 
tion as a town was in 1633, when Joshua Pratt was chosen to 
act as its constable, but at that time its limits were undefined. 
The first entries in the town records bear no legible date, and 
define the private marks on the cattle belonging to the inhab- 
itants. The first dated entry is that of " the last day of 
March 1637," when it was "concluded that Nicholas Snow 
should repair the herring ware and divide the herrings." 
The next entry is as follows : — 

"At a meeting of the townsmen of Xew Plymouth 
held at the governor's house, July 16, 1638, all the 
inhabitants from Jones River to the Eel River being thereto 
(warned) to consider of the disposition of the stock given 
by Mr. James Sherley of London merchant to the people 
of Piymouth, who had plainly declared by several letters 
in his own handwriting that his intent therein was wholly 
to the poor of the town of Plymouth," it was decided that 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



81 



for the purposes under consideration, the town should he 
considered as extending "from the land of Wra Pontus and 
John Dunham on the south to the outside of New Street on 
the north." The lands of Pontus and Dunham were in the 
neighborhood of the present farm of Mr. Thomas O. Jack- 
son, and New Street is what is now North. These limits 
undoubtedly bounded the settlement at the time of the gift 
of Mr. Sherley in 1624, and the vote only intended to con- 
strue strictly the words of the gift, and without establishing 
any boundaries to the town, as it existed at the time of its 
passage, to limit the beneficiaries to those who would have 
been entitled to the gift at the time it was made. 

In 1640 "it was enacted and concluded by the Court 
the bounds of Plymouth towneship shall extend soutl 
to the bounds of Sandwich towneship, and northward to the 
little brook running from Stephen Tracy's to another little 
brook falling into Blackwater from the commons left to Dux- 
borrow and the neighborhood thereabouts, and westward 
eight miles up into the land from any part of the bay or sea ; 
always provided that the bounds shall extend so far up into 
the woodlands as to enclude the South Meddowes towards 
Aggawam, lately discovered and the convenyant uplands 
thereabouts." These limits included the present townships 
of Plymouth, Kingston, Plympton, Carver, and a part of 
Halifax. The foundation of the earliest towns was a church. 
Plymouth itself was settled by a church, and its earliest gov- 
ernment was doubtless chiefly ecclesiastical, having little to 
record on its book of civil law. A new church was formed 
in Duxbury in 1632 ; at a later day another in Marshfield ; 
and in 1634 a third in Scituate. These churches were the 
frames on and around which the towns were built, and the 
incorporation of Duxbury, Marshfield, and Scituate followed 
in 1637-1640, and 1636, respectively. In some respects 
the churches and the towns were identical. The towns 
settled the ministers and paid their salaries, and the treas- 
urers of the towns collected the parish tax. The original 



82 



PLYMOUTH COLOVT. 



church of the town formed the territorial parish, and every 
inhabitant was born into, and was included within its fold. 
Until 1834 every inhabitant was assumed by law to be a 
member of the territorial parish, and paid his parish tax to 
the treasurer of the town until he notified the parish com- 
mittee in writing that he had attached himself to another. 
Subsequent to the settlement of the earlier towns by the 
establishment of a church, companies were formed from time 
to time which received grants of land from the colony court, 
and became the "purchasers," or "proprietors," or founders 
of towns. These grants conveyed, however, nothing more 
than a pre-emption right, and were not to take effect until 
% e Indians had released their rights and titles by a formal 
vue. The "proprietors" organized as an association, sold 
lands to settlers, appointed a clerk, and kept full records of 
their doings, and, next to the patent of the governor and 
council for New England, the Indian deeds, and the colony 
grant, these records lie at the foundation of the land titles of 
many of the towns in the old colony. 

Purchases of land from the Indians required the approval 
of the court. The determination to deal fairly and justly 
with the natural owners of the soil, and the fear that they 
might be defrauded, led the court in 1643 to pass the follow- 
ing act, which is worthy of record in this narrative : — 

" Whereas it is holden very unlawfull and of dangerous consequence 
and it hath beene the constant custome from our first begining That no 
pson or psons have or ever did purchase, rent or hire any lands, herbage, 
wood or tymber of the Natives but by the Majestrates consent. It is 
therefore enacted by the Court that if any pson or psons do hereafter 
purchase rent or hyre any lands, herbage, wood or tymber of any of the 
Natives in any place within this Government without the consent and 
assent of the Court Every such pson or psons shall forfeit five pounds for 
every acre which shall be so purchased hyred rented and taken And 
for wood and tymber to pay five tymes the value thereof to be leyved to 
the Colonies use." 

Lest this law might be misinterpreted and evaded, it was 
enacted in 1660 that " in reference unto the law prohibiting 



PLYMOUTJI COLONY. 



83 



buying or hiering land of the Indians directly or Indirectly 
bearing date 1643 the Court Interpretts those words alsoe to 
comprehend under the same penaltie a prohibition of any 
mans receiveing any lands under pretence of any gift from 
the Indians without the approbation of the Court." And 
indeed it may be stated here that notwithstanding the title 
which the Pilgrims acquired under their various patents there 
is not a foot of territory within the limits of the old colony 
to which they did not secure the right from the Indians by 
purchase or treaty, or by conquest in Phillip's war. 

After the grants of land and the confirmation of title by the 
Indians, an act of incorporation was granted by the'court and 
the towns came into being. Sandwich, Barnstable, Yarmouth, 
and Taunton were incorporated in 1639 ; Rehoboth, 1645 ; 
Eastham, 1646 ; Bridgewater, 1656 ; Dartmouth, 1664 ; 
Swansea, 1667 ; Middleboro', 1669 ; Bristol, 1681 ; Little 
Compton, 1682; Freetown, 1683; Falmouth, 1686; and 
these, with Duxbury, Marshfield, and Scituate, complete the 
list of towns within the limits of the old colony incorporated 
before the union in 1692. 

The circumstances of their incorporation may be learned 
from their respective histories. This narrative is chiefly 
concerned with the development and growth of their govern- 
ment and of the various offices found necessary from time to 
time for the proper administration of their affairs. In 1640 
the duties of constable having multiplied, and the highways 
having largely increased in number and extent, a distinct 
board of road surveyors began to be chosen. Not long after 
the rates were apportioned among the towns, and each town 
had its assessors. In 1641 it was provided by the court that 
each town should make competent provision for the support 
of its poor, and in 1683 it was enacted that the selectmen 
should act as overseers of the poor in their respective towns. 
In 1646 the court passed a law requiring each town to appoint 
a clerk, whose duty it should be to keep a register of the 
day and year of the marriage, birth, and burial of every man, 



84 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



woman, and child within the township. And so the town 
governments grew, but were by no means complete. Their 
functions and powers were exercised by appropriate depart- 
ments, but there still seemed to be a necessity for a super- 
intending head, which should have such a jurisdiction and 
care over the general interests and welfare of the towns as the 
colonial government with its increasing duties could no longer 
exercise. This superintending head was found in the " select- 
men," and with their establishment the town governments in 
the old colony were finally moulded into the form they wear 
to-day, with such changes as have become necessary to 
accommodate them to the progress of society and the chang- 
ing conditions of the people. Precisely in what year it was 
provided by the court that a board of selectmen should be 
chosen it is difficult to determine. The book of colony laws 
bears the dates for the most part of the three revisions of the 
statutes in 1636-1658, and 1671, thus attaching to the laws 
the dates of their revision and not of their passage. The law 
providing for selectmen is found in the revision of 1671, and 
as the first election of those officers in the towns then incor- 
porated took place in 1666, it is probable that the year 1665 
was the date of its passage. In 1649, however, the inhabit- 
ants of the town of Plymouth anticipated the law by the 
choice of " seven discreet men whose duty it was to act in 
behalf of the town in disposing of lands ; to make inquiry 
into the state and condition of the poor, to provide for their 
comfortable support and to find them employment ; to direct 
to the proper means of relief for the aged and deerepid ; and 
to attend to the affairs of the town generally." The law 
which followed in 1665 — 

"Provided that in every Towne of this Jurisdiction there be three or 
five Celectmen chosen by the Townsmen out of the freemen such as shal 
be approved by the Court: for the better managing of the afaires of the 
respective Townships; and that the Celect men in every Towne or the 
major parte of them are heerby Impowered to heare and determine all 
debtes and differences arising between pson and pson within theire 
respective Townshipes not exceeding forty shillings; as also they are 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



85 



heerby Impowered to heare and determine all Differences arising 
betwixt any Indians and the English of their respective Townshipes 
about damage done in corne by the cowes swine or any other beastes 
belonging to the Inhabitants of the said respective Townshipes ; and that 
the determination of the abovesaid Differencies not being satisfied as was 
agreed, the party wronged to repaire to some Magistrate for a warrant 
to recover such award by distraint ; It is further enacted by the Court 
That the said Celect men in every Township approved by the Court or 
any of them shall have power to give forth sumons in his Majesties name 
to require any pson complained of to Attend the hearing of the case and 
to sumon witnesses to give Testimony upon that account and to deter- 
mine of the controversyes according to legall evidence ; and that the 
psons complaining shall serve the sumons themselves upon the psons 
complained against; and in the case of their non appearance to proceed 
on notwithstanding in the hearing and determination of such controver- 
syes as comes before them ; and to have twelve pence apiece for every 
award they agree upon.' 1 

The origin of the title "Selectmen" it is difficult to 
determine. It may possibly be referred to the tun-gerefa of 
the old Anglo-Saxon township, who, with "the four best 
men," was the legal representatives of the community or to 
the M probi homines " of more ancient times. The prefix 
"select " would seem to indicate the best, the most approved, 
but, as in the Massachusetts Colony, they were called, as early 
as 1642, " selected townsmen," it is probable that without 
reference to any historic type they were merely the men 
appointed, chosen, selected from the townsmen, to have charge 
of town affairs. 

At a later period of the colony the office of Tithingman 
seems to have been established, but its precise functions have 
never been satisfactorily defined. It is first mentioned in the 
laws of 1682, "with reference to the Indians for their better 
regulateing and that they may be brought to live orderly, 
soberly and diligetnly." 

" First it is enacted by this Court and the authoritie thereof in each 
Towne of this Jurisdiction where Indians live; some one able discreet 
man be appointed by the Court of assistants from time to time as often 
as need shall require to take the oversight and government of the Indians 



86 



PLYMOUTH COLOXY. 



in the said Towne according to such lawes orders and instructions as are 
or shall be made and given by the General Court. 

It is ordered by the Court that the said overseer with the Tithingmen 
in that Towne shall have power to heare and determine all causes that may 
happen betwixt Indian and Indian Capitalls and titles unto lands onely 
excepted alwaies allowing liberty of appeale to any pty greived atttheire 
Judgment to the Court of Assistants. 

It is enacted by the Court ; that the said overseer shall have power by 
warrant under his hand to command any English Constable in his Town- 
ship and all Indian Constables whatsoever to arrest attach summons and 
serve executions on the body or goods of any of the Indians for any 
matter or cause that may in his Court be hea: - d and detemined ; 

That in each towne where Indians doe reside every tenth Indian shal 
be chosen by the Court of Assistants or said overseer yeerly whoe shall 
take the inspection care and oversight of his nine men and present theire 
faults and misdemenors to the overseer which said overseer shall keep a 
list of the names of the said Tithingmen and those they shall have the 
charge of and the said Tithingmen shall be joyned to the overseers in 
the administration of Justice and in hearing and determining of causes, 
and in case the tythingmen do not agree with the overseer in any case that 
may come before them in judgment then the said overseer shall have 
negative voyce and such case shall be removed to be determined by the 
Court of Assistants. 

That the overseer and tithyng men shall appoint Constables of the 
Indians yeerly who shall attend their Courts and the said Constables shall 
obey all the warrants of the overseer on such penalty as the Court of 
Assistants shall inflict." 

The above is the onl} r reference in the laws of the Plymouth 
Colony to an office which afterwards played an interesting 
part in the provincial history of Massachusetts. Many of the 
present generation have the impression that tithingmen were 
the collectors of tithes or tenths, which in ancient times were 
paid either voluntarily, or under enforcement, for the main- 
tenance of worship, or the support of the poor. The origin 
of the name is to be found, however, in tenths of population, 
and not in tenths of estates, in " tithing" and not in " tithes." 
A Saxon tithing consisted of ten families, and ten tithings 
made up the " hundred." In the old Colony though the 
"hundred" was not revived, it was found desirable in the 
management of the Indians to make their inspection and 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



87 



government as rigid as possible, and consequently the number 
of families under the oversight of one man was placed at the 
convenient number of ten, and the officer in charge was 
naturally called a tithing or tenth man. It was an old name 
applied to a new office, created to meet new conditions and 
exigencies in the life of the colony. So far as the Plymouth 
Colony was concerned it was an office established solely for 
the government of the Indians, and had no connection either 
with the general government of its towns, or, as in later times, 
with their ecclesiastical affairs. They were Indians appointed 
by the Court of Assistants, and not chosen by the people in 
their town meetings ; and in addition to their ordinary 
police duties, they performed the functions of a judiciary, and, 
in connection with the Indian overseer, also appointed by the 
Court of Assistants, constituted a petty court, in which 
Indian cases were tried, subject to an appeal by the overseer 
to a higher court. 

After the union of the colonies a law was passed, in 1692, 
by the General Court of Massachusetts requiring tithingmen 
to be chosen in every town, and their duties were specified as 
follows : — 

" All and every person and persons whatever shall, on the Lord's day, 
carefully apply themselves to duties of religion and piety publicly and 
privately, and no tradesman, artificer, laborer, or other person whatever 
shall upon the land or otherwise do or exercise any labor, business, or 
work of their ordinary callings, nor engage in any game, sport, play, or 
recreation on the Lord's day, or any part thereof (works of necessity and 
charity only excepted) upon penalty that every person so offending shall 
forfeit five shillings. 

No traveller, drover, horse courser, wagoner, butcher, higler, or any 
of their servants shall travel on that day, or any part thereof except by 
some adversity they were belated and forced to lodge in the woods, 
wilderness, or highways the night before, and in such case to travel no 
further than the next inn, or place of shelter, upon the penalty of twenty 
shillings. 

No vintner, innholder, or other person keeping any public house of 
entertainment shall encourage, or suffer any of the inhabitants of the 
respective towns where they dwell, or others not being strangers or 
lodgers in such houses to abide or remain in their houses, yards, orchards, 



88 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



or fields drinking or idly spending their time on Saturday night after the 
sun is set, or on the Lord's day, or the evening following. 

All and every justice of the peace, constable, and tithingman are 
required to take care that this act, in all the particulars thereof, be duly 
observed, as also to restrain all persons from swimming in the water, 
and unnecessary and unseasonable walking in the streets or fields." 

In accordance with this law tithingmen were chosen in 
Plymouth in 1694, and formed for the first time a part of the 
municipal government. In 1698 their powers and duties 
were enlarged by the following law : — 

" They shall have the power, and it shall be their duty to carefully 
inspect all licensed houses, and to inform of all disorders or misdemean- 
ors which they shall discover, or know to be committed in them, or any 
of them, to a justice of the peace, or sessions of the peace within the same 
county, as also of all such as shall sell by retail without license, and 
other disorders or misdemeanors committed in any such house ; and in 
like manner to prevent or inform of all idle or disorderly persons, pro- 
fane swearers, or cursers, Sabbath breakers, and the like offenders, to the 
intent such offences or misdemeanors may be duly punished and dis- 
couraged; every of which tithingman shall be sworn before a justice of 
the peace, or at the sessions of the peace, to the faithful discharge of his 
office, which tithingmen shall have a black staff two feet in length tipped 
at one end with brass, and provided by the Selectmen at the expense of 
the town." 

After a lapse of years, without any apparent change in the 
law, the office gradually lapsed into that of a sort of eccle- 
siastical constable, and its jurisdiction and powers were 
limited to Saturday evening and the Sabbath. They con- 
tinued, however, to be chosen by towns at their annual 
meetings, and a record of their election is to be found on the 
Plymouth books as late as 1835. It is probable that the 
gradually changing sentiment of the people with regard to 
the observance of the Sabbath was aided by the subdivision 
of the old territorial parish in bringing about the abolition 
of the office. Persons still living remember, however, those 
Sunday constables whom they avoided in the illicit Sabbath- 
walks of their youth, and whose rods they felt if asleep, or 
guilt}' of indecorous conduct in church. Professor Adams 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



89 



of Johns Hopkins University, in an intelligent discussion of 
the origin and nature of the office says, that in some towns 
the tithingman's rod had a squirrel's tail at one end for the 
purpose of awaking women sleeping in church, and a deer's 
foot at the other, to be applied to the heads of the sterner 
sex. A lady in Plymouth has heard her father say that 
when ten years of age he was sent by his mother with the 
family foot-stove to the church one Sunday morning, and 
told to go to a friend's house before coming home and borrow 
a book. On his way he met Joshua Thomas, afterwards for 
many years judge of Probate for Plymouth County, then one 
of the tithingmen, who arrested him, with the threat of pun- 
ishing him for being in the streets by compelling him to sit on 
the pulpit stairs during the morning service. In excusing 
himself he said that he was on an errand for his mother to 
borrow a book, but the officer was inexorable until he learned 
that the book was the life of Abel, when he at once relented, 
and sent the boy on his way. The office has, during the last 
forty years, been unknown in New England towns, and with 
the hog constable, or hogreeve, has disappeared. The latter 
office, established 1705, and rendered necessary by the large 
number of swine permitted, by the custom of the times, to 
wander through the streets, was continued up to a very 
recent date, but much longer than the exigency of the case 
required. In its later years it was wholly a sinecure, and 
usually filled in the humors of a town-meeting by the latest 
or most conspicuous bridegroom in the village. Those who 
express surprise that the necessity for such an office should 
have existed in New England towns within the present 
century, will scarcely credit the statement, that within 
twenty-five years it would have been no sinecure in the 
largest city of the Union. 

In closing this chapter of our narrative, it will not be out 
of place to refer to the records of the colony and town from 
which much of its material has been culled. The records of 
the Plymouth Colony consist of eighteen manuscript 



90 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



volumes. Six of these contain all the proceedings of the 
General Court and of the Court of Assistants, and cover a 
period extending from 1633 to 1691, with the exception of the 
time between October, 168G, and June, 1689, covered by the 
administration of Andros. Until January, 1637, they were 
kept by the governors of the colony, and are chiefly in the 
handwriting of William Bradford, Edward Winslow, and 
Thomas Prence. In 1638 Nathaniel Souther was chosen 
secretary or clerk, and from that time to 1645 they were 
kept by him, and are in his handwriting. In 1645 Nathaniel 
Morton Avas chosen secretary, and kept the records until his 
death, in 1685. His successor, Nathaniel Clark, followed in 
the office by Samuel Sprague, completed the six volumes of 
the Court Records of the old colony. Six more of the 
eighteen manuscript volumes contain a record of deeds of 
estates after 1626. The first volume opens with a rough plan 
of " the meersteads and garden plots of those which came 
first layd out 1620 ; the Fades of their grounds which came 
first over in the May-Floure according as their lotes were cast 
1623 ; the tales of their grounds which came in the Fortune 
according as their Lots were cast 1623 ; and the tales of their 
grounds which came over in the shipe called the Anne accord- 
ing as their lots were cast 1623." These opening entries were 
made by Governor Bradford in 1627 when the record of deeds 
was begun, and having been probably made from memory may 
contain some errors. The deeds as well as the court pro- 
ceedings were recorded for the most part by the governors 
and secretaries of the colony. Four more of tha eighteen 
contain a record of wills and inventories, and were written by 
the same hands. One more contains the judicial acts of the 
General Court and Court of Assistants, from 1636 to 1692, 
in the handwriting of the different secretaries ; the treasurer's 
accounts from 1658 to 1686 by various hands, and a record 
of births, deaths, and marriages, in the several towns of the 
colony as they were returned by the town clerks, subsequent 
to 1647. The pages containing the records before that date 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



91 



have been destroyed. The last volume is the book of colony 
laws, from 1623 to 1682, and is chiefly in the handwriting of 
Winslow, Souther, and Morton. Of these volumes, nine, 
including the six of the Court Records, the first volume of 
deeds, the volume of judicial acts, births, deaths, and 
marriages, and the volume of laws have been copied and 
published by order of the General Court, together with the 
" acts of the commissioners of the united colonies of New 
England," in two volumes, which, though not strictly records 
of the old colony, relate to proceedings in which that colony 
had an interest and performed its part. It is very desirable 
that the remaining five volumes of deeds, and the four volumes 
of wills and inventories, written in a hand difficult for an 
untrained eye to decipher, should be added to the published 
list. The former contain the records of purchases of land 
from the Indians, which really lie at the foundation of nearly 
all our titles, and the latter open a field for research into the 
customs and ways of living, in the early days of the colony, 
which has never been satisfactorily explored. The original 
records are kept in the Plymouth Registry of Deeds. At 
the time of the union of the colonies, in 1692, they were left 
in the hands of Samuel Sprague, the last secretary, who 
retained them until his death, in September, 1710. Immedi- 
ately after his death, in the same month, the general quarter 
sessions of the peace, within the county of Plymouth, 
ordered Nathaniel Thomas to take them into his care and 
custody, until further orders should be given concerning them. 
In November following, the Justices of the Peace for the 
counties of Plymouth, Barnstable, and Bristol, petitioned the 
General Court to have them " kept and lodged in the town of 
Plymouth, which was the head town of the said Colony of 
Plymouth and where the said Records were wont to be kept." 
On this petition it was ordered, "that the Bookes, Records 
and files of the General Court of the late Colony of New 
Plymouth be committed to the custody of the Clerk of the 
Inferiour Court of the County of Plymouth for the time 



92 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



being he dwelling in Plymouth, a perfect schedule thereof 
being made, with an Indent to be passed for the same to the 
Justices of the said Coui't. And that the clerk be Impowred 
to Transcribe and Attest Copys of the said Records for any 
that shall desire the same upon paying the Established Fees." 

The records of the town of Plymouth up to the present 
generation consist of ten volumes, six containing the pro- 
ceedings of the town at its various meetings, and four devoted 
to a record of the births, deaths, and marriages. During the 
present generation, in accordance with provisions of law, the 
entries of births and deaths and marriages are made in sep- 
arate books. The record of the proceedings of town meet- 
ings began in 1638, and was kept until 1645, by Nathaniel 
Souther, who, as secretary of the colony, acted also as clerk 
of the town. From 1645 to 1679 they were kept by Na- 
thaniel Morton, the successor of Nathaniel Souther in the 
office of secretary. In 1679 Mr. Morton was formal ly 
chosen town clerk, in accordance with the law of 1646, 
which had apparently never been complied with, and from 
that time to 1685, the year of his death, he continued to 
keep the records. At the time of his election it was voted 
"that all acts, orders, grants of land, and all other particu- 
lars entered in our town book heretofore, shall be authentic 
and good in law as if they had been entered by a clerk under 
oath." This vote illustrates the crude methods of the early 
colonial times, when a town by its vote declared its own acts, 
done in violation of law, legal and valid. From 1685 to 
1723 Thomas Faunce, the worthy elder of the church, held 
the office of town clerk, and kept the records. The volumes 
containing the births, deaths, and marriages, though opened 
by Mr. Faunce in 1685, contain entries as early as 1662. 
Mr. Souther and Mr. Morton, his predecessors, were con- 
tent, as secretaries of the colony, with the records made by 
them in the colonial books, and doubtless saw no necessity 
for duplicating them in the books of the town. Mr. Faunce, 
acting only as town clerk, opened a distinct book of records, 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



93 



and added such entries as fur back as 1G62 as he might have 
found on memoranda kept by Mr. Morton. Thus the rec- 
ords of the town, supplemented by the records of the colony, 
make up a substantially correct, though somewhat incomplete 
list of the births, deaths, and marriages during the colonial 
period. These are still further supplemented by the records 
of the first church, which cannot with safety be overlooked 
by either the genealogist or historian. 



94 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Church History. — History of Schools. — Fire Department. 

In such a history of the churches of Plymouth as it is 
possible to include in our narrative, nothing more than a 
passing allusion can be made to the English root from which 
they sprang. The story of the little band of non-conformists, 
meeting Sabbath after Sabbath in the Manor House at 
Scrooby, is a familiar one. Side by side with that simple 
faith, enduring courage and fidelity to conscience, which its 
narration depicts, as the prominent features of the Pilgrim 
character, there is also disclosed a vein of charity and love, 
illuminating the whole like the rays of light in a picture, 
which charm the eye and touch the heart with their warmth 
and feeling. A community of men and women permeated by 
the spirit of Christian liberality displayed by their pastor, 
Robinson, in his farewell sermon, had no room in their hearts 
for that bigotry, the father of persecution, with which they 
have been freely charged. "Brethren," said he, "we are now 
quickly to part from one another, and whether I may ever 
live to see your faces on earth any more, the God of heaven 
only knows ; but whether the Lord hath appointed that or 
not, I charge you before God and His blessed angels that you 
follow me no farther than you have seen me follow the Lord 
Jesus Christ. If God reveal anything to you by any other 
instrument of His be as ready to receive it as ever you were 
to receive any truth by my ministry ; for I am fully per- 
suaded, I am very confident, that the Lord has more truth 
yet to break forth out of His holy word. For my part I 



CHURCH HISTORY. 



95 



cannot sufficiently bewail the condition of the Reformed 
Churches, who are come to a period in religion, and will go 
no farther than the instruments of their reformation. The 
Lutheran cannot be drawn to go beyond what Luther saw ; 
whatever part of His will was good, God has revealed to 
Calvin, they will rather die than embrace it ; and the Cal- 
vinists, you see, stick fast where they were left by that great 
man of God, who yet saw not all things." This was the 
spirit which characterized the Plymouth Colonists, chastened 
and purified as they had been by the fires of persecution and 
the hardships of exile, until overrun by the narrower Puritan 
spirit of Massachusetts Bay, the harshness and severity of 
which, however, it served to mitigate and soften. 

Before leaving Holland William Brewster was appointed 
ruling Elder of the church, and during the earlier years of 
the Plymouth settlement public worship was conducted under 
his ministrations. Robinson was not permitted to join his 
people, the hope being entertained by those in authority in 
England that without their pastor they might fall back into 
the forms and faith of the Established Church. It is possible, 
too, that Brewster, to whom the publication of interdicted 
books had been traced, was not allowed to bring his printing- 
press with him, lest New England might become the fountain 
and source of streams of dangerous doctrine. Robinson, 
being still considered the pastor of the Plymouth Church, 
was represented until his death, in 1625, by Brewster, who 
acted afterwards in his capacity as Elder until 1629, when 
Ralph Smith, who had come over with Higginson in the 
Talbot in that year, became the first settled minister. In 
1624 the adventurers in London, however, had sent over in 
the Ann with Edward "Winslow, on his return from a -short 
visit to England, a Mr. John Lyford, to serve as the minister 
of the colony. He was soon found to be an unfit man for the 
position, and was summarily dismissed. In 1628 a Mr. 
Rogers was sent from England, but as stated by Bradford, it 
was found " on trial that he was craved in his braine, so they 



96 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



were forced to be at further charge to send him back again 
the next year." Mr. Smith was a graduate of the University 
of Cambridge in 1613, and a man of learning. He was by no 
means, however, as far advanced as the Pilgrims in the 
movement of separation from the English Church, and after 
a ministry of seven years, left their Church in 1636, though 
he remained in Plymouth several years afterwards, engaged 
in a controversy with Samuel Gorton, an active religious dis- 
turber, who, after a short residence in Plymouth, removed to 
Rhode Island. 

Up to the time of the close of the ministry of Mr. Smith 
it is probable that the meeting-house erected, in 1622, on 
Burial (then Fort Hill), and which, with guns mounted on 
its top, served the purpose of a fortress as well as church, 
continued to be used as a place of public worship. It is 
probable that occasionally the Common-house, at the foot of 
Leyden Street, was used for worship, and tradition states 
that in this house Robert Cushman preached the sermon 
during his short visit in the autumn of 1621, published in 
London in 1622, which enjoys the distinction of having been 
the first sermon preached in New England, and being the corner- 
stone of American literature. In 1637 the first church was 
erected, which stood on the spot of ground now covered by 
the tower of Odd Fellows' Hall, and the store of Hatch & 
Shaw. Mr. Smith, while living in Plymouth, occupied a 
house standing on a lot south of the present Unitarian 
Meeting-house, nearly on the site noAv occupied by Charles 
P. Harlow. He had lands also granted to him by the court 
near New Fields, which were appurtenant to his homestead, 
and intended with that to be occupied by him during his 
ministry. During the three years of the service of Mr. 
Smith, from 1631 to 1634, Roger Williams officiated as his 
assistant, but finding the atmosphere of Plymouth too liberal 
for the display of his rigid policy, asked and received in the 
latter year his dismission, and went to Salem. Mr. Williams 
was born in Wales between 1599 and 1603, and, under the 



CHURCH HISTORY. 



97 



patronage of Sir Edward Coke, was elected a scholar in 
Sutton's Hospital (now the Charter House), in 1621, and 
was matriculated in Pembroke College, Cambridge, in 
1625, where he took the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1627. 
He came from Bristol to Boston in the ship Lyon in 1631, 
and his arrival is noted by Winthrop as that of a "godly 
minister." The fiction of his persecution by the Pilgrims has 
been so often repeated that it is difficult now to substitute 
the true story that the Christian charity, which tolerated in 
the Plymouth Colony even open adherents to the English 
Church, offended his bigoted spirit, and drove him to more 
congenial climes. 

In 1635, about the time of the close of the ministry of 
Mr. Smith, John Norton, an eminent divine, landed at 
Plymouth from the ship Hopewell, and was earnestly solicited 
to settle as its minister. After preaching a few months he 
removed to Ipswich and was there ordained. Mr. Norton 
was born in Starford and bred at Peter House in the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge, where he received his degree in 1624. 
After the death of John Cotton he was called to Boston as 
his successor in the First Church, and died in 1663. After 
the departure of Mr. Norton, John Rayner, a graduate of 
Magdalen College, Cambridge, was settled and continued his 
ministry until 1654. He occupied the house previously 
occupied by Mr. Smith, deeds of which are to be found in 
the old colony records, under date of 1641, from Mr. Smith 
•to John Doane, the agent of the church, and from Mr. Doane 
to Mr. Rayner. The record of title of this estate up to the 
present time is unbroken. John Rayner, son of the minister, 
a graduate of Harvard in 1663, conveyed it in 1667 to George 
Bonum, whose succeeding grantees will be found in the 
chapter containing titles of estates. From 1638 to 1641 
Charles Chauncy was associated with Mr. Rayner in the 
ministry, having arrived at Plymouth from England in 
December, 1637. Mr. Chauncy was born at Yardly, about 
thirty miles from London, and baptized in 1592. He was 



98 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



bred at Westminster School, and took his degree at Cam- 
bridge in 1613. He began a clerical life at Marston St. 
Lawrence, and held the vicarage of Ware from 1627 to 1634. 
For non-conformity in non-essentials he was driven from this 
valuable living by Archbishop Laud, and came to New 
England. He married Catherine, daughter of Robert Evre, 
who, accompanied by her daughter Sarah, and three sons, 
Isaac, Ichabod, and Barnabas, came to America with her 
husband. Two sons, Elnathan and Nathaniel, twins, were 
born in Plymouth. After three years' service Mr. Chauncy 
removed to Scituate, where he closed his ministry in 1654 to 
take the position of President of Harvard College. In this 
post he died in 1672, at the age of seventy-nine. In Scituate a 
son, Israel, and a daughter, Hannah, were born, and in various 
years, from 1651 to 1661, his six sons were graduated at 
Harvard. 

Up to this time three churches had been formed out of the 
parent church, those in Duxbury and Marshfield in 1632, and 
that of Eastham in 1644. After the departure of Mr. 
Reyner there was no settled minister in Plymouth until the 
arrival of John Cotton, in 1667. During the interval the 
pulpit was supplied by James Williams and William Brims- 
mead, the latter a native of Dorchester and a graduate of 
Harvard, in the class of 1654. Mr. Brimsmead preached 
five years in Plymouth, from 1660 to 1665, and removed to 
Marlboro, where he was ordained in 1666 and died in 1701. 
In 1667 John Cotton, a former pastor at Weathersfield, a 
graduate of Harvard in the class of 1657, and son of John 
Cotton, of Boston, was settled, and continued his ministry 
until 1697. During his term of service the old church was 
taken down, in 1683, and a new one built on substantially the 
site of the present Unitarian Church. No drawing of this 
church has been preserved, but it is described as 
having been forty-five feet by forty on the floor, sixteen feet 
in the walls, unceiled, with a Gothic roof, diamond glass 
windows, and a small cupola and bell. Mr. Cotton lived, 



CHURCH HISTORY. 



9b 



while in Plymouth, in the parsonage house, which stood on the 
spot of ground on the north side of Leyden Street, now- 
occupied by LeBarou's alley and the easterly part of the 
house of Isaac Brewster. This estate was granted condition- 
ally to Mr. Cotton by the town in 1673, and afterwards in 
16S0, without conditions or restrictions, and was finally sold 
by his heirs after his death. Mr. Cotton left Plymouth in 
1697, and died in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1699. In 
1696 the church in Plympton was formed under the pastorate 
of Isaac Cushman, and this was the fourth offshoot from the 
old church. 

In 1699 Ephraim Little, of Marshfield, a graduate of the 
Harvard class of 1695, was settled, and continued his ministry 
till his death, on the 23d of November, 1723. Mr. Little 
engaged largely in the purchase and sale of real estate, and 
occupied several houses during his residence in Plymouth. 
Amon? them was a house standing on the site of the Burgess 

o o o 

house, at the corner of Training Green, and one which stood 
on what is now the garden of Albert C. Chandler, on Court 
Street. He was the first minister who died in Plymouth, 
and his gravestone may be found on Burial Hill by the side 
of that of Rev. James H. Bugbee. In 1717, during the 
pastorate of Mr. Little, the Jones River parish was set off, 
and was the fifth church springing from the Pilgrim Church. 
The first minister of this new society was Joseph Stacy, a 
graduate of Harvard in 1719, who was ordained November 
3, 1720. On the 29th of July, 1724, Nathaniel Leonard 
of Norton, a graduate of Harvard in the class of 1719, was 
ordained as the successor of Mr. Little, and continued his 
pastorate till 1755, when on account of failing health he asked 
his dismission, and returned to Norton. In 1731 a church 
was formed at Manomet Ponds, which, in 1747, settled Jona- 
than Ellis as its pastor, a graduate of Harvard in 1737. 
This was the sixth scion of the parent stock, but, in conse- 
quence of the incorporation of new towns where others were 
located, became the Second Church of Plymouth. Following 



100 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



the career of this church, before proceeding with" the history 
of the parent church, Mr. Ellis was succeeded by Elijah 
Packard, of Bridgewater, a graduate of Harvard in the class 
of 1750. Mr. Packard continued his ministry till 1750, and 
after an interval of thirteen years, was succeeded, in 1770, 
by Rev. Ivory Hovey, a graduate of Harvard in the class of 
1735, who had been previously settled in Rochester, from 
1740 to 17G9. The successor of Mr. Hovey was Seth Stet- 
son, who was ordained July 18, 1804. At that time the 
church stood at the fork of the roads opposite the present 
church, on the westerly side of the main road. The original 
church, built in 1737, stood on an old road leading from what 
is now the Taylor estate to the Brook neighborhood, and the 
ancient burying ground may be found near the estate of Israel 
Clark. The present church was built in 1826. Mr. Stetson 
was succeeded by Harvey Bushnell, in 1821, who again was 
succeeded by Moses Partridge, in 1824. Mr. Partridge died 
in the same year, 'and was succeeded by Joshua Barret, 
in 1826, who was followed by Gaius Conant. Mr. Conant 
was succeeded by John Dwight, and Mr. Dwight by J. L. 
Arms. Charles Greenwood, Daniel H. Babcock, John M. 
Lord, Sylvester Holmes, S. W. Cozzens, S. W. Powell, 
Asa Mann, and T. S. Robie, the last of whom is the present 
incumbent, complete the list of those who have been engaged 
in the ministry of this church. 

Mr. Leonard, during his residence in Plymouth, occupied 
for a time a house standing on the corner of Coin-t Square, 
on the site of the Russell House, and afterwards the house on 
Leyden Street, now owned by Louisa S. Jackson, which he 
built. In 1744, during his pastorate, a portion of his society, 
dissatisfied with the peculiar revival practices encouraged by 
him, drew off and formed a new society. A church was 
built on the north side of Middle Street, precisely on the site 
of Spooner's Alley, and Thomas Frink, of Rutland, Vermont, 
was installed its pastor. Mr. Frink was a Harvard graduate 
in the class of 1722, and remained in his pastorate four years. 



CHURCH HISTORY. 



101 



In 1749, he was succeeded by Jacob Bacon, of Keene, Xew 
Hampshire, of the Harvard class of 1731. Mr. Bacon con- 
tinued his services till 1776, when after preaching in what is 
now Carver eighteen months, he went to Rowley, where he 
died, in 1787, at the age of eighty-one. In a few years after 
the departure of Mr. Bacon, the church was abandoned and 
the society returned to thg organization from which it sprang. 
In* the same year in which the church in Middle Street was 
built, the old society took down the church in Town Square 
and erected a new one on the same site. 

The successor of Mr. Leonard in the First Church was 
Chandler Robbins of Branford, Connecticut, a graduate at 
Yale, who was ordained on the 30th of January, 1760. The 
parsonage house, now owned and occupied by H. W. Weston, 
was built by the church in anticipation of the advent of Mr. 
Robbins, and was occupied by him until 1788, when he built 
the house on the opposite side of the street, now owned and 
occupied by James M. Atwood, and occupied it until his death, 
in 1799. In 1794, during his pastorate, a movement was 
made to form a new society which, frustrated for a time, was 
renewed in 1801, the year of the settlement of James Kendall 
of Sterling, as the successor of Mr. Robbins, and resulted in 
the formation on the 30th of March, 1802, of the Third Con- 
gregational Society of Plymouth, under an act of incorpora- 
tion of that date. Before erecting a church this society 
petitioned the town for permission to build on Training Green, 
and the report of the committee, to" whom the petition was 
referred illustrates the toleration in earlier times of different 
shades of belief within the limits of the same church organi- 
zation. The committee say " that part of the commission, 
which relates to the sale of Training Green and purchasing a 
new training field, your committee, after having fully discussed 
the subject, consider as inexpedient at this time. To comply 
with the request of the applicants by granting a lot on Train- 
ing Green, for the purpose mentioned, would, in the opinion 
of your committee, not only preclude the town under what- 



102 



PLYMOUTH COLON V. 



ever circumstances it may he from opposing the prosecution 
of that ohject, hut would sanction the separation of a small 
number of persons on principles that do not appear to he sub- 
stantial and well founded. If religious societies are to be 
split up into divisions, merely for a variance of sentiment in 
certain polemic speculations, about which the greatest and 
best men in all ages of the Christian church have differed, each 
Christian must consecrate his own dwelling as his sanctuary, 
for scarcely two of the best-informed Christians can be found 
precisely to agree on every controverted point." 

In 1802 the Third Society built their church on the westerly 
side of the Green, and on the 12th of May, in that year, 
settled Adoniram Judson as their pastor. Mr. Judson was 
succeeded in 1818 by William T. Torrey, whose pastorate 
continued four years. Mr. Torrey was succeeded in 1824 by 
Frederick Freeman, whose pastorate closed in 1833. Mr. 
Freeman was followed by Thomas Boutelle, who was again 
followed, in 1837, by Robert B. Hall. During the term of 
Mr. Hall, in 1840, the present church was built and dedicated 
under the name of " The Church of the Pilgrimage," and a 
new society formed, called the Society of the Pilgrimage, 
which name the Third Congregational Church now bears. 
In 1844 Mr. Hall was succeeded by Charles S. Porter, who 
continued his pastorate till 1855, when he was followed by 
Joseph B. Johnson. The pastorate of Mr. Johnson termi- 
nated in two years, and he was succeeded by Nathaniel B. 
Blanchard, who remained until 1860. In 1861 P. C. Head- 
ley assumed the supply of the pulpit for a few months, and 
was followed by W. W. Woodworth, whose services extended 
to March, 1864. In the autumn of that year, David Bremner 
was installed and remained four years. In 1870 George A. 
Tewsbury was installed and still remains the faithful and 
beloved pastor of the church. 

The Third Congregational Church may be said to have been 
the parent of three children, the Eel River Church, organized 
in 1814, of which Benjamin Whitmore was the first minister; 



CHURCH HISTORY. 



103 



the Robinson Church organized in 1830, and the Episcopal 
Church established in 1844. Perhaps, however, the latter is 
an offshoot from the Third Church in no other sense than that 
Robert B. Hall, the former minister of that church, and a few 
of its members, made up the principal part of the new organ- 
ization. The first introduction of the Episcopal service into 
Plymouth was in 1755, when, on the 6th of January, the feast 
of the Epiphany, E. Thompson, under the auspices of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, held a service in 
what is now the Town House, and the High Sheriff, the Chief 
Magistrates, and about three hundred citizens attended. The 
next occasion of a service was about 1832, when George W. 
Freeman, brother of Frederick Freeman then the minister of 
the Third Church, afterwards missionary bishop of Arkansas 
and Texas, preached. On the 18th of August, 1844, Theo- 
dore W. Snow held a service in Leyden Hall, and on the 
15th of November, in that year, a society was formed at the 
house of Robert B. Hall, and on the 13th of April, 1846, 
Mr. Snow was chosen the Rector. On the 3d of October, 
1846, the church in Russell Street was consecrated, and since 
that time Mr. Snow, Samuel Clark, Thomas L. Franklin, 
Benjamin F. Cooley, G. W\ E. Fisse, Benjamin B. Babbit, 
Robert B. Hall, William H. Brooks, John Downey, James 
A. Sanderson, and J. E. Wilkinson have been its ministers. 
The church at Eel River, which during the ministry of Mr. 
Whitmore was divided, is now reunited and enjoying a season 
of prosperity under the care of Rev. H. B. Jones. The Rob- 
inson church organized, as above stated, in 1830, survived the 
pastorate of Charles I. "Warren, Lucius Clark, John Avery, 
and Cyrus Mann, and after its final dissolution its church, built 
in 1830, was sold in 1852 to the Methodist Episcopal Society, 
which now occupies it. 

Returning now to the First Church, from whose history the 
\\ riter has digressed in the above sketches of its offshoots, 
James Kendall, of Sterling, was ordained as the successor of 
Mr. Robbins on the 1st of January, IcOO, and continued in 



104 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



the pastorate until his death, in 1859. Mr. Kendall was a 
graduate of Harvard in 1796, and a tutor in the college at the 
time of his invitation to settle in Plymouth. He occupied the 
parsonage house on Leyden Street during his entire term of 
service, and was its last occupant under the ownership of the 
church. In 1838 George W. Briggs, a graduate at Brown 
University, became colleague pastor with Dr. Kendall, and 
remained in Plymouth until 1852. Mr. Briggs was succeeded 
by William H. Myrick in 1853, and Mr. Myrtck in turn by 
George S. Ball of Upton. Mr. Ball was followed by Edward 
H. Hall of Providence, a graduate of Harvard in the class of 
1851, and Mr. Hall by Frederick X. Knapp of the Harvard 
class of 1843. In 1878 Edmund Q. S. Osgood of Cohasset, of 
the Harvard class of 1875, was ordained, and is still the pastor 
of the church. In 1831 the church of this society built in 1744 
was taken down and the present one built on the old site. 

The Baptist Society of Plymouth was organized at the 
house of Heman Churchill, on the 9th of June, 1809. Until 
its church in Spring Street was built, in 1822, its meetings 
were held chietly at Old Colony Hall, in Market Street. Its 
first minister, Lewis Leonard, of Middleboro', was suc- 
ceeded, in 1818, by Adoniram Judson, who had then left the 
pulpit of the Third Church, and Mr. Judson, in turn, by 
Stephen S. Nelson, in 1820. Benjamin C. Grafton followed 
in 1823, and was succeeded, in 1829, by Thomas Conant. 
In 1835 Elisha Cushman was settled, and was succeeded, in 
1838, by Horatio N. Loring, who left in 1839. Joseph M. 
Driver came next in order, and was followed, in 1842, by Ira 
Person. Adiel Harvey followed Mr. Person in 1845, whose 
pastorate continued till 1855. In 1856 B. A. Edwards, in 
1861 C. C. Williams, in 1862 R. A. Patterson, in 1863 E. 
Humphrey, in 1868 R. B. Moody, in 1875 B. P. Byram, and 
in 1880 H. W. Cofiin, the present incumbent, complete the 
list of ministers of this society. In 1861 the church on 
Spring Street, built in 1822, was burned, and in 1865 the 
present commodious church was built. 



CHURCH HISTORY. 



105 



The Plymouth branch of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
was organized December 4, 1842, by Frederick Upharu, pre- 
siding elder, who appointed E. B. Bradford, of Duxbury, 
preacher in charge, until a preacher could be appointed by 
the Conference. For some years the meetings of the church 
were held in Old Colony Hall, the rooms over Bramhall's 
shoe-store, and in the building now occupied by the high 
school. In 1843 Plymouth was made a mission station, and 
Nelson Goodrich appointed preacher in charge. Mr. Good- 
rich remained until 1845, but for want of a suitable place of 
worship no preacher was again appointed until 1852, when 
Lorenzo White was sent to Plymouth by the Conference, the 
society having bought, in that year, the church of the Rob- 
inson society. Since that time the various preachers assigned 
by the Conference to Plymouth have been Moses Chase, 
"William Kellen, Carlos Banning, Edward H. Hatfield, E. K. 
Colby, Robert Clark, Thomas Sleeper, Franklin Gavett, 
George F. Pool, Henry F. Martin, "William Liversey, T. M. 
House, A. "W. Mills, George A. Morse, John W. Malcom, 
James O. Thompson, F. A. Crafts, J. H. Allen, and the 
present incumbent, "Walter J. Yates. 

The Universalist Society w as formed on the 10th of March, 
1822. In August, 1824, Massena Ballou was engaged to 
preach for six months, and in 1826 the society was incorpo- 
rated. William Morse followed Mr. Ballou in 1825, and in 
1826, after the erection in that year of their church in Ley- 
den Street, James H. Bugbee was ordained, and continued 
his pastorate until his death, in 1834. Albert Case succeeded 
Mr. Bugbee, and was followed by Russell Tomlinson, who 
resigned his pastorate in 1867. In 1869 A. Bosserman took 
charge of the pulpit, and was followed, in 1872, by Alpheus 
S. Nickerson. In 1874 George L. Smith was engaged to 
preach, and was succeeded by A. H. Sweetser in 1877, 
who was followed by the present pastor, W. W. Hayward. 

In 1825 the "Christian Society" was formed, and in 1827 
the church was built by them on Pleasant Street, which they 



106 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



now occupy. Their first minister was Joshua V. Ilimes, of 
New Bedford, who was followed by Timothy Cole, George 
W. Kelton, and Elders Baker, Sanborn, and Goodwin. In 
1843 the Second Advent Society organized in that year, joined 
with the Christian Society, and for a time held Sunday ser- 
vices with them under the pastoral care of 11. L. Hastings. 
After the lapse of two or three years the Advent Society 
retired to Odd Fellows' Hall in High Street, where they 
remained until about the year 18(58, for a part of the time 
under the pastorate of George A. Brown. In 1868, or about 
that time, they reunited with the Christians, and have con- 
tinued in the occupation of the church on Pleasant Street, 
under the name of the " Christian Society." 

The African Methodist Society was organized in 1866, and 
until 1871 occupied a building fitted up for a chapel near the 
grounds of the Plymouth Mills. In the latter year they 
purchased and converted into a church the gymnasium build- 
ing near the reservoir, and have occupied it since that time. 
Their ministers have been William Johnson, Else- 
more, Ebenezer Ruby, Francis, Joshua Hale, D. N. 

Mason, E. P. Greenwich, Israel Derrick, Isaac Emery, Jere- 
miah B. Hill, and the present incumbent, Henry Buckner. 

It only remains to mention, besides the society worship- 
ping in the church near the Russell Mills in Eel River, 
organized by William Faunce, the Catholic Society, whose 
church on Court Street was erected in 1874. This society, 
organized and presided over until his death, in l<S7i), by 
James C. Murphy, and afterwards by D. B. Kennedy, 
assisted by John D. Colbert, is now under the charge of 
Father P. J. Halley. 

Next to the church, the most important feature in the life 
cf Plymouth has been its schools. While the Pilgrims lived 
in Holland, poor in worldly goods, and surrounded by a 
people with customs and language foreign to their own, they 
were necessarily charged with the education of their children. 
Though William Bradford pursued in Leyden the trade of 



HISTORY OF SCHOOLS. 



107 



rustian-maker, or cotton- weaver, Robert Cusbman and Wil- 
liam White that of wool-carder, Samuel Fuller that of say or 
silk-maker, and Edward Winslow and William Brewster that 
of printer, they were all undoubtedly men of education and 
learning, who had, in their voluntary exile, adopted occupa- 
tions in strong contrast with the positions and professions 
abandoned in their English homes. The practice of family 
education they brought with them to the New World, and 
kept up with conscientious fidelity, until the growth of the 
colony, and the introduction of new elements into its compo- 
sition, rendered the establishment of public schools indis- 
pensable to its welfare and safety. The fact that William 
Bradford, 2d, and Josiah Winslow, both of Avhoin reached 
high military and civil honors in the colony, Thomas Cusb- 
man, who became a learned elder of the church, and Samuel 
Fuller, Jr., Nathaniel Southworth, and Thomas Southworth, 
were reared under parental education alone, is a proof of its 
high character, and of the attainments of the fathers and 
guardians by whom it was conducted. 

The first allusion in the Old Colony records to schools is 
under date of 1635, when it was ordered by the Court, "that 
Benjamin Eaton, with his mothers consent, is put to Bridget 
Fuller, being to keep him at school two years, and employ 
him after in such service as she saw good, and he shall be 
fit for." 

Benjamin Eaton was a boy eight years of age, the son of 
Francis Eaton, who died in 1633. His mother married Francis 
Billington in 1634, and it seems probable that after her sec- 
ond marriage the court assumed the guardianship of the boy, 
and undertook the responsibility of securing for him proper 
training and instruction. The fact that no further allusion to 
schools is made in the records until 1663 has been accepted 
by some as a proof that none were established in the colony 
until that date. To substantiate such an idea, either the 
order of court concerning Benjamin Eaton must be over- 
looked, or the words "keep him at school two years" must 



108 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



be construed to mean " that he must be instructed in the 
family," and not sent to a school taught by a regular teacher. 
It is probable that, before the date referred to, private 
schools were taught with quite as efficient teachers as the first 
public schools of a later day, and supported entirely by pay- 
ment for instruction, instead of in part, as was the case with 
the later public schools in the colony. 

In 1G63 "it was proposed by the court unto the several 
townships in this jurisdiction, as a thing that they ought to 
take into their serious consideration, that some course may be 
taken that in every town there may be a schoolmaster set up 
to train up children to reading and writing." 

At that time there were twelve incorporated towns in the 
colony, — Plymouth, Duxbury, Scituate, Sandwich, Marsh- 
field, Barnstable, Yarmouth, Taunton, Rehoboth, Eastham, 
Bridgewater, and Middleboro, and it may be assumed 
that there was no public school in either. No action, how- 
ever, was taken under this proposition, and in 1670 the court 
made a grant "of all such profits as might or should annually 
accrue to the colony from time to time for fishing with nets 
or seines at Cape Cod for mackerel, bass, or herrings, to be 
improved for and towards a free school in some town in this 
jurisdiction, provided a beginning were made within one year 
of the grant." 

In August, 1671, John Morton, son of John Morton, of 
Middleborough, and nephew of Secretary Nathaniel Morton, 
who was born and had been reared in the colony, repeated 
an offer previously made, to "erect and keep a school for the 
teaching of the children and youth of the town to read and 
write and cast accounts." 

On the 20th of May, 1672, the town "did agree and unan- 
imously vote and conclude that their lands at Sipican and 
Agawam, and places adjacent, the profits and benefits thereof, 
shall be improved and employed for and towards the main- 
tenance of a free school now begun or erected at Plymouth, 
and that the profits and benefits thereof shall no way be 



HISTORY OF SCHOOLS. 



109 



estranged from the said use, so long as there shall be occasion 
to use it for that end and in that behalf." 

After a short term of service Mr. Morton was succeeded 
by Ammi Euhamah Corlet, who was a graduate of Harvard 
in the class of 1670. Elijah Corlet, father of Amnii, was 
bred at Lincoln College, Oxford, and followed the profession 
of teacher in Cambridge and other places from 1641 until 
1687, the year of his death. This school, first taught by 
Mr. Morton, though in later years partly supported by a 
price of tuition, is believed to have been the first absolutely 
free public school established in New England. In 1673 it 
was ordered by the court "that the charge of this free school, 
which is thirty-three pounds a year, shall be defrayed by the 
treasurer of the profits arising by the fishing of the Cape, 
until such time as the minds of the freemen be known 
concerning it which will be returned to the next court of 
election." 

In 1674 it was voted by the town that "whereas at a town 
meeting May 20, 1672, the profits and benefits of the lands 
at Sipican and Agawam and places adjacent were given 
towards the maintenance and encouragement of the free 
school at Plymouth, the town declares that their grant was 
only of the lands there and thereabouts which were pur- 
chased by the town of the Indians before the said May 20, 
1672, and they do desire and authorize Capt. Bradford the 
Selectmen "William Clark and Joseph Warren to do their 
utmost to improve the said lands for the attaining of the 
ends propounded, namely that their children be perfected in 
reading, when they are entered the Bible, and also that they 
be taught to write and cypher and that which the country 
expects from the said school." 

After the term of Mr. Corlet had expired, Moses Hale, a 
son of John Hale of Newbury, and a graduate of Harvard in 
the class of 1699, taught the Plymouth school for a year or 
more, and was succeeded by John Dyer, who kept it a few 
months during a temporary vacancy. Mr. Dyer Mas a Ply- 



110 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



mouth man, who afterwards filled with acceptance the offices 
of assessor, selectman, and town clerk, in which latter office 
he was the immediate successor of Elder Faunce. At the 
time of the advent of Mr. Hale it is probable that the 
receipts from fisheries and the sale of lands were insufficient 
to defray the expenses of the school, and the following vote 
was passed by the town on the 3d of July, 1699 : " That the 
Selectmen shall take care to provide a schoolmaster for the 
town with all convenient speed, and shall settle him as near 
the centre of the town as may be with conveniency, and 
that every scholar that comes to write and cypher and learn 
Latin shall pay three pence per week, and if to read three half- 
pence per week, to be paid by their masters or parents, and 
what shall remain due to said school to be levied by rate on 
the whole inhabitants in their just and equal proportion." 

It had previously been voted "that the upper society 
(which was probably in the westerly part of the town) should 
have the master one quarter, Eel River another, and that in 
the next he should be settled no farther south than John 
Gray's," which was at Rocky Nook. In 1704 the school was 
again free, and it was voted that there should be a rate upon 
the inhabitants of the town to defray its expenses. 

After Mr. D} T er, Josiah Cotton was engaged to teach the 
school for a term of seven years, and during his adininistra- 
tion the first school-house was built. Up to that time the 
school had been kept by teachers, who had apparently, as 
indicated by the records, supplied their own room, receiving 
during a portion of the time a fixed salary, and during the 
remainder a price agreed upon for each scholar, the deficiency 
in the amount guaranteed being made up by the town. In 1 705 
a number of persons became bound to pay twenty pounds 
per annum for seven years to support a school, provided it be 
settled within forty rods of the old meeting-house, and a 
school-house was built by subscription. In the next year the 
town voted to buy the school-house for the town use, and 
chose "Lieut. Nathaniel Morton and John Watson to take an 



niSTOIlY OF SCHOOLS. 



Ill 



account of the charge relating to the building of said house, 
of them that had erected it, that the money might be paid 
them partly the summer following." 

This school-house was built on a lot on the south side of 
the present Unitarian Church, near the entrance of what is 
now known as Cooper's Alley. 

In 1701 the town voted that the interest of money arising 
from the. sale of lands should constitute an inalienable and 
perpetual school fund. In 1712 this fund had increased to 
such an extent that an amount of only ten pounds was needed 
to defray the expenses of the school. What became of this 
fund it is difficult to learn, but, as it was stated in a report in 
1756 on the financial affairs of the town, that it had sometimes 
been suffered to mingle with other town expenditures, it is 
quite probable that it was finally absorbed by the general 
wants of the town. 

Josiah Cotton, who succeeded Mr. Hale as above stated, 
was the son of John Cotton, for many years the minister of 
the First Church in Plymouth. He graduated from Harvard in 
1698 and became a man of learning and usefulness. He was 
for many years Clerk of the Courts and Register of Deeds, 
and for a time a preacher to the Indian tribes of Pembroke, 
Manomet, and Herring Pond, with a salary of twenty pounds, 
under the commissioners for propogating the gospel among 
the heathen. He peifected himself in the Indian language, a 
grammar of which he wrote, and his sermons to the Indians 
were delivered in their own tongue. He died in 1756 at the 
age of seventy-six. 

John Denison, a son of John Denison of Ipswich, and a 
graduate of Harvard in the class of 1710, succeeded Mr. 
Cotton, and was followed not long after by John Angier, who 
was afterwards the minister of East Bridgewater. Mr. 
Angier was the son of Samuel Angier of Rehoboth, who 
married Hannah, daughter of President Oakes of Harvard, 
and graduated at Harvard in 1720. His son Oakes Angier 
became an eminent lawyer, and was a member of the Old 



112 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Colony Club. While Mr. Angier was in Plymouth there were 
for a time three schools in the town, that in the centre, taught 
by him, and two at Rocky Nook and Wellingsly, for the 
establishment of each of which the sum of twenty pounds 
was appropriated in 1714. Mr. Angier was succeeded by 
John Sparhawk of Cambridge, who, after finishing his career 
as teacher, settled in Plymouth as attorney-at-law and prac- 
tised in the courts many years. He bought in 1734 the house 
on Court Street now owned and occupied by Albert C. Chand- 
ler, which he occupied until his death. In 1744 he was a 
volunteer in the expedition fitted out for the relief of Anna- 
polis in Nova Scotia, then threatened by the French under 
Duvivier, and, returning wounded and sick, died in 1748. 

Mr. Sparhawk was succeeded in the Central School by Ed- 
ward Eels, son of Nathaniel Eels of Scituate, and a graduate of 
Harvard in the class of 1733. He afterwards studied for the 
ministry and settled in Middletown, Connecticut. Ebenezer 
Bridge followed Mr. Eels, of whom little is known, except 
that he was a graduate of Harvard in the class of 173G, and 
afterwards settled as the minister of Chelmsford. Mr. Bridge 
was followed by Ezra Whitmarsh, a graduate of Harvard in 
1733, who had been for man}' years a preacher and school- 
master, and came to Plymouth in 1738, at a salary of one 
hundred pounds per year to teach school and assist Rev. Mr. 
Leonard in his ministerial duties. He came from Weymouth, 
where he finally returned and became the proprietor of a well- 
known tavern having the sign of the three hearts. In 1741 
Enoch Ward of Littleton, a graduate of Harvard in 1736, 
took the school, and was followed by Samuel Gardner, the 
son of the minister of Stowe, who was also a graduate of 
Harvard in the class of 1746, and who afterwards settled as 
a plrysieian in Dorchester. 

In 1747 it was voted by the town to have three permanent 
schools, one in the centre and the others at Eel River and 
Manomet Ponds. In that year Ward Brown of Haverhill, a 
Harvard graduate of 1748, assumed the charge of the Central 



HISTORY OF SCHOOLS. 



113 



School, and was followed by Thomas Foster, a native of Ply- 
mouth, and son of Deacon John Foster, who afterwards 
adhered to the loyal cause, and died, in 1777, at the age of 
seventy-four. Mr. Foster, who was a graduate of Harvard in 
1745, was succeeded by Mathew Gushing of Hingham, a Har- 
vard graduate of 1739, who afterwards moved to New York, 
and was followed by Charles Cushing, a graduate of Harvard 
in 1755, and clerk of the Supreme Judicial Court. Joseph 
Stockbridge of Hanover, also of the Harvard class of 1755. 
succeeded Mr. Cushing, and after an early death was followed 
by Nathaniel Lothrop, son of Isaac Lothrop of Plymouth, 
and a graduate of Harvard in the class of 1756. In 1765 
Dr. Lothrop was suceeded by Perez Forbes of Bridgewater, 
afterwards minister of Raynham, and finally a professor in 
Brown University. 

In 1765 it was voted to build a new grammar school- 
house, and a committee, consisting of John Torrey, Thomas 
Mayhew, Elkanah Watson, John Russell, and John Cotton, 
chosen to select a situation, reported in favor of the lot on the 
northerly side of the Unitarian Church, which was long 
afterwards identified with the High School. The building 
was at once erected, and the old house on the other side of 
the church abandoned. Mr. Forbes was the first teacher 
in the new structure, and was succeeded, in 1767, by John 
Barrows, of Attleboro, Avho, after teaching two years, was 
displaced by the committee, and followed by Alexander 
Scammel, in 1769, a graduate of Harvard in that year. The 
friends of Mr. Barrows, indignant at his removal, endeavored 
to have him reinstated, but as Mr. Scammel was unwilling to 
release the committee from their engagement except on the 
payment of four pounds it was finally thought best to ac- 
quiesce in the new arrangement. Mr. Scammel was a native of 
Mendon, and after teaching two years in Plymouth removed 
to Portsmouth, where he carried on the business of surveyor. 
In August, 1772, he served in some capacity on board the 
armed sloop Lord Chatham, bound from the Piscataqua River 



114 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



to Boston, with plans, reports, and dispatches for the lords of 
the treasury. In 1775 he was brigade major of the State 
of New Hampshire, and during the revolution was appointed 
colonel of the Third New Hampshire regiment. He afterwards 
rose to the rank of adjutant-general of the American arm}', 
and at the siege of Yorktown, on the 30th of September, 
1781, received a wound from the effects of which he died in 
the following month, while a prisoner in Williamsburg, 
Virginia. A monumental tablet was erected over his grave, 
bearing the inscription appropriately selected from Hum- 
phrey : — 

"Which conquering armies, from their toils returned, 
Reared to his glory, while his fate they mourned." 

It is somewhat singular that Peleg Wadsworth, a classmate 
of Scammel at Harvard, should have been a teacher of a 
private school in Plymouth at the same time, and should have 
afterwards shared with him the experiences of revolutionary 
service, and an almost simultaneous capture by the British, 
though in a widely distant field of action. 

The appropriation for schools in 1770 was, for the 
grammar school, sixty pounds ; the school at Eel River, 
sixteen pounds, thirteen shillings, and four pence ; and the 
school at Manomet, sixteen pounds. In 1774 Joseph 
Crocker, a Harvard graduate of that year, taught the gram- 
mar school, followed, in 1776, by Ezra Ripley, of the Harvard 
class of 1776, and in 1781 by Bartlett LeBaron, son of 
Lazarus LeBaron, of Plymouth, and a Harvard graduate in 
the class of 1766. Timothy Healy and Joseph and Eleazer 
Tufts and Nahum Mitchell of Bridgewater, of the Harvard 
class of 1789, followed immediately after, and their terms of 
service closed the century. In 1703 a committee Avas chosen 
to consider the subject of a female school, and their report in 
its favor, after a prolonged discussion and violent opposition 
in town meeting, was adopted. One opponent of the scheme 
lamented the prospect of this new departure from long- 



niSTORY OF SCHOOLS. 



115 



established methods, declaring that the world would come to 
a pretty pass, as he termed it, when wives and daughters 
would look over the shoulders of their husbands and fathers 
and offer to correct, as they wrote, such errors in spelling as 
they might commit. In that year there were nine schools in 
the town, the central grammar school and eight district 
schools in the various sections of Northtown, West district, 
Wellingsley, Eel River, Manomet, Cedarville, and Ellisville. 
The appropriation for the whole was one hundred and fifteen 
pounds, of which fifty-nine were for the support of the 
grammar and fifteen for the support of the female school. 
The female school was kept by the teacher of the grammar 
school for six months in the year, one hour in the forenoon 
and one in the afternoon, at the close of the regular daily 
sessions. In 1798 a school at Half-way Ponds and one at 
South Ponds had been added to the list, making ten in all, 
for which, with a population of thirty-five hundred, an 
appropriation of eight hundred and fifteen dollars was made. 

In the year 1800 the town voted to apply the proceeds of 
the sale of Indian lands to the support of schools, but the 
records are silent concerning the amount realized from that 
source. In 1802 the proceeds of the sale of herrings in 
Town Brook were applied to the same object, and continued 
to be so applied until the fishing right was abandoned to the 
proprietors of the iron works, in 1821. In the same year 
Rev. Martin Parris was engaged to teach the Central School, 
and having bought of Nathaniel Lewis the house on Court 
Street, now known as the Bank house, made it his residence, 
The next year, however, he sold it to the Plymouth bank, 
then recently organized, and occupied a leased house during 
the remainder of his residence in Plymouth. Immediately 
after Mr. Parris, the school was taught by Nathaniel Brad- 
street, of Newburyport, of the Harvard class of 1795, and 
Benjamin Shurtleff, of Carver, who, though not a graduate 
of Harvard, afterwards received an honorary degree. Both 
of them were .students in medicine with Dr. James Thacher, 



116 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



and both were married in Plymouth — Mr. Bradstreetto Anna, 
daughter of William Crombie, and Mr. Shurtleff to Sally, 
daughter of Ichabod Shaw. Mr. Bradstreet settled as a 
physician in his native place, and Dr. Shurtleft' acquired 
eminence in his profession in Boston, where his son, Nathaniel 
Bradstreet Shurtleff, named after his friend, succeeded him. 

The next teacher of the Central School was probably 
Alexander Parris, of Pembroke, who was succeeded by 
Thomas Witherell, a son of Thomas Witherell of Plymouth, 
who afterwards removed to Oakham, and finally to Ware, 
where he died. After Mr. Witherell, Moses Webster taught 
for a time, and was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Shaw, who was 
followed in turn by Benjamin and Thomas Drew. The 
Messrs. Drew taught the school together, Benjamin having 
charge of the lower grade on the main floor of the school- 
house, and Thomas the higher grade on the platform, at the 
northerly end of the school-room. This was the first step 
towards the establishment of what became, in 1826, a High 
School. Addison Brown, of Harvard, 1826, George W. 
Hosmer of the same class, and Horace H. Rolfe were the 
first teachers of the High School under the new dispensation, 
followed by Josiah Moore and Charles Field, who died in 
1838. Mr. Hosmer afterwards married Hannah, daughter 
of Rev. James Kendall of Plymouth, and was settled as a 
Unitarian minister in Buffalo for many years, from which 
place, after a second settlement of a few years in Newton, he 
removed to Salem, where he recently died. Mr. Rolfe 
married Mary T., daughter of James Marcy, of Plymouth, 
and died in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1831. 

In 1830 the appropriation for schools was twenty-six 
hundred and twenty-five dollars. About this time the school 
came into the hands of Samuel R. Townsend, who is now 
living, in the practice of law, in Taunton. Mr. Townsend was 
succeeded by Isaac N. Stoddard, then a recent graduate of 
Amherst, who, with the exception of an interval of a year or 
two, during which he taught school in New Bedford, con- 



HISTORY OF SCHOOLS. 



117 



tinued his connection with the school until the spring of 
1841. During the administration of Mr. Stoddard the ap- 
propriation for schools had reached the sum of thirty-five 
hundred dollars. In addition to the High School for hoys, 
a High School for girls was established by the town in 183(5, 
and was kept in the lower room of Pilgrim Hall until 1840, 
by Mary Adams, of Newburyport. In that year the school- 
house on Russell Street was built, and both of the Hi<di 
Schools were moved to that building. 

Miss Adams was succeeded in the management of the 
Girls' School by Frances Greigg, Almira Seymour, Mary E. 
Kendall, and Dorcas Maxwell, who, together, covered the 
time until the present High School for both boys and girls 
was established in 1850. At the time of the establishment 
of the Girls' High School, in 1836, intermediate girls' schools 
were also organized, which became mixed schools at the 
time of the union of the two High Schools. During the 
interval which occurred between the terms of service of Mr. 
Stoddard, the school was taught by Leonard Bliss of Reho- 
both, William II. Lord, LeBaron Russell of Plymouth of the 
Harvard class of 1832, and Robert Bartlett of Plymouth, 
of the Harvard class of 1836. Mr. Bliss went from Plymouth 
to Louisville, Kentucky, where he became editor of the 
Louisville Journal, and was killed in his office by an offended 
reader of his paper. He was the author of a history of Reho- 
both, which is a valuable contribution to historical literature. 
Mr. Lord, as is well known, married Persis, daughter of Rev. 
James Kendall, and was afterwards settled over the Unitarian 
Church of Southboro. Mr. Bartlett became tutor in Latin at 
Harvard, and died in 1844, and Mr. Russell has been long a 
resident of Boston. 

Mr. Stoddard was succeeded in 1841 by Charles Clapp, 

afterwards editor of the Quincy Patriot, Jenks, and 

Philip C. Knapp, and they in turn were followed by John 
Brooks Beal of Scituate, Thomas A. Watson, and Samuel 
Sewell Greely, the latter of the Harvard class of 1844. 



118 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



William H. Spear came next in order, who was followed by 
J. W. Hunt, who has since continued in the profession of 
teacher, and is now conducting with success a private school 
in Washington. During the administration of Mr. Hunt the 
present High School-house at the Green was bought, and 
since 1850 has been occupied by a boys' and girls' High 
School, which in its methods and scope of instruction has 
more than met the requirements of the laws of the Common- 
wealth. Before the establishment of this school the school 
appropriation had reached, in 1849, the sum of seven thousand 
dollars. In 1850 and 1852 laws were passed by the Legis- 
lature providing for the abolition of the district school sys- 
tem, and on the 14th of March, 1853, the town voted to con- 
solidate the districts into one, and chose a committee to ap- 
praise the school property with the view to its possession by 
the town in accordance with the terms of the statute. The 
lands and buildings and other property belonging to the dis- 
tricts were valued at $13,269.25, and paid for by the town 
by the remission of taxes to the inhabitants of the various 
districts. In the same year Adiel Harvey was chosen Super- 
intendent of Schools, and the method of grading the schools 
was adopted, which with some changes has since prevailed. 
Mr. Harvey remained in office until 1859, when Charles 
Burton, the present efficient superintendent, was chosen. 

Mr. Hunt, the last teacher referred to, was succeeded by 
Frank Crosby, and Mr. Crosby in turn by Edward P. Bates. 
Admiral P. Stone came next in order, in the year 1855, and 
remained about five years, when he was enticed to wider 
and more remunerative fields. George L. Baxter of the 
Harvard class of 1863, and Theodore P. Adams and Joseph 
L. Sanborn of the Harvard class of 1867, were afterwards 
followed by Henry Dame and George W. Minns of the 
Harvard class of 1836, and Gilman C. Fisher, who retired 
after a short term of service, and was succeeded by Mr. 
Burton, who is still at the head of the school, combining the 
duties of teacher and general superintendent. Since the 



HISTORY OF SCHOOLS. 



119 



consolidation of districts, in 1853, the school-system of the 
town has been rapidly developed and perfected, at an annual 
cost, which has increased with its growing value and useful- 
ness. In 1855 the school appropriation was $8,600 ; in 18(50, 
$10,000; in 1865, $12,000; in 1870, $14,000; in 1875, 
$15,500, and in 1880, $16,000. The shares of the school and 
dog funds applicable to schools amounted to $448.93, so 
that the total sum in 1880 available for the support of twenty- 
eight schools, with eleven hundred and fifty scholars, was 
$16,448.93. 

It is of course impossible to include, within available 
limits, even an outline of the history of the schools of the 
intermediate and lower grades. It is only possible to sketch 
the growth and development of the leading school, taking 
that as the crest on the wave of public instruction, which has 
reached and is refreshing the popular mind. The names 
of many of the teachers in these schools will readily suggest 
themselves to the reader. William Bishop, Timothy Berry, 
Rufus Albertson, Cyrus Holmes, Henry Robbins, Eastman 
Sanborne, John A. Burnham, Gov. Chamberlin of recent 
South Carolina fame, Bethiah J. Austin, Aaron H. Cornish, 
Lysander Soper, Mrs. Andrew Bartlett, Mrs. William Allen, 
Pellie M. Robbins, Gustavus G. Bates, Mrs. N. W. Storer, 
Mrs. William S. Danforth, Ann L. Cushman, James S. 
Barrell, Harriet E. Goddard, Francis E. Hovey, Henry B. 
Holmes, and Priscilla Perkins, are among those of an earlier 
date, Avhose names it will not be invidious to mention, to 
the exclusion of those who have either in the past rendered 
valuable service or are now active in the field of popular 
education. 

But even this supei-ficial record of school history which the 
writer has attempted to give would be incomplete without 
some allusion to the private schools, which have always been 
important auxiliaries in the work of education. Every reader 
has a tender recollection of the bench and spelling-book of 
his infant school and realizes that — 



120 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



" In every village marked with little spire, 

Embowered in trees and hardly known to fame, 
There dwells in lowly cot and plain attire 

A matron old, whom we school-mistress name." 

Among the earliest of the teachers of these schools were 
Mrs. Richards, a granddaughter of John Morton, the first 
teacher of a public school ; Mrs. Kane and Annie Palmer, 
the last of whom, in 1734, presented to the First Church a 
communion tankard, now owned by the church and bearing 
her name with the date of the gift. James Warren, of the 
Harvard class of 1776, taught in a house which stood on the 
site of the house of William S. Danforth ; Bartholomew 
Brown of East Bridgewater, of the Harvard class of 1799, 
in the house now occupied by Charles T. May ; Tabitha 
Plaskett in the house of Lucius Pratt ; Molly Cobb in an old 
house on the site of the present house of Nathaniel B. 
Spooner ; Mrs. Thomas Torrey and Lucy Nicolson in Court 
Square ; Granny Spooner on High Street ; Patty Weston on 
North Street ; Priscilla Hammatt in the Dyer House ; Lucy 
Goodwin where Davis Hall now stands ; Betsey, Prisqilla, and 
Sally Tufts in Town Square ; Ellen Morton in the May house ; 
Maam Savery at the corner of Howland Street, and Maam 
Churchill, with her long poplar stick, on Summer Street ; 
Rebecca Soule in Burbank's Hall ; Miss Lucy Bagnall and 
Sarah Turner at the foot of Leyden Street, will be recalled 
with both sad and pleasant memories. It is only necessar}' 
to add to the list the names of William P. Lunt of the Har- 
vard class of 1823, William Whiting of the class of 1833, 
both of whom married Plymouth wives. George P. Brad- 
ford of the Harvard class of 1825, George Moor of the Har- 
vard class of 1834, William G. Russell of the Harvard class 
of 1840, Hiram Fuller, who, after a season of journalism in 
New York, became a resident of London ; Laura Dewey, 
afterwards the first wife of Andrew L. Russell ; Nathaniel 
Whiting, and Leander Lovell. Those who are familiar with 
the gravestones on Burial Hill cannot have failed to notice 



FIRE DEPARTMENT. 



121 



those of Tabitha Plaskett, one of the teachers above 
mentioned, who died in 1807, and her husband, Joseph Plas- 
kett, who died in 1794. That of her husband bears the fol- 
lowing inscription written by his widow : — 

" All you that doth behold my stone, 
Consider how soon I was gone, 
Death does not always warning give, 
Therefore be careful how you live, 
Repent in time, no time delay, 
I in my prime am called away." 

Mrs. Plaskett also composed the following epitaph for her- 
self, and requested it to be cut on her headstone : — 

" Adieu, vain world, I have seen enough of thee, 
And I am careless what thou sayest of me; 

Thy smiles I wish not, 
Nor thy frowns I fear, 

I am now at rest, my head lies quiet here." 

A sketch of the Fire Department of Plymouth will not be 
out of place in this narrative. The hist hre in the Colony of 
Plymouth occurred on the 24th of January, 1621, when the 
Common-House took fire from the lodgment of a spark on its 
thatched roof and burned to the ground. Up to the present 
time no serious conflagration has ever visited the town, not- 
withstanding the compactness of its central settlement, and 
the combustible materials of which its houses are built. This 
exemption from disaster is due, partly to the careful and 
thorough methods which have always characterized the work 
of Plymouth mechanics, and partly to the wise provisions made 
by the town in its municipal capacity. For more than a 
hundred years Plymouth possessed only such means of ex- 
tinguishing fires as may now be found in towns where houses 
are scattered and where no water is available except that con- 
tained in the wells on every man's premises. As the town 
became gradually more closely built, the attention of its 
people was called to the necessity of some action to secure 
greater safety than they had before enjoyed. On the 18th of 



122 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



March, 1727, .1 committee was chosen by the town, consisting 
of Isaac Lothrop, Benjamin "Warren, John Dyer, John Foster, 
Josiah Morton, John Watson, John Murdock, Haviland Tor- 
rey, John Barnes, and Stephen Churchill, to propose some 
method of preventing the spread of tire. An inference may 
be fairly drawn from the passage of the vote, and the words 
in which it was expressed, that a recent and fresh experience 
had stimulated the town, but there is nothing in the records, 
or in deeds of transfer of real estate, indicating that any 
serious loss had been incurred by fire at that time. Appar- 
ently in accordance with the recommendations of the com- 
mittee, the town voted on the 27th of January, 1728, 
" That every householder shall from time to time be provided 
with a sufficient ladder or ladders to reach from the ground to 
the ridge of such house at the charge of the owner thereof ; 
and, in case the owner or owners of such house or houses be 
not an inhabitant of the town, then the occupiers thereof to 
provide the same and deduct the charge thereof out of his or 
their rent on pain of the forfeiture of five shillings per month 
for every month's neglect, after the tenth day of June next." 

It was also voted, " That from the first day of March to the 
first day of December, yearly and every year hereafter, every 
householder that lives between the house of Deacon John 
Wood, in Woods Lane, and Eleazer Churchill at Jabez 
Corner, shall at all times within the limitations aforesaid keep 
in their house-yards or backsides, nigh to their houses, a 
hogshead or two barrels full of water, or a cistern to the value 
of two hogsheads, on pain of forfeiture of the sum of five 
shillings for every such neglect, it being provided that, not- 
withstanding this order, any house which stands twenty rods 
from the highway or Kings road shall be exempt." 

On the 16th of March, 1752, it was voted to choose a Board 
of five Fire Wards, and this board was chosen annually after 
that time until 1835, when the special law was passed by the 
General Court establishing the Plymouth Fire Department. 
The members of the board were selected from those who com- 



FIRE DEPARTMENT. 



123 



bined activity with judgment, and the entire management of 
fires was placed in their hands, with the power to make such 
regulations as they saw fit. 

In 1757 a fire occurred, and on the 21st of March in that 
year it was voted, " that Thomas Xorrington, in consideration 
of his loss by fire, shall have his province, county, and town 
rates for the last year abated." Where this fire was, and who 
Thomas Norrington was, the writer has been unable to ascer- 
tain. There is no such name, either on the record of births, 
deaths, and marriages, or in the deeds, as the owner at any 
time of real estate between Cold Spring and Jabez Corner. 
It is probable, therefore, that he occupied a leased house or 
store and suffered the loss of either furniture or stock in trade. 
On the same day, when the above vote was passed, it was 
voted, ''that the town purchase an engine for extinguishing 
fires, and that the said engine be of the largest sort, which is 
called the ' garden engines,' and will throw about fifty gallons 
in a minute, and that George Watson be desired and em- 
powered to purchase or procure said engine for the town." 
This was called the "great engine," and on the 18th of February, 
1765, "Gideon White, William Rider, Samuel Cole, William 
Rickard, Abiel Shurtleff, Zacheus Curtis, Lewis Bartlett, John 
May, and William Crombic were, at their request, exempted 
from the performance of all town duties, in consideration of 
their appointment to manage and attend the fire-engine be- 
longing to the town, and the pains and trouble it involved." 
On the 8th of March, 1770, it was voted, "to instruct the 
selectmen to provide the fire wards with the proper staffs," 
and in the same year, the records state that the town owned 
two engines, though the purchase of the second is nowhere 
mentioned. These two were kept in a house built on county 
land, at the east end of what was then the court-house and 
is now the town-house. These engines have long since dis- 
appeared. In 1797, on the 15th of May, it was voted to pur- 
chase an engine to take the place of the old No. 2, and the 
selectmen were appointed "a committee to collect what 



124 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



money is subscribed for a new engine, and with that and any 
money of the town not appropriated to procure a new fire 
engine as soon as possible." The selectmen, not having 
obeyed the instructions of the town, were again instructed on 
the 2d of May, 1798, to purchase an engine, and in that 
vear bought a bucket-engine, which in 1829 was altered to a 
suction-engine, and is now Niagara Xo. 1. 

On the 6th of April, 1801, the town " directed the select- 
men to take any money belonging to the town that is not 
appropriated to any particular purpose, and therewith pro- 
cure another engine for the town." In obedience to this vote 
a bucket-engine was bought at the cost of $400, and this engine 
is now Fountain No. 2. 

At a more recent date, after the erection of the iron works 
on Summer Street, Nathaniel Russell, William Davis, and 
Barnabas Hedge, the proprietors, purchased a small engine 
for the protection of their establishment, which was formally 
accepted by the town as a gift on the 5th of May, 1823, and 
made No. 3. 

On the 12th of May, 1827, a committee of the town appoint- 
ed to examine its fire apparatus, reported Nos. 1 and 2 in 
good order, No. 3 needing repairs, and a fourth engine 
at the Rollins: Mill in Eel River in good working con- 
dition. This last was undoubtedly one of the two first bought 
by the town, and was soon after sold or broken up. On the 
17th of May, 1828, the town voted that William Spooner, 
Jacob Covington, and Daniel Jackson be a committee to pro- 
cure a new engine, and in that year the suction-engine, now 
Torrent No. 4> w »s bought. 

The introduction of this, the first suction-engine into town, 
was as important an era as that of the first steam-machine 
at a later day. No. 1 was soon after altered, as has been 
stated, to a suction-engine, and the paraphernalia and methods 
of earlier times were abolished. In the next year, 1829, the 
reservoirs in Town and North Squares were built, followed by 
that on Training Green in 1834, that on High Street in 1847, 



FIRE DEPARTMENT. 



125 



and that opposite Pilgrim Hall in 1853. "While the old bucket- 
engines were in use the scenes at fires were characterized by 
great excitement and confusion. In the entry of every house 
hung leather buckets, handsomely painted, bearing the owner's 
name and the inscription " nobis vicinis que " for ourselves and 
neighbors. At the cry of fire the whole population sprang 
to buckets, not arms, and men, women, and children formed 
two lines from brook, reservoir, pump, harbor, or well, one 
line supplying the machines with water, and the other return- 
ing the empty buckets to the source of supply. There were 
no lookers-on, all found something to do in one line or the 
other, or on the brakes ; and after the fire had either been 
extinguished or burnt out, each owner hunted for his buckets, 
like spoons at a picnic, as if their recovery were the chief end 
of life. 

On the 25th of April, 183fi, the town voted to procure 
still another engine, and in that year the Rapid was bought, and 
substituted for the old No. 3, which was disposed of. Nos. 
1 and 2 — the Niagara and Fountain — were always kept 
under the old meeting-house of the Unitarian Society until it 
was taken down, in 1831, when the Fountain w T as removed 
to a house on the southwest corner of the Green, and the 
Niagara to one which stood in the rear of the court-house, 
south of the county lands. A new house was afterwards 
built for the Niagara on the town land in Russell Street, west 
of the school-house, where it was kept many years. After 
the purchase of the steam fire-engines these two engines were 
abandoned, the house on the Green was taken down, and that 
on Russell Street moved to Seaside. The Torrent, when 
purchased, was kept in the town-house for many years, until 
its present house on Franklin Street was built, when it was 
moved to the quarters which it now occupies on that street. 
The Rapid, when bought, was placed in a house on the south 
side of Summer Street, where it remained until, by a vote of 
the town, it was moved to Seaside, where it occupies the 
house which was removed from Russell Street, as above 



126 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



mentioned. The house belonging to the Rapid was removed 
to the rear of town land on Spring Street, and is now used 
for the storage of the Niagara and Fountain, the two engines 
bought in 1798 and 1801. These two engines are curious 
relies of the past, and took their place in the procession on 
the anniversary of the settlement of Boston, in September, 
1880, as the most ancient specimens of engine architecture 
to be found. 

In 1835, in obedience to a petition of the town, the Gen- 
eral Court passed an act establishing a fire department in the 
town. Under this act the selectmen of the town have annu- 
ally appointed a board of engineers, with powers and duties 
specified in the act, who take the place of the fire wards for- 
merly chosen by the town. The act gives the engineers no 
control over fires in the woods, but these are regulated and 
controlled by a special committee chosen annually by the town. 

In May, 1870, in accordance with a vote of the town, a 
steam fire-engine was purchased, and in June, 1874, a second, 
which, with thirty men each, furnish the chief reliance of the 
town in case of fire. 

In addition to the apparatus already mentioned there are 
two force-pumps under the control of the town, connected 
with the mills at the foot of Spring Hill and Spring Lane, 
which can at a moment's notice be put into gear and worked 
with efficiency in pumping water from Town Brook. The 
following summary may be given of the total equipment of 
the town as a means of protection against fire : Six engineers ; 
two steam fire-engines, with thirty men each ; two hand- 
engines, — the Torrent, with thirty men, and the Rapid, with 
ten pay and twenty call members ; two hand-engines, in 
reserve, without men, — the Niagara and Fountain ; one hook 
and ladder truck, w4th sixteen men ; four independent hose 
companies, with six men each ; two force-pumps ; thirty- 
three hundred feet of hose ; five reservoirs ; and fifty-one 
hydrants, connected with the street mains of the Plymouth 
water-works. 



FIRE DEPARTMENT. 



127 



This record of the history and resources of the fire depart- 
ment would be incomplete without a special allusion to the 
water-works of the town. In 179(3 Joshua Thomas and his 
associates were authorized to lay pipes in the streets of Ply- 
mouth, and take water for the supply of the town from a 
point on the Town Brook, near Deep Water bridge. Under 
their auspices the old Plymouth Aqueduct Company was 
organized, which continued to furnish water to the inhabitants 
of the town until the introduction of South Pond water, in 
1855. The pipes used by the company were pitch-pine logs, 
with a bore of from two to four inches, sharpened at one 
end, and driven into each other. During the last few years 
of their operation they used iron joints which, like dowels, 
connected the pipes closely together. The Jamaica Pond 
Aqueduct Company, which supplied the city of Boston, com- 
menced operations in 1803, seven years later than Plymouth, 
and used four parallel logs for their main pipes, two with 
two-inch and two with four-inch bores, and these were used 
until 1848, when the Cochituate water was introduced. 

In 1855, the Plymouth Water-Works, constructed under 
the provisions of several acts of the Legislature, were com- 
pleted, and the water from South Pond, having a level of one 
hundred and six and sixteen one-hundredths feet above low- 
water mark, was let into the pipes. With a daily consump- 
tion, in the middle of summer, of five hundred thousand 
gallons, the maximum capacity of the works, with the pump 
recently erected, is sixty thousand gallons per hour, or, with 
continual pumping, one million four hundred and forty thou- 
sand gallons in the twenty-four hours. In addition to this, a 
reservoir, built by the town, holds one million five hundred 
thousand gallons, or a three days' supply, with a complete 
suspension of the works. By the aid of the pump an aver- 
age head is maintained twenty-five feet above the pond, or 
one hundred and thirty-one feet and sixteen one-hundredths 
above low-water mark. With such a system of water-works, 
conducted in the future with the care and judgment which 



128 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



have heretofore characterized its management, and with 
such a fire department to make it effective, the citizens 
of Plymouth have a right to expect in the future as com- 
plete an exemption from serious fires as they have enjoyed in 
the past. 



BURIAL HILL. 



129 



CHAPTER V. 

Burial Hill. — Town Brook. — Ancient Xames of Localities. -- Ancient 

Streets. 

It is well known that Cole's Hill was the first burial-place of 
the Pilgrims, and that in the spring of 1621 the ground was 
levelled and planted to conceal from the natives the reduced 
condition of the settlement. The fact that burials were 
possible during the winter indicates the extreme mildness of 
the weather and the comparative freedom of the ground from 
frost. It is a little singular that in the accounts which have 
come down to us so little is said of the burial of the dead. 
Bradford, in his history, speaking of the burial of Governor 
Carver, says that "he was buried in ye best manner they 
could, with some vollies of shott by all that bore arms," and 
though fifty died before the arrival of the Fortune, on the 9th 
of November, 1621, no allusion is made to an}- other burial. 
It is true that in early times there was no funeral ceremony, 
the custom of prayers not having been introduced into the 
colony until 1686, but the extraordinary silence of history 
and tradition on the subject can only be accounted for by the 
familiarity with which frequent deaths invested the grave, and 
deprived it of its natural impressiveness and solemnity. 
Whether Cole's Hill continued to be the burial-place after 
the first winter, and, if not, what spot was used in its stead, 
is not known. There is no srood reason, however, for sup- 
posing that Burial Hill was used for that purpose at a very 
early date in the history of the colony. It is well known 
that its commanding position induced the erection of fortifica- 
tions upon it at an early period, and that in the early deeds 



130 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



and records it is invariably called Fort Hill. The first known 
allusion to it as a burial-place is in the diary of Judge Sewall, 
under the date of March 10, 16D8. On that day the judge, 
while holding court in Plymouth, says "I walk out in the 
morn to see the mill, then turn np to the graves, come down 
to the meeting-house, and seeing the door partly open went 
in and found a very convenient opportunity to pray." He 
was stopping at the time, as he says, at Cole's tavern, which 
stood on the site of the house now occupied by Mr. Paty, 
next below the Baptist Church, and his route was through 
Market and Summer Streets to the mill standing on the site of 
the factor}' of Samuel Loring, thence up Spring Street to the 
hill, and so down the hill to the meeting-house standing on 
the site of the present Unitarian Church. In the same year 
a reference is made to the burial-place as the westerly bound- 
ary of a lot sold by Nathanie 1 Howland to Francis LeBaron, 
and now occupied by Davis Building. 

The oldest gravestone now standing, that of Edward Gray, 
bears the date of 1681, two years after the abandonment of 
the hill for defensive purposes, and there is reason to 
doubt whether the hill Avas used for burials before the close 
of King Philip's war. At that time the population of the 
town was about six hundred, and increasing until it reached, 
at the time of Judge Sewall's visit, about one thousand. 
During the interval it is fair to presume that the number of 
interments had been sufficient to cause it to he designated by 
him the hill of graves. It can hardly be believed that burials 
had been made for a long series of years before the date of 
the stone of Edward Gray, in a place set apart and intended 
to be preserved as a graveyard, without some stone either 
noAv standing or remembered by our fathers or grandfathers. 
The most probable theory is that, like Standish and others 
who were buried on their own estates in unknown graves, the 
early colonists were buried in private lots, Avhere from 
neglect or indifference either on the part of their descendnnts, 
or of strangers who entered into the possession of their lands, 



BURIAL HILL. 



131 



their graves have been levelled and their monuments destroyed. 
It is true that a tradition exists that Major William Bradford, 
who was buried on the hill, desired to be buried by the side 
of his father the governor, but as this tradition rests on the 
authority of Ebenezer Cobb, who was only nine years old at 
the time of the death of the major, and a centenarian when 
he made the statement, it should have little weight against 
the improbabilities surrounding the case. It has been thought 
also by some that Elder Brewster, who died in Duxbury in 
1644, was buried in Plymouth, and consequently on the hill. 
The old colony records are cited as evidence, in which the 
the following entry may be found on page 115 of the volume 
of deeds : " Whereas William Brewster, late of Plymouth, 
gentleman, deceased, left only two sons surviving, Jonathan 
the oldest and Love the younger : whereas the said William 
died intestate for aught can to this day appear. The said 
Jonathan and Love, his sons, when they returned from the 
burial of their father to the house of Mr. William Bradford of 
Plymouth, in the presence of Mr. Ealph Partridge, pastor 
of Duxbury, Mr. John Raynor, teacher of the church at 
Plymouth, and Edward Buckley, pastor of the church at 
Marshfield," made an agreement, which follows in the records. 
It is inferred by those who cite this record that the house of 
Mr. Bradford was in Plymouth, and that the burial also must 
have been there, as it is not probable that the sons, who 
lived in Duxbury, and the ministers of Duxbury and Marsh- 
field would have gone to Plymouth after the funeral if it had 
been held in Duxbury, where Brewster lived at the time of 
his death. But it must be remembered that during the 
year 1644, in which Brewster died, Edward Winslow was 
governor of the colony, and that it is probable that during 
that year of freedom from office Mr. Bradford lived on the 
estate which he owned in Kingston, then, as is well known, 
a part of Plymouth, and which he was precluded from 
constantly occupying by the duties of his position as gov- 
ernor. There is additional evidence in the records, almost 



132 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



conclusive, that in that year Mr. Bradford had his residence 
in Kingston. 

It has been thought strange that a hill so high, and difficult 
of access for carriages, should have been selected for a burial- 
ground. It must be remembered, however, that, until a cnm- 
paratively recent date, the hearse was unknown, and that the 
coffin of the dead was borne to the grave on a bier covered 
with a black pall. The first use of the hearse in Plymouth 
was at the funeral of Thomas Pope, father of Richard Pope, 
recently deceased, who died on the 6th of Jul}-, 1820. The 
hearse used on that occasion was built for the town in that 
year, the running part by Stephen Lucas and the box by 
Joseph Bramhall. In 1355 or 185*5, when a new hearse was 
bought by the town, the old one, with a new box constructed 
by Samuel Nelson, was sent to South Plymouth, and there 
used until the new hearse, abandoned by the town, was sent 
to take its place. The old one is now housed on the hill, and 
is simply, what its name originally signified, "a box for the 
reception of the dead," placed on wheels. Until the use 
of the hearse became fashionable, or necessary, as population 
became more remote from places of burial, two sets of bearers 
officiated at funerals, six called under-bearers, four of whom 
supported the arms of the bier on their shoulders, giving 
place, when fatigued, to the other two ; and six pall-bearers, 
whose duty it was to hold the tassels of the pall on the way 
to the grave, and escort the mourners home. In the early 
days of the colony black gloves, white linen scarfs and rings 
were presented to the bearers, the custom being gradually 
limited to the gift of gloves, and finally abandoned altogether 
The earlier funerals were conducted by the sexton of the First, 
or Plymouth Church, which was the old territorial church, 
presumed to include all the inhabitants of the town. Since 
the incorporation of the Third Church, in 1802, the sexton has 
been, for the most part, chosen by the town, and his fees for 
burial have been fixed by a town vote. The earliest recorded 
sexton was Eleazer Rogers, chosen about 1730, and he was 



BURIAL HTLL. 



133 



succeeded by Gershom Holmes, Stevens Mason, Cornelius 
Holmes, Ebenezer Luce, George Morton, James Morton, 
and Clement Bates. Clement Bates was chosen in 1831, and 
though still holding the office, with the duty only of ringing 
the town-bell, after the burial of thirty -two hundred and fifty 
persons, he has abandoned the care of funerals to private 
enterprise. The four gravestones bearing date before 1700 
are those of Edward Gray, 1681 ; William Crow, 1684 ; 
Hannah Clark, 1687 ; and Thomas Clark, 1697. To these 
may be added that of Elder Thomas Cushman, which has 
been recently restored to its original bed. When the Cush- 
man family erected the Cushman monument, in 1858, they 
removed this ancient stone to give place to the modern struc- 
ture. When such a neglect of ancient landmarks is shown 
by those who meet together for the very purpose of doing 
honor to their fathers, it is not surprising that in the hands 
of aliens and strangers the graves to which reference has 
been made should have been levelled and forgotten. The 
inscription on this stone, which no modern hand can improve 
or embellish, is the following : — 

" Here lyeth buried ye body of *hat precious servant of God Mr. 
Thomas Cushman, who after he had served his generation according to 
the will of God, and particularly the Church of Plymouth, for many 
years in the office of ruling elder, fell asleep in Jesus, December ye 10th 
1691 in the 84th year of his age." 

The five gravestones above-mentioned, with the exception 
of that of Edward Gray, are English stones, and bear marks 
of English workmanship. Indeed, most of the stones on the 
hill up to 1745 are the products of English skill. That of Elder 
Thomas Faunce, bearing the above date, is made of foreign 
material, and its letters and carvings are as sharply defined 
as if cut yesterday. That of Mr. Gray is roughly made of a 
common, shaky, blue native slate, rudely cut and carved, and 
considering its material, it has surprisingly survived the 
ravages of time. The Cushman and Thomas Clark stones are 
of purple Welsh slate ; that of William Crow of blue slate, 



134 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



with green veins ; the Hannah Clark and Elder Faunee stones, 
of clear blue slate, all four hard and fine-grained, and, unlike 
the grayish slate of a later period, entirely free from moss. 

Among those supposed to have been buried on the hill is 
John Rowland, who died at his home in Rocky Nook, in 
1673, and a few years since a stone was placed by some of 
his descendants over his supposed grave. The stone is 
among those of later generations of the Rowland family, and 
the only foundation for the belief that he was buried on that 
spot is the presumption that he was buried in the ancient 
ground, and that his descendants were deposited by the side 
of their ancestor. It is more probable that he was buried on 
his estate, where, in the cultivation of its fields, his grave 
was long since levelled, and all signs of it were obliterated. 

In the summer of 1622 a fort was built on the hill, which, 
according to Morton, was built of "good timber, both strong 
and comely, which was of good defence, made with a flat 
roof and battlements ; on which their ordnance was mounted, 
and where they kept constant watch, especially in time of 
danger. It served them also for a meeting-house, and was 
fitted accordingly for that use. It was a great work for 
them to do in their weakness and times of want ; but the 
danger of the time required it, there being continual rumors 
of the Indians, and fears of their rising against them, espe- 
cially the Narragansets ; and also the hearing of the great 
and sad massacre in Virginia." Not a long time before 
Canonicus, the sachem of the Narragansets, had sent a mes- 
senger to the Plymouth settlement, bearing the skin of a 
rattlesnake, filled with arrows, which was interpreted by Tis- 
quantum, the friend of the Pilgrims, as a warlike challenge. 
The governor at once, in a defiant spirit, substituted powder 
and shot for the arrows, and sent it back. But Winslow says 
in his Relation: "Knowing our weakness, notwithstanding 
our high words and lofty looks, we thought it most needful to 
impale our town ; which with all expedition we accomplished 
in the month of February, taking in the top of the hill under 



BUIIIAL HILL. 



which our town is seated, making four bulwarks or jetties 
without the ordinary circuit of the pale, from whence we 
could defend the whole town ; in three whereof are gates, 
and the fourth in time to be." He further says: "Whereas 
we have a hill called the Mount, inclosed within our pale, 
under which our town is seated, we resolve to erect a fort 
thereon." The fort was repaired and enlarged in 1630-35, 
and 1642, and finally, in 1676, at the time of King Philip's 
war, rebuilt one hundred feet square, with palisades ten and 
a half feet high, and three pieces of ordnance planted within 
it. After the war its material was sold to William Harlow, 
and used by him in the construction of a house still standing. 
In a recent repair of the house its oak posts and beams were 
laid bare, and disclosed the ancient mortises made in fitting 
the frame of the fort. An ancient iron hinge was also found, 
with its eye flattened out, supporting the bricks of the chim- 
ney, which was probably one of the hinges on which the gate 
of the fort was hung. Traces may now be seen of the fort 
of the Pilgrims on the top of the hill, at what was, in the 
earliest days, the junction of Leyden and Spring Streets, 
where its guns could command both. In 1643 a watch- 
house was built near the site of the fort, and a little beneath 
the surface fragments of the brick used in its construction 
may still be found. 

Edward Gray, whose stone has been mentioned as the 
oldest on the hill, came to Plymouth with his Brother 
Thomas in 1643. He was then a boy, and, according to a 
tradition of the family, the two boys were smuggled on 
board the ship in which they came, and sent to America by 
friends at home intriguing for the possession of property 
which rightfully belonged to them. He became a merchant 
of repute, and a large owner of lands at Rocky Nook, some 
of which are still owned and occupied by his descendants. 

Thomas Clark, whose stone has also been mentioned, has 
been erroneously thought to have been the mate of the May- 
flower. He came to Plymouth in the Ann in 1623, and, 



136 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



though in conflict with the inscription on his stone, he made 
oath in 1664, in an instrument signed by him, that he was 
fifty-nine years of age. This would have made him born in 
1605, and in 1620 only fifteen years old, altogether too 
young for the position of mate. But we are not confined to 
negative testimony on the question. Robert Cushman, while 
'in England completing arrangements for the embarkation 
from Holland, in a letter to Robinson, dated June 21, 1620, 
says: "We have hired another pilote here, one Mr. Clarke, 
who went last year to Virginia with a ship of kine." Recent 
investigations made by Rev. E. D. Neill have brought to 
light the fact that Captain Jones, afterwards master of the 
Mayflower, went to Virginia in 1619 in command of a vessel 
loaded with kine, and that a man named John Clark was 
employed by the Virginia Company in connection with Jones 
in the enterprise. 

Nathaniel Clark, whose gravestone, bearing the date of 
1717, stands near that of his father Thomas, was secretary 
of the colony after the death of Nathaniel Morton, in 1685. 
On the arrival of Andros as governor of New England he 
became one of the royal governor's most willing and offensive 
tools. The title of Clark's Island, of which Plymouth, in its 
municipal capacity, had held undisturbed possession since 
1638, when all lands within its limits not included in pre- 
vious allotments were granted by the court to the town, was, 
with other titles, proclaimed as vested in the king. Clark, 
who was a member of the council, applied for a grant of the 
island, and finally obtained it against the remonstrance and 
resistance of the inhabitants of the town. The original 
instrument making the errant is now in existence. At this 
juncture news was received from the mother country of the 
revolution of 1688, and Andros and Clark were arrested and 
sent to England. After his release by the king Clark 
returned to Plymouth, and continued there in the practice of 
the law until his death. 

Another stone which has derived new interest from the 



BURIAL HILL. 



137 



recent novel of "A Nameless Nobleman," is that of Dr. Fran- 
cis LeBaron. He was surgeon of a French ship wrecked in 
Buzzard's Bay in 1694, and with the officers and crew was 
made a prisoner and sent to Boston. On his way he stopped 
at Plymouth, and was quartered for a night at the house of 
William Barnes, near the Green. It so happened that a lady 
in the town had on the day of his arrival suffered a severe 
compound fracture of a limb, which the surgeons in charge 
were about to amputate. Dr. LeBaron, hearing of the case, 
asked permission to make an examination, and afterwards 
saved the limb. With the consent of Lieutenant-Governor 
Stoughton he settled in Plymouth, and died in 1704, leav- 
ing a wife, Mary, the daughter of Edward Wilder of Hing- 
ham, and three sons, James, Lazarus, and Francis. 

The stone of General James Warren may be found in the 
Warren lot, surrounded by an iron fence, near the site of the 
fort. He was a descendant from Richard Warren of the 
Mayflower. In 1757 he was appointed high sheriff, and held 
the office until the revolution. In 1773 he proposed the 
establishment of committees of correspondence, and after the 
death of Joseph Warren at Bunker Hill was appointed presi- 
dent of the Provincial Congress. In 1775, when the army 
was in Cambridge, he was made paymaster-general, and 
afterwards major-general of the militia. After the adoption 
of the Constitution of Massachusetts, he was for two years 
Speaker of the House of Representatives, and was offered the 
position of Secretary of the Navy, which he declined. He 
married Mercy Otis, sister of the patriot, and died in Plymouth 
in 1808. His son James, buried in the same enclosure, was 
with Paul Jones in the Bon Homme Richard, and lost a limb 
in one of his battles. Major Benjamin Warren, a distant 
relative and another revolutionary hero, is buried not far 
distant, near the fence at the head of Spring Street. 

Captain Simeon Sampson, still another hero of the revolu- 
tion, is also buried on the hill. Captain Sampson was born 
in Kingston in 1736, son of Peleg, grandson of Isaac 



138 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Sampson, who married Lydia, daughter of Alexander Standish 
and granddaughter of Miles. At the beginning of the 
revolution, when Massachusetts extemporized a navy, he 
received the first naval commission issued by the Provincial 
Congress, and was placed in command of the brig Independence, 
built in Kingston, the hrst vessel-of-war placed in commission. 
He made many successful cruises in the Independence, 
Hazard, and Warren, winning as many victories as he fought 
battles, until after one of the most bloody contests of the 
Avar he was captured by Captain Dawson and held a prisoner 
in Fort Cumberland, near Halifax, until released by exchange. 
The sword worn by him in his various battles, and returned 
to him on his surrender by Captain Dawson in recognition of 
his gallantry, is in Pilgrim Hall, a fitting companion of the 
blade of Standish. 

Other stones which will arrest the attention of the visitor 
are those of William Bradford, son of the governor, 1704; 
Ephraim Little, the fourth settled pastor of the first church, 
1723; Chandler Robbins, 1799, and James Kendall, 1859, 
the sixth and seventh pastors of the same church ; Zabdiel 
Sampson, 1828 ; Zacheus Bartlett, 1835 ; James H. Bugbee, 
the first pastor of the Universalist Society, 1834 ; James 
Thacher, surgeon during the revolutionary war, 1844 ; and 
George Watson, 1800. The character of the last-named 
gentleman may be best illustrated by the chaste epitaph on 
his stone, written by John Davis, author of " Sons of Renowned 
Sires " : — 

"No folly wasted his paternal store, 
No guilt nor sordid avarice made it more ; 
With honest fame and sober plenty crowned 
He lived, and spread his cheering influence round. 

Pure was his walk, and peaceful was his end; 
We blessed his reverend length of days, 
And hailed him in the public ways, 
With veneration and with praise, 
Our father and our friend." 



TOWN BROOK. 139 

Nor must this catalogue be closed without a notice of the 
grave of that indefatigable antiquary and pure man Samuel 
Davis, who died in 1829, worthy of the inscription which the 
same loving hand carved upon his stone : — 

"From life on earth our pensive friend retires, 
His dust commingling with the Pilgrim sires; 
In thoughtful walks their every path he traced, 
Their toils, their tombs, his faithful page embraced; 
Peaceful and pure and innocent as they, 
With them to rise to everlasting day." 

It is unnecessary to enumerate further either the stones on 
the hill or the inscriptions they bear. The latter are for the 
most part simple, serious, and appropriate. There are only 
a few calculated to excite a smile, and to one of these the 
reader will be glad to turn after his pensive walk among the 
graves, — 

" Where the rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep." 

It may be found at the westerly end of the hill, in a lot 
enclosed by an iron fence, on the gravestone of a child one 
year and seven days old, in whose infant prattle its loving 
parents must have seen the promise of a hero's life, — 

"Heaven knows what man he might have been, 
But we, he died a most rare boy." 

The various mill privileges on Town Brook will be con- 
sidered in the order of the dates of their first improvement. 
In the record of the Colony Court for January 8, 1632, there 
is the following entry : — 

" Stephen Deane desiring to set up a water worke to beate corne upon 
the brook adjoining to the towne of Plymouth, for the benefit of the 
Comonwealth, was referred to the Governor and Councell for answer, 
who agreed with him upon the following terms: That provided the place 
he make choyce of were no hindrance to a grinding mill intended heer- 
after he might bring his work neere the towne. 2d. That he should 
receive one pottle out of every bushel for toll and no more. 3d. That 
in case the said Stephen can beate all the corne that is or shall be used in 
the Colony, it shall not be lawful for any other to set up a worke of that 



140 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



kinde except it be for his own use or freely without toll or any other con- 
sideration whatsoever to give leave to others to make use of the same." 

On the 2d of January, 1633, it was further ordered by the 
Court, — 

" That Stephen Deane have a sufficient water-wheel set up at the charge 
of the. Colony consisting of one foot more in depth than that he now useth 
at or before the 27th of March, the said Stephen rinding the iron worke 
thereunto belonging: in consideration whereof the said Stephen to sur- 
render up his worke and that right and claim he challength for the beat- 
ing of corn whenever a grinding mill shall be set up at the order and 
appointment of the Governor and Council of Assistants." 

These orders indicate that Mr. Deane was already in the use 
and occupancy of a mill for pounding corn which he wished 
to bring nearer the town. The old mill was probably at 
"Holmes' dam," but how early it was built neither history nor 
tradition states. As the article of corn was, in the early days 
of the settlement, the chief means of subsistence, it is prob- 
able that a mill for converting it into an eatable form was one 
of the earliest establishments of the colony. Mr. Deane came 
in the Fortune, in 1621, and it is not unlikely that the rudi- 
ments of the dam now to be seen were laid shortly after his 
arrival. Under the grant of the court, there can be little 
doubt that he moved his mill to the site of the upper grist- 
mill where the factory of Samuel Loring is now located. The 
old privilege fell into disuse until the early part of the 
present century, after it had come into the possession of 
William Holmes, by a deed in 1797 from Jacob Albertson, 
administrator of Joseph Rider, who had bought it, in 1791, of 
the heirs of Nathaniel Thomas, who had owned it many years. 
Mr. Holmes rebuilt the dam and erected a factory, but owing 
to threatened lawsuits on the part of Nathaniel Russell and 
others, owners of other privileges on the stream, the building 
was removed before its completion, and its material used in the 
construction of the house, in the upper part of Summer Street, 
owned and occupied by Isaac W. Jackson. 

The new mill erected by Mr. Deane was operated by him 



MILLS AND MANUFACTORIES. 



141 



until his death, iu 1633, when it became necessary for the 
colony to take further action with a view to the continued 
supply of corn-meal. Consequently, at the July court in 
1635,— 

"It was agreed to be needful to build a mill; and these 4 whose 
names are underwritten were by ye Courte appoynted to collecte ye 
money for the building of ye same as also to agree with workmen and 
order otjjer all things for ye dispatch thereof. 

Captaine Standish I John Done & 
Mit. Wm, Colliek I John Winslow." 

Whatever action the committee may have taken on the sub- 
ject, it was ordered by the court in March, 1636, — 

"That Mr. John Jenny shall have liberty to erect a Milne for grind- 
ing and beating of corne upon the brooke of Plymouth, to be to' him and 
his heirs forever. And shall have a pottle of corne toule upon every 
bushel for grinding the same for the space of the two first years next 
after the milne is erected and afterwards but a quart at a bushel for all 
that is brought to the milne by others, but if he fetch it and grind it him- 
self or by his servants then to have a pottle toule for every bushel as 
before." 

The mill was erected by Mr. Jenny, as proposed, on the site 
of the old one. Mr. Jenny had been a brewer in Norwich, 
England, and was probably specially adapted to the business 
in which he became engaged. He died in 1644, after which 
time the mill appears to have been carried on by his son 
Samuel, until his removal to Dartmouth, in 1683. Up to this 
date the title to the privilege had never been granted by the 
colony or town. In that year the following articles of agree- 
ment were made between the town and Charles Stockbridge 
of Scituate : — 

44 Whereas the towne of Plymouth have bin many years much dam- 
nified for want of the right management of their corne mill and having 
by theire agents made suite to the said Charles Stockbridge, to come and 
purchase said mill and come and build it as he shall see cause for the good 
and benifitt of the said towne and himself the said Charles Stockbridge 
coming to Plymouth, on the accounte abovesaid, the said towne of Ply- 
mouth have for his encuragemente heerby granted unto the said Charles 
Stockbridge, the whole use of theire brook or streame commonly called 



142 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



towne brook, where the old mill now standeth ; to him the said Charles 
Stockbridge, his heires and assignes for the use of a come mill or mills 
as hee or they shall see meet and for no other use noe more than any 
other townsman ; which said brooke and privilidges said Charles Stock- 
bridge, his heires or assignes shall have soe long as hee or they shall 
maintain a sufficient corne mill and miller to grind the towne corn well 
and honestly for one-sixteenth part of a bushel of corne or graine which 
shall be brought unto the said mill in a fit capassetee to grind; and for 
the further incurragment of said Charles Stockbridge heerin, the said 
towne have paid unto him, said Stockbridge, eleven pounds in silver 
towards the raising of said mill dame and making a waste water course 
for the herrings to pass over the dam into the pond; and the said towne 
by their agents, whose names are heerunto subscribed, do hereby engage 
to and with the said Charles Stockbridge and his heires and assignes to be 
att half the charge of maintaining the said water course successively: 
namely all that part of it, that is helow the said mill dam. In confirma- 
tion of which articles of agreement abovesaid, the agents for the said 
towne of Plymouth and the said Charles Stockbridge have put to their 
hands the first of May 1683 

Ephkaim Morton, Sen. 
Signed in presence of Joseph Wakren 

Isacke Little Joseph Bartlett 

John Hathaway, Chas. Stockbridge." 

Mr. Stockbridge was a wheelwright by trade, and came in 
the Blessing from London, in 1635, with his father, John 
Stockbridge, who had followed in England the same trade. 
Before coming to Plymouth he had operated a mill in Scitu- 
ate, with such success as to warrant his selection by the town. 
In 1650 his father erected a water grist-mill on the first 
herring brook in Scituate, which after his death, in 1658, came 
into the possession of his son, and up to a date since 1831 
has remained in the possession of the family. Mr. Stock- 
bridge died immediately after the erection of the mill in Ply- 
mouth, and it was sold, in 1684, by his widow, Abigail Stock- 
bridge, to Nathaniel Church. Mr. Church operated the mill 
until his death, when it was sold, in 1717, by his widow, Sarah 
Church, to her son Charles. In 1724 Charles Church sold 
one-third of the mill to Isaac Little, and two-thirds to Samuel 
Clark. Mr. Little sold his part in 1730 to John Riekard, 
who sold it in 1738 to Timothy Morton. From Mr. Morton 



MILLS AND MANUFACTORIES. 



143 



it passed into the hands of Ephraitn Spooner, by whom it was 
sold, in 1788, to Joshua Thomas. Samuel Clark sold one- 
thirdin 1724 to Thomas Witherell, and the remaining third 
at the same time to Haviland Torrey. For many years after 
this date it is referred to in the records as Torrey \s mill. In 
1758 Rebecca Easdell, to whom the share of her father, 
Thomas Witherell, had been set off in the division of his 
estate, sold it to Thomas Mayhew, who sold it to his son 
Thomas in 1774. In 1778 Mr. Mayhew sold it to George 
Watson, who thus became one of the owners at that date with 
Joshua Thomas, above mentioned. The third owned by Mr. 
Torrey was sold after his death, in 1765, by his son Nathaniel 
Torrey to Sylvanus Bramhall, who, with George Watson and 
Joshua Thomas, owned the whole mill in 1788, the date above 
referred to. In the year 1800 George Watson sold his third 
to John Watson, from whom it came into the possession of 
his son Benjamin M. Watson, whose widow, Lucretia B. 
Watson, sold it in 1838 to the Robbins Cordage Company. 
The share of Sylvanus Bramhall descended to his son, 
Benjamin, who sold it in 1836 to Josiah Robbins, who sold 
it in 1838 to the Robbins Cordage Company. In 1835 the 
share owned by Joshua Thomas Avas sold by his widow, 
Isabella Thomas, to Mr. Robbins, who sold it also in 1838 to 
the Cordage Company, who thus came into the possession of 
the whole mill and privilege. In 1847 the mill was burned, 
together with the jenny-house, which the Cordage Company 
had erected on the same dam, and a larger jenny-house was 
erected covering both the sites. In January, 1847, a town 
meeting was called to see what action the town would take to 
secure its rights in the privilege, in the failure of the com- 
pany to comply with the conditions of the grant to Mr. Stock- 
bridge in 1683, which seemed to require the continuance of a 
grist-mill by him and his assigns forever. At that meeting a 
vote was passed referring the matter to the selectmen for a full 
investigation of the rights of the town in the premises. At 
an adjourned meeting in the following month the selectmen 



144 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



made an exhaustive report, based on the opinion of eminent 
counsel, adverse to any and all claim on the part of the town, 
and after an acceptance of the report, the further considera- 
tion of the subject was indefinitely postponed. Up to that 
time, since 1633, for a continuous period of two hundred and 
thirteen years, a grist-mill had stood on the spot and been in 
constant use, grinding corn for the inhabitants of the town in 
accordance with the provisions of the original grant. 

In 1858 theRobbins Cordage Company sold it to Xehemiah 
Boynton and others, who sold it in 1860 to Samuel Loring. 
In 1863 Mr. Loring conveyed it to Leavitt Finney, acting in 
behalf of the Plymouth Tack and Rivet Company, which com- 
pany in the same year conveyed it again to Mr. Loring, who 
has since that time been its sole owner. 

The next mill built on Town Brook was a fulling-mill, 
which was built by George Bonum in 1672, immediately in 
the rear of the house on Mill Lane owned by John T. Hall. 
In 1694 a grant was made to him by the town of an acre of 
land on the south side of the brook, and of the stream on 
which his mill then stood. This mill was sold by Mr. Bonum. 
in 1703, to Nathaniel Thomas, who obtained permission from 
the town to move it to a point lower on the stream. It was 
afterwards moved to the site of the present privilege, at the 
foot of Spring Hill, where it remained by the side of the old 
grist-mill, within the memory of many readers. It was 
operated in its last years by George Sampson, the father of 
the late Schuyler Sampson, and when homespun cloth went 
out of use its business ceased and it was taken down. 

The next dam, in point of time, built on the brook was 
what is now the dam of the Billington Mills. The stream at 
this point was in the earliest part of the last century in the 
possession of Nathaniel Thomas. In 1777 his grandson, 
John Thomas, sold it, with a leather-mill which had been 
previously built, to Ephraim Spooner, William Watson, anil 
Sylvanus Bartlett. In 178S it was sold by them to Solomon 
Inglee, who erected a snuff-mill, and the brick dwelling- 



MILLS AND MANUFACTORIES. 145 

house now standing which was occupied by him as a resi- 
dence. In 1805 Mr. Inglee sold it to Isaac Barnes and 
Benjamin Beal, who sold it, in 1806, to Samuel Spear. In 
1809 Mr. Spear sold one-half of the privilege to Nathaniel 
Russell and William Davis, who, in connection with Mr. 
Spear, built a cotton factory in 1812. This factory was run 
with success until it was burned, soon after the war of 1812, 
when it was rebuilt, and again burned about the year 1843. 
After the last fire it was never rebuilt, and having come into 
the possession of Nathaniel Russell was sold by his son, 
LeBaron Russell, in 1855, to the Samoset Mills Corporation, 
by whom the present mill was built for the manufacture 
of thread. In 1872 it was sold by the Samoset Mills to John 
B. Turner, and converted into a mill for the manufacture of 
print cloths. In 1879 it was sold by Mr. Turner to John C. 
Cobb, under whose ownership it is now operated in the same 
business, by the name of the Billington Mills. 

At the same time that Mr. Inglee bought the last-mentioned 
privilege of Messrs. Spooner, Watson, and Bartlett, he bought 
of them that part of the stream where the machine-shop dam 
belonging to the Plymouth Mills is now located. About the 
year 1790 Mr. Inglee built a dam at this spot, and erected a 
forge, at which, within the memory of many readers, the man- 
ufacture of anchors was carried on. In 1708 Jacob Albert- 
son, who had obtained possession under an execution against 
Mr. Inglee, sold it to Anthony Dike, who sold one-half, in 
1802, to John King and Ephraim Noyes, and the other half 
to Nathaniel Russell and others. In 1806 Messrs. Kin"- and 
Noyes sold their part to the other owners, and Russell & Co. 
became owners of the whole. Like other property on the 
stream belonging to the old proprietors of the iron-works, 
this also came into the sole possession of Nathaniel Russell, 
and was sold by his son LeBaron, in 1854, to the Plymouth 
Mills. During its ownership by the old proprietors of the 
ironworks Oliver Ames came to Plymouth, and leasing a 
portion of the privilege, engaged in the business of making 



146 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



shovels. Not being able to secure increased and permanent 
accommodations, he moved, after a few years, to North Easton, 
where the enterprise which had its origin in Plymouth has 
been since conducted with consummate ability and marked 
success. 

The next privilege, which is the lower one of the 
Plymouth Mills, was, before the year 1667, in the pos- 
session of Nathaniel Warren, the oldest son of Richard 
Warren, of the Mayflower. In 1708 the heirs of Nathaniel 
Warren conveyed it to his son James, the grandfather of 
James Warren of the revolution. In 1736 the second 
James Warren, son of James above mentioned, sold the 
whole tract to David Turner, and in 1756 Mr. Turner sold 
it to Thomas Jackson, who sold it again to Mr. Turner 
in 1762. In 1772 Mr. Turner sold it to William Crombic 
and John Torrey, and in a division made in 1775 of this and 
other lands the whole tract was set off" to Mr. Crombie. 
In 1800 Mr. Crombie sold the privilege to Rossiter Cotton, 
who sold it to Heman Holmes of Kingston, a trader, and 
Zadock Packard of Bridgewater, a wheelwright, who built a 
dam and a forge for the manufacture of anchors. In 1801 
Mr. Packard sold his share to Mr. Holmes, who sold it in 
the same year to Barnabas Hedge, who, in connection with 
Mr. Holmes, carried on the business of the forge. In 1815 
the privilege and forge were sold to the proprietors of the 
iron-works, from whom it came, in 1837, into the sole pos- 
session of Nathaniel Russell, and was sold by him, in 1844, 
to Jeremiah Farris and Oliver Edes, who built a factory for 
the manufacture of rivets. In 1846 it was sold by Messrs. 
Farris & Edes to the Plymouth Mills Corporation, which 
since that time has carried on the business established by its 
predecessors with satisfactory success. 

It will be seen by the above record that manufactures were 
introduced into Plymouth at a late date, and that before the 
revolution the Town Brook ran almost unobstructed to the 
sea. And until within a few years the manufacture of no 



MILLS AND MANUFACTORIES. 



147 



special article has had its origin within its borders. The 
business of its people was in early times largely commercial, 
and was represented, before the war of 1812, by seventeen 
ships, fourteen brigs, and forty schooners engaged in foreign 
trade, and seventy vessels employed in the fisheries. Many 
of the trades, especially that of the cooper, were stimulated 
and sustained by the demands of commerce, and gave the 
citizens of the town abundant employment. In other parts 
of the old colony, however, manufactures obtained an early 
foothold, and have always been characterized by ingenuity, 
skill, enterprise, and success. As early as 1648, in answer 
to a request of Timothy Hatherly of Scituate, the Colony 
Court granted him liberty to set up an iron-mill, and for that 
purpose granted him "all the land lying between the path 
and the ponds, betwixt Namassakeset and Indian Head Riv- 
ers, with all and singular the appurtenances and privileges 
thereunto, to have and to hold unto the said Mr. Timothy 
Hatherly, with all and singular the appurtenances to him, his 
heirs and assigns forever, unto the only proper use and be- 
hoof of him, the said Mr. Timothy Hatherly, to him and his 
heirs and assigns forever ; provided that the said Mr. Tim- 
othy Hatherly doe sett the said iron mill to work within the 
space of three years next ensewing the date hereof, or other- 
wise the said lands are to return again to the Colony." The 
Namassakeset River above referred to is tlie Mattakeeset 
River in Pembroke, and the mill of Mr. Hatherly was doubt- 
less erected on the Indian Head River, not far from the 
"path " referred to, which was the "Massachusetts path," and 
which crossed that river at "Luddens" ford, about three- 
quarters of a mile above the Boston road. Iron-works were 
also built in Taunton at a very early period, reference to 
which is made in the record of the court under the date of 
1655, when "it was ordered, in answer to a petition pro- 
pounded by three men belonging to the iron-works at Taun- 
ton, that they be exempted from training at such time as 
when their worke is in hand, unless upon some spetiall occa- 



148 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



tion of watching that may arise." The first " saw-mill " in 
the colony was erected on the first herring brook in Scituate, 
in 1640, by Isaac Stedman, and the first "clothing-mill" on 
the same brook, by James Torrey, in 1643. The first bricks 
were made in Plymouth, in 1643, by a Mr. Grimes, probably 
in the field below Pilgrim Hall, some of which were supplied 
by him for eleven shillings per thousand for the construction, 
in that year, of the watch-house on the Burial Hill. The 
first meeting-house bells made in the country were cast in 
Abington, by Aaron Hobart, in 1769, under the immediate 
supervision of a deserter from the British army, by the name 
of Gallimore, who was a bell-founder by trade. The first 
cut-nails and tacks were also made in Abington, about the 
year 1770. It was thought a great advance in the process of 
manufacturing these articles when Ezekiel Reed of Abington, 
by a machine of his invention, carried the daily product of 
one man's work from one thousand nails to eight thousand. 
At the present time, with the machines invented by Jesse 
Reed of Kingston, son of Ezekiel, one man can make ten 
kegs of tenpenny nails, of one hundred pounds each, and 
turn out a half a million of tacks. The first cannon and 
cannon balls were also made in Abington, chiefly from bog 
ore dredged from the ponds in that vicinity. The first ma- 
chines made for carding, spinning, and roping were made in 
East Bridgewater, by Hugh Orr, a Scotchman, assisted by 
Robert and Alexander Barr, whom he invited from Scotland 
for that purpose. They were allowed, by the General Court 
of 1786, a gratuity of two hundred pounds for their enter- 
prise, and further compensation of six tickets in the land lot- 
tery of that time. The screw-augur was invented by John 
"Washburn of Kingston, and first manufactured in that town. 
The improved car-wheels patented by George G. Lobdell, a 
native of Kingston ; the stump-puller, invented by Caleb 
Bates and Thomas Newcomb, and the incipient harvesting- 
machine, patented by Samuel Adams in 1805, twenty-eight 
years before the perfected machine of Obed Hussey, further 



ANCIENT NAMES OF LOCALITIES. 



149 



attest the skill of Kingston mechanics. About the year 1830 
Timothy Allen of Plymouth invented a machine for making 
cooper's rivets, and that machine, which was made available 
for the manufacture of all kinds of that article by the invent- 
ive skill of Oliver Edes and Nathaniel Holmes, and subse- 
quently improved by George Rider, Barnabas Churchill, 
and Henry Seymour, was the rude foundation of a business 
which now employs thousands of workmen in the manufac- 
turing States of the Union. Within a few years Lewis G. 
Bradford, of Plymouth, a man of unusual practical ingenuity, 
has invented a bedstead joint, constructed of iron, which has 
secured a firm foothold in the market, and been the means, 
under able management, of developing a large and increasing 
business. Other articles might be mentioned which had 
their birth in the old colony, but the above enumeration is 
sufficient to show that the colony of Plymouth has always 
maintained that rank in enterprise and skill which of right 
belongs to the first settlement in New England. 

In a delineation of the ancient names of localities in 
Plymouth, many of them are found to have undergone such 
radical corruptions that it is impossible to determine their 
origin. The following is a perhaps imperfect list placed in 
alphabetical order without regard to their geographical 
position : — 

Alkarmus Field. — On the westerly side of Sandwich Street, includ- 
ing Mount Pleasant Street and the land on both sides, and bounded by 
Gallows Lane on the west. It is perhaps a corruption of Aceldama 
— bloody field — and executions may at one time have taken place 
there. 

Appaum. — The Indian name, perhaps, of that part of Plymouth north 
of Town Brook. 

Barnes 1 Creek. — The brook which formerly flowed from Dublin 
across Water Street- into Rope Walk Pond. 

Barnes' Point. — That part of the shore near Doten's wharf, owned 
at an early date by John Barnes. 

Beef Hill. — The hill now occupied by the house of Benjamin R. 
Curtis, and so called in the deeds as early as 1706. Probably a cattle- 
pasture. 



150 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Billington Rocks. — Off the shore at Seaside, and named after the 
Billington family, who owned adjacent lands. 

Billington Sea. — Named after Francis Billington who discovered 
it in 1621. Sometimes called in early times Fresh Lake. 

Black Sandy Hill. — The hill on the Carver road, sometimes 
called " Pole Hill." 

Bloody Pond. — South of Long Pond, and once the scene of an 
Indian battle. 

Boot Pond. — One of the South Ponds, and so named on account of 
its shape. 

Bkeak Heart Hill. — On the Sandwich road, near Ellisville. 
Break Neck Hill. — On the Little South Pond road, near Small 
Gains. 

Bride's Hill. — On the Plympton road between the guide-board 
and New Guinea. So named because in the early days of the colony the 
minister of Plymouth, walking to Plympton to visit some of his congre- 
gation, met a couple walking to Plymouth to be married, and married 
them on the spot. 

Broken Wharf — Near the cliff, and alluded to very early. Prob- 
ably an unsubstantial boat landing which soon became a ruin. 

Browne's Island. — Probably named after Peter Browne, who came 
in the Mayflower, and mentioned by Bradford in his history under date 
of 1623. 

Browne's Rock. — At the shore near the foot of Winter Street, north 
of Hobshole. 

Bump's Rock. — On the Agawam road north of the Long Pond road, 
named after an old inhabitant by the name of Bump or Bumpus. 

Bump's Pond. — South of College Pond, named as the last. 

Cedarville. — Named from an insignificant cedar swamp lying 
between the Sandwich road and the settlement. 

Clam Pudding Pond. — On the easterly side of the Sandwich road, 
near the Thrasher neighborhood. 

Clark's Island. — Named after John Clark, the mate of the May- 
flower, who, with the crew of the shallop, spent a Sabbath there before 
landing at Plymouth. 

Clark's Valley. — So called from Thomas Clark, who came in the 
Ann in 1623, and owned lands at that spot. 

Clew Pond. — One of the Crane Brook Ponds, and corrupted from 
Curlew. 

Clifford. — Name derived, as some think, from the "ford" of the 
river at what was called the " Cliff," but more probably from Cliff-Fiord 
or bay — now Warren's Cove. 

Cole's Field. — The field extending from the road to the shore, now 
partially occupied by the woollen mill, and early owned by Ephraim Cole. 



ANCIENT NAMES OE LOCALITIES. 



151 



College Ponds. — They are a cluster of ponds south of South Ponds, 
and the word "College" may signify merely a collection of ponds. 

Cook's Pond. — Sometimes called in the records Haystack Pond, 
named after Jacob Cook, who at an early date owned land about it. 

Crooked Hill. — The hill on the Carver road easterly of Sparrows 
hill valley. 

Crow Line. — The northerly line of the Crow farm. 

Crow's Way. — A way leading into the woods opposite the farm of 
the late Thomas Jackson, at Seaside, owned at an early date by William 
Crow. 

Dark Orchard. — A deep, swampy valley between Watson's Hill 
and the farm of Thomas O. Jackson. 

Derby Pond. — Named after Richard Derby, who owned land in its 
neighborhood at an early date. 

Doane's Field. — Substantially the land of the Cemetery Association, 
named after John Doane, one of the early settlers. 

Duck Plain. — An open clearing in the woods in the north part of 
the town. Derivation unknown. 

Dunham's Brook. — When the slaughter-house pond was merely a 
swamp this was the brook by which it was drained into the Town Brook. 

Dunham's Neck. — The neck of land between Billington Sea and 
Little Pond. 

Ezekiel's Pond. — Named after Ezekiel Ryder, in the early part of 
the last century the owner of lands in its vicinity. 

Faunce's Lane. — Near Cold Spring Hill. Named after Thaddeus 
Faunce, in the last century. 

Fishing Point. — The ancient name of Poverty Point, and so called 
as early as 1638. 

Fort Hill. The Burial Hill, and so called until about 1698. 

Frost Cake. — A fresh meadow on Deep Watei Brook, near Billing- 
ton Sea, abounding in a peculiar shrub which, when dry, has the ap- 
pearance of a coat of frost. 

Gallows Hill. — The hill between Murdock's Pond and Samoset 
Street. It was so called at an early date, and was probably one of the 
places of execution. 

Gallows Lane. — This led to the place of executions. 

Goose Point. — Below the residence of Charles G. Davis, and so 
called at a very early date. It was probably the shooting-place of geese, 
which came up to the brook at that spot to drink. 

Gravelly Hill. — On the South Pond road, near Oberry. 

Great Gutter. — Now Court Square. 

Gunner's Exchange. — A pond near Boot Pond, where hunters for- 
merly met previous to a start. 

Gurnet. — Named from a headland in the English Channel. 



152 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Half-Moon Pond. — One of the Crane Brook Ponds, deriving its 
name from its shape. 

Hedge's Pond. — Named after Will Hedge, an Indian, who owned 
land there in 1674. 

High Cliff. — So called as early as 1633. 

High Gate. — A ridge of hills near Monk's Hill, named after a place 
near London by the Cole family, who migrated to Plymouth from that city. 

High Ridge. — The early name of land near the Nook, at the head- 
waters of Hobshole Brook. 

Hill Dale. — The early name of the farm of Otis W. Burgess, be- 
tween Hobshole and Eel River. 

Hobbamak's Ground. — A parcel of land on Watson's Hill occupied 
by Hobbamak, by permission of the colony, before 1623. 

Hobshole. — A hole full of hobs or hubbies, and is named as early 
as 1623. 

Jordan. — A tract of land on the South Pond road, near Oberry, 
once owned and occupied by Barak Jourdain. 

Jumping Hill. — A hill south of South Street, near the house of the 
late Elias Cox. 

Kamesit. — The Indian name of the country about South Pond. 

Kenelm's Dingle. — Mentioned in 1638. It was probably the valley 
near the house now building by Otis W. Burgess, and named after 
Kenelm Winslow. 

Kitteaumut. — The Indian name of the country from Manomet to 
Buzzard's Bay. 

Knaves' Acre. — A tract of land near High Cliff, deriving its name 
from a district in London, which from an early date has been so called. 
It is laid down in Cunningham's London as "chiefly inhabited by those 
that deal in old clothes and glass bottles." 

Lakenham Road. — The road to Carver, or Lakenham, as it was 
originally called. 

Littletown. — A small settlement on the road leading from Hobs- 
hole Brook to the South Pond road. 
Long Draft. — On the Carver road. 

Lout Pond. — The word "lout" is an obsolete word, derived from 
the Latin word "lutum," signifying clay or mud. It means simply 
Muddy or Clay Pond. 

Manomet. — An Indian name of the locality. It included the Half- 
way Ponds; hence the name Manomet Ponds. 

Murdoch's Pond. — Named after John Murdock, before 1700. 

Narragansett Pond. — Near the farm of the late Isaac N. Barrows 
and derived its ancient name from a battle fought near it between the 
Narragansetts and Pockonokets, in which a large number of the Narra- 
gansetts were killed, and their bodies thrown into the pond. 



ANCIENT NAMES OF LOCALITIES. 



153 



Narragansett Ridge. — The ridge of hills south of the above pond, 
on which the battle was mainly fought. 

New Fields. — In the vicinity of the farm of T. Jackson. They 
were the first cleared lands discovered by the Pilgrims distant from the 
settlement. 

New Guinea. — A colored settlement on the Plympton road. 

Nick's Rock. — On the Monk's Hill road, supposed to have derived 
its name from an Indian of that name. 

Nothing Else. — Locality and derivation unknown- 

Oberry. — A small settlement between Sandwich Street, at Hobs- 
hole, and South Pond road, sometimes called, in the records, Wooe- 
bury, Oulberry, Woeberry, and Oueberry. Derivation unknown. 

Owl Swamp. — In the woods near the head of Wood's Lane. Deri- 
vation unknown. 

Palopacasatt. — Little Herring Pond. 

Parting Ways. — The point where the Plymouth and Carver roads 
separate. 

Patuxet. — The Indian name, perhaps, of that part of Plymouth 
south of Town Brook. 

Perry's Bower. — A small grove of trees on the land of Francis J. 
Goddard, of which only a few are left. So called from Dr. Perry, of 
Keene, New Hampshire, who, when a student in medicine with the late 
Dr. Thacher, often resorted to the grove for study. 

Pinguin Hole, or Coppoanissett. — A river near the Sandwich 
line. 

Pinnacle Hill. — In the rear of South Pond, and so called as early 
as 1638. 

Playne Dealing. — A tract of land at Seaside, between High Cliff 
and the Kingston line, and its name signifies simply, "a plain lying by 

the sea." 

Pontus' Meadows. — A tract of land south of the farm of Samuel 
Barnes, which took its name from William Pontus, one of the early 
settlers before 1637. 

Poverty Point. — A point on the shore at Hobshole, below the 
residence of the late Capt. A. M. Harrisom 

Powder-Horn Pond. — One of the Crane Brook Ponds resembling 
a pmvder-horn in shape. 

Prince's Bottom. — The valley now occupied by the house of Ben- 
jamin M. Watson, a piece of bottom land once owned by Governor 
Prence. 

Puddle Dock. — A name brought from London, where it signified a 
dock by the side of a wharf, owned by Mr. Puddle. The word puddle, 
meaning pool of water, is modern. 

Quaker Tavern. — A spot on the Sandwich road at the head- waters 



154 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



of Forge Pond, whore the Quakers, on their way to their quarterly 
meetings, took their lunch. 

Qlsuknashunk — A rock in the sea below Ellisville. 

Reed Pond. — The meadow, formerly a pond, above the railroad on 
Cold Spring Brook. 

Rehoboth Hill. — Beyond Seaside, on the westerly side of the road, 
sometimes called Raabath. 

Rider's Okchakd. — A tract of land near Cook's Pond, granted at an 
early date to John Rider. 

Ring's Lane. — Named after Andrew Ring, who had lands in the 
neighborhood as early as 1G41. 

Sacrifice Rocks. — Of these there are two, and both on the easterly 
side of the Sandwich road, one between Forge Pond and the Cornish 
tavern, and the other beyond what is known as the Chamberlin place. 
These rocks, still covered with small branches, remain as monuments of 
aboriginal religious rites. Like the Manittoo Asseinah, or Spirit Rocks 
of the western Indians, they have always received the homage of branches 
from the natives, who passed them reverently as the abodes of the Great 
Spirit, and went on in silence. 

Saltash. — The estate of Thomas Clark, in Eel River, near the bridge 
on the old road to Manomet, and took its name from a town in England. 

Salt Water Pond. — Near the shore at Ellisville. 

Saqcisii. — An Indian word signifying small creek. Such a creek 
formerly separated Saquish from the Gurnet, and made it an island. 

Scook's Pond. — At Manomet Ponds, in the rear of the house of 
Truman Holmes. 

Sentry Hill. — Corrupted into Centre Hill. It was probably one of 
the watch and signal stations of the early colony. It is situated near the 
shore below Manomet. 

Shall I Go Naked. — A barren spot near Oberry, once occupied by 
a poor woman, who, when repulsed in her request for alms, was in the 
habit of saying, " Shall I go naked." 

Shifting Coe. — So called as early as 1640. A deed from Joseph to 
Robert Bartlett, 1710, calls it Shifting Cove. It is on the Manomet 
shore below Scook's Pond. 

Shingle, or Double Brook. — The stream in Eel River on which the 
zinc factory of N. Wood & Co. stands. 

Shrieve's Hole. — A deep valley on Oak Street, in the rear of the 
house of Benjamin F. Field, and often called in the records Sheriffs 
Hole. As Shrieve was the ancient word from which Sheriff is derived, 
the mistake was naturally made by those who were ignorant of its true 
origin. It probably took its name from Thomas Shrieve, who was in 
Plymouth as early as 1613, and should never have been called Sheriffs 
Hole. 



ANCIENT NAMES OF LOCALITIES. 



155 



Skeart's, or Steart's Hill.— High Cliff, so-called, as early as 1637 
If " Steart's," probably named after the Start, one of the headlands in the 
harbor of Plymouth, in England. 

Slowly Field. — Probably the field included in the estate of Mrs. 
A. M. Harrison. Derivation unknown. 

Small Gains. — The site of a sterile farm near the East Cove of * 
Billington Sea. 

Smith's Lane. — What is now Emerald Street. One of the oldest 
streets in Plymouth, and has come down to us with more of its original 
features than any other. 

Sparrow's Hill. — Derived from Richard Sparrow, an early settler 
who had forty acres of land granted to him there in 1637. 

Spear Hill. — One of the hills on Narragansett Ridge already 
alluded to. 

Spring Hill. — So called in 1645. 

Spring Lane. — Probably the second street laid out. It leads from 
the Burial Hill to the " Spring " of the Pilgrims near Loring's factory. 

Squirrel Rock. — It formerly stood by the side of the road, near the 
Long House, so called, above Robinson's factory, but has long since dis- 
appeared. 

Strawberry Hill. — Two are referred to in the early records, 
Watson's Hill and the hill directly in the rear of the house of Charles G. 
Davis. The latter was sometimes called Mountain Hill. 

Swan Holt. — So called in 1642. 

Tar Landing. — A wharf which formerly stood a little north of 
Morton's wharf at Hobshole. 

T'other Side. — Esteemed a vulgar designation of lands on the south 
side of the brook, but precisely like " l'autre cote," universally used in 
Paris to describe that large part of the city which lies on the left bank 
of the Seine. 

Tinker Rock Spring. — The old name of Cold Spring, whose deriva- 
tion is unknown 

Triangle Pond. — Mentioned in 1640. 

Tweenit. — The settlement between Sandy Gutter and the Bramhall 
neighborhood. 

Wa lk 'Way. — Probably the earliest designation of what is now 
Faunce's Lane. 

Wallen's Wells. — Corrupted to Warren's Well. Situated between 
the South Pond road and the Russell Mills. "Wells" means springs, 
and " Wallen " is an obsolete word meaning boiling. The designation 
" boiling springs" fitly applies to the place in question. There was a 
Ralph Wallen among the early settlers, who owned land near Eel River, 
but the similarity of name may be accidental. 

There was a "Wallen's Wells" near Austerfield, the birthplace of 



156 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Governor Bradford, but if the name merely signified " boiling springs," 
it would of course have been common. 

Warren's Cove. — Named after Richard Warren of the Mayflower, 
who owned the land along its shore. 

Water Course. — The outlet of South Pond. Not alluded to in the 
' early records, and the omission is confirmatory of the tradition that it is 
an artificial brook dug under the direction of Elder Faunce in 1701. 

Watering Place. — A spot first mentioned in the laying out of 
Sandwich Street in 1666, which lies on the westerly side of the road in 
the corner of the field occupied by the old Harlow house, recently re- 
paired by Mr. Burton. It is now nearly dry. 

Watson's Hill. — Called by the Indians Cantaughcantiest, meaning 
" planted fields," and often in the early records Strawberry Hill. Its 
present name was derived from Elfcanah Watson, who bought it in 1680 
of Jabcz Howland, son of John Howland of the Mayflower, and whose 
descendants continued to own it until the present century. 

Webb's Field. — The field between Summer Street and the Mill Pond 
above Spring Street, named after Adey Webb, one of the early settlers, 
who occupied it 

Whoop Place. — A part of the old Clark estate near the middle 
bridge at Eel River. 

Wiggin Pond. — One of the Crane Brook Ponds, corrupted from 
Widgeon. ' 

Winberry Hill. — West of the Almshouse Pond, sometimes called the 
Mountain. Winberry was the ancient name of huckleberry. 

Windmill Hill. — The church lot between the roads in the rear of the 
store of George W. Bramhall. 

Winslow's Stand. — Probably the same as the following. 

Winsi.Ow's Walk. — An obsolete meaning of " Walk " is pasture, 
and the name doubtless designated the pasture of Jolin Winslow near 
High Cliff. 

Woods' Lane. — The lane to the woods, and so named at an early 
date. 

Some allusion to the ancient streets of Plymouth will find 
an appropriate place in this chapter. Before 1633 there were 
five streets and two lanes laid out within the limits of the 
town. The first street, as is well-known, was that laid out in 
1620, leading from the Fort, on what is now Burial Hill, to 
the shore, and now called Leyden Street. De Rasieres, 
who wrote in 1627, described it as a "broad street, about a 
cannon-shot of eight hundred yards long, leading down the 



ANCIENT STREETS. 



157 



hill with a street crossing in the middle, northwards to the 
rivulet and southwards to the land. The houses are con- 
structed of hewn planks, with gardens also enclosed behind 
and at the sides with hewn planks, so that their houses and 
courtyards are arranged in very good order, with a stockade 
against a sudden attack, and at the ends of the streets there 
are three wooden gates. In the centre, on the cross street, 
stands the Governor's house, before which is a square enclosure 
upon which four patereros are mounted so as to flank along 
the streets." In the earliest records Leyden Street is referred 
to as Broad Street and sometimes Great Street, and at dates 
subsequent to 1715 as First Street. The second of the five 
streets was South Street, now Market Street, and the three 
others, High, now Summer Street, Main and New, sometimes 
in old deeds called Queen Street, now North Street. The 
two lanes referred to are Spring Lane, leading from the fort 
to the spring, now called Spring Street, and Woods Lane, or 
the " lane leading to the woods," which is now Samoset Street. 

It is probable that Main Street was laid out before New or 
North Street, otherwise the latter would have had no connec- 
tion with the other settled parts of the town. Its ancient 
name was Hanover Street. It is probable that South or 
Market Street once extended as a continuation of Main Street 
by a curved line to the foot of Summer Street, and was changed 
to its present location in 1684. In 1716 Water Street was laid 
out thirty feet wide, and its courses from North to Leyden 
street may be found on the records. 

In 1725 Jonathan Bryant, a son-in-law of Dr. Thomas 
Little, who died in 1712 possessed of an extensive tract of 
land east of Main Street, together with Consider Howland, 
Isaac Little and Mayhew Little, sons of Dr. Thomas Little, 
gave land for laying out the street now called Middle Street, 
" for and in consideration of the public good, and for the more 
regular and uniform situation of the town of Plymouth, and 
to be forever hereafter called King Street." As laid out by 
them it was fifteen feet wide, beginning on Main Street at the 



158 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



corner of the house built and owned by Mr. Bryant, and 
running to Cole's Hill. The southerly line of the street was 
in the range of land owned by Ephraim Cole on the other 
corner, next of the parsonage land whei'e the stable now 
stands, next of land of Return Waite as far as the alley, and 
next of land of John and James Rickard as far as the easterly 
end of the street. This street was designated as King Street 
until the revolution, when it received informally the name 
with which it was finally christened, by a vote of the town, in 
1823. A committee on names of streets reported in that year 
that the name " King Street, being a condition of the gift of 
individuals who opened it in 1725, be still continued," but the 
remembrance of two wars with England was too fresh in 
the minds of the people for them to recognize this relic of 
royalty. It would be only a becoming exhibition of re- 
spect for the declared wishes of our ancestors and a 
proper compliance with the terms of the gift to restore its 
ancient name. 

Ring's Lane is an ancient way, which received no formal 
name until 1823, when in accordance with the report of the 
committee above-mentioned it was christened by its ancient 
name. It originally received its name from Andrew Ring, who 
came over a boy about 1629, and owned lands in that neigh- 
borhood as early as 1640. 

In 1728 Thomas Howland threw out land for laying out a 
street from the " Main Road," now Court Street, to the shore 
and called it Howland Street. This street, however, was 
only opened as far as the ropewalks, the extension to the 
shore having been made about the year 1854. 

In 1798 James Thacher threw out land for the opening of 
a sti*eet, which he called Thacher Street. In 1803 this street 
was extended to Ring's Lane through lands thrown out bv 
Sylvanus Bartlett and Joshua Thomas, and in 1823 the whole 
was called High Street, and the name of the old High Street 
was changed to Summer Street. 

Until 1823 Court, School, Pleasant, Sandwich, and Water 



ANCIENT STREETS. 



159 



Streets had no positive designations, but at that date received 
the names they now bear. 

The alleys, of which there are four in the centre of the 
town, are almost a characteristic of Plymouth. They are 
common in English towns, but in this country are rarely to 
be found except in the oldest settlements. The alley leading 
from North to Middle Streets, best known as Spooner's Alley, 
was opened in 1784. That leading from Middle to Leyden 
Streets, known by past generations as LeBaron's Alley, was 
opened by Lazarus LeBaron and James Rickard half a cen- 
tury earlier. The origin of Thomas's Alley and Cooper's 
Alley is unknown to the writer, but the last cannot be more 
ancient than that part of High Street to which it leads, and 
which was opened about 1798. 

The first allusion in the records to a bridge over the brook 
at the foot of Spring Hill is under date of 1666, in the laying 
out of what is now called Sandwich Street. At that time 
Spring Hill was a steep bank, impassable for travel, and the 
route to the bridge was by the way of what is now Mill Lane, 
diagonally across the brook to Sandwich Street. For many 
years this bridge was a rude cartway raised merely above the 
tide, with a footbridge a little farther up the stream. In 
1716 a way down Spring Hill was first laid out, as stated in 
the records, with a convenience to water creatures " at Town 
Brook, though doubtless, until a much later date, when the 
bridge was raised and the descent to it made more easy, Mill 
Lane continued to be used for travel. In 1740 a committee 
was appointed to rebuild the bridge at a higher level, if they 
should think best. At various meetings held by the town in 
1803, 1804, and 1805 projects for raising and renewing the 
bridge were discussed, but no decisive action was taken until 
1812, when permission was given to Benjamin Drew and 
others to build at their own expense an arch bridge of stone, 
convenient for travel and acceptable to the town. Under 
this permit money was raised by individual subscriptions, and 
the present structure, somewhat enlarged a few years since, 



IGO 



PLYMOUTH COLOXY. 



was built. Pleasant Street, though an old road, and alluded 
to as 'such in early deeds, was not made passable for travel 
until about the time of the erection of the church of the Third 
Society, now the High School-house, in 1802. In one of the 
petitions to the town in 1803 for the renewal of the town 
bridge, as it was called, it was suggested that the new bridge 
should be built in the direction of the way leading to the new 
meeting-house, showing, as above stated, that the old way 
across the brook was a diagonal one connecting Mill Lane 
with the ancient road, now Sandwich Street. Pleasant Street 
was opened by private enterprise, and not formally accepted 
by the town until 1823, when it received the name it now 
bears. In the records it is called "the way to the new 
meeting-house," " the way to Mr. Judson's house," and 
" Judson Street," the latter name being repeatedly used after 
its acceptance by the town under its present name. Other 
streets not mentioned in this sketch will be described in their 
appropriate place in the chapter on titles of estates. 



I 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 161 



CHAPTER VI. 

TITLES OF ESTATES. 

The abstracts of titles recorded in this chapter will be con- 
lined to estates lying within what is known as the mile-and-a- 
half tract. In 1701, as has been stated in a previous chapter, 
all the ungranted lands outside of this tract were divided 
among two hundred and one freeholders or proprietors, and 
all lands within it, not already disposed of, were retained by 
the town, in its municipal capacity, for its own use and 
benefit. The boundary line of the tract began at the shore 
at the southeast corner of the farm of Ebenezer Nelson, near 
the mouth of Eel Creek, so called, and extended south- 
westerly nearly in the line of Cold Spring Brook, across the 
farm of John Clark, to a pine tree forty rods east of Triangle 
Pond. In the }"ear 1800 this tree, though still standing, was 
dead, and a heap of stones, which may now be seen, was 
placed round it by Rosseter Cotton, for the preservation of 
the corner. From this point the line extended southeasterly 
by marked ranges across the foot of Sparrow's Hill, over 
Little Pond and the mouth of Billington Sea to Lout Pond, 
and so on across the pond to a white-oak tree marked on four 
sides in what was then and is now known as Rider's orchard. 
From this corner it ran northeasterly to the harbor, crossing 
the farm formerly owned by Joseph Churchill a little south 
of Jabez Corner. Within this tract there are many lots which 
it has been found impossible to trace to the original grantees. 
Those apparently assigned, during the first winter, on the 
south side of Leyden Street, to Edward Winslow, Francis 
Cooke, Isaac Allerton, John Billington, William Brewster, 



162 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



John Goodman, and Peter Brown continued in the possession 
of the colony, and were probably only placed in the hands of 
those persons for the erection of houses for common conveni- 
ence and shelter. Many of those also granted in the land 
division of 1624, and in divisions subsequent to that time, 
were afterwards surrendered by their original owners in 
accordance with the provisions of an act passed by the 
General Court in 1633, which, for a better understanding of 
what appears to be a break in the continuity of titles, is copied 
in full : — 

"It was further enacted, that whereas formerly a smale moyety of 
land was allotted to each family for their subsistence in the towne, viz 
to each person an acre, and that now the said acres lie void, the ancient 
inhabitants being for the most part removed from thence, insomuch that 
as formerly they were the meanes of subsisting in towne, now the pro- 
priety of persons in them elsewhere seated, hinder others from coming 
into the towne by which meanes the said towne is like to be dispeopled, 
it was therefore agreed upon by the mutual consent of the whole (two 
persons excepted) that all and every such person and persons should 
surrender and cast up their right in the said acres, that they may be 
disposed of to such as due or shall inhabite the said towne of Plymouth 
as also other the wast grounds about the said towne by such an orderly 
and equall course as shall be thought meet by the Governor and Council 
of the said Colony ; and that the said Governor and Council thinke of 
some equall course where any have been purchased and the persons not 
able to make satisfaction.'" 

Under the operation of this act, many lots granted in the 
early divisions were surrendered to the colony, and will be 
found in the abstracts to have been regranted at a much later 
period to those whose ownership laid the foundation of present 
titles. In many instances early conveyances failed to obtain 
a record, and in such, of course, more or less, obscurity marks 
their ancient history. 

Lf.ydkn Street. — At a very early date all the land on the south side 
of this street, from the corner of Market Street to the westerly line of the 
lot on which the gambrel roof house with a brick end stands, opposite the 
Universalist Church, was in the possession of James Cole. On the 2d 
of January, 1637, seven acres of land were granted to him by the Court, 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



163 



"to belong to his dwelling-house," and those acres probably included the 
Leyden Street land. His house stood precisely on the site now occupied 
by the house of Ephraim T. Paty, next below the Baptist Church. He 
then kept an ordinary, for which he was licensed in 1615. The records 
fail to show how he came into the possession of the house but it is prob- 
able that he bought it of Edward Winslow, who was perhaps its earlier 
occupant. Judge Sewall says in his diary, under date of March 8, 1698, 
,: Get to Plimouth about noon, I lodge at Cole's, the house was built by 
Governor Winslow, and is the oldest in Plymouth." James Cole sold in 
1688, to his son John, all that part of the above land as far as the Baptist 
Church lot, inclusive, and in 1689 John Cole sold the same to William 
Shurtleff, who built the house now standing on the corner. In 1698 
Shurtleff sold the corner lot and house to Isaac Little, and Little sold 
it in 1699 to James Warren, who bought in 1707 of Shurtleff the adjoin- 
ing lot, on which the hardware store of W. II. H. Weston stands. In 
1713 Warren sold both lots to Job Cusliman, innholder, and in 1728 
Cushman sold to Addington Davenport. In 1732 Davenport sold to 
Consider Howland innbolder; in 1738 Howland sold to Thomas Murdock, 
and in 1776 Murdock left it by will to his wife Elizabeth, who was sister of 
Mercy, wife of Sylvanus Bramhall. and who left her entire property to her 
nephew, Benjamin Bramhall. Mr. Bramhall built a store on the lot next 
to the corner, which for a time was occupied below by Olney and Leonard, 
and above by the Custom-House, and in 1832 sold it to the Old Colony 
Bank, then recently organized. In 1842 the bank sold it to Steward and 
Alderman, who sold it 1846 to William R. Drew, who moved back the 
old building and made an addition to its front. The corner lot and build- 
ing was sold in 1848 by William and Cornelius Bramhall, trustees of 
Benjamin, to Mr. Drew, who is now the owner of both lots. 

The next lot which, in the winter of 1620, was probably built on by 
William Brewster, and at that time stood on the corner, was bought of 
William Shurtleff by John Watson in 1707. and the house now standing 
was built about the time of his marriage, in 1715. After the death of Mr. 
Watson, in 1731, it continued a part of the life-estate of his widow, and 
was occupied by his son John until his death in 1653. and his grandson 
John until 1786, when he made Clark's Island his permanent home. 
After the death of the widow of the first John, who afterwards married 
Isaac Lothrop, and died in 1796, the widow of Noah Hobart of Fairfield, 
Conn., the estate came into the possession of William Davis, whose heirs 
after his death, in 1826, sold it to William Morton Jackson, by whom it 
was sold after many years' occupancy to Mrs Sarah Plympton, and by 
her heirs to George F. Weston and others, its present owners. 

The next lot, on which the Baptist Church stands, was sold by William 
Shurtleff in 1703 to Francis LeBaron, who before his death, in the next 
year, built the old tavern-house, which many readers will remember. 



i 



164 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



It afterwards came into the possession of Lazarus LeBaron, son of Francis, 
who sold it 1765 to his son-in-law, Nathaniel Goodwin, whose son, General 
Nathaniel Goodwin, after his death in 1771, owned and occupied it for 
many years. In 1807 General Goodwin built the Paty house on the lot ad- 
joining, and leased the estate in question to John Bartlett and William 
White, and afterwards to John H. Bradford, who occupied it for many 
years. as a tavern. In 1857 the heirs of Nathaniel Goodwin, son of the 
general, sold it to William Churchill, who after a sale to William Finne\ T 
in 18C0, and a repurchase in 1862, sold it in the latter year to Adoniram 
Whiting and others acting in behalf of the Baptist Society, who in 1865 
built the church now standing on the lot. 

In 1765, the same year in which Nathaniel Goodwin purchased the 
tavern-house and lot, he also bought the two next lots of Samuel Cole, 
son of Samuel, grandson of Ephraim, and great-grandson of James Cole 
from whom they had descended by inheritance. The Paty lot at the 
death of Nathaniel also Came into the possession of General Goodwin, 
who built the house now standing in 1807, and occupied it until his death, 
in 1819. In 1827 it was sold by the heirs of General Goodwin to Thomas 
Russell, who occupied it many years, and whose heirs sold it in 1874 to 
Ephraim T. Paty, its present owner. The next lot came into the posses- 
sion of Mercy, a daughter of Nathaniel Goodwin, who married John 
Read, Jr., of Boston, and wdio conveyed it in 1788 to Rev. Chandler Rob- 
bins, who built the house now standing and occupied it a few years before 
his death, in 1799. In 1801 and 1803 it was conveyed by several deeds 
by the heirs of Mr. Robbins to James Bartlett, who lived in it until he died, 
in 1840. Colonel Leander Lovell, who married Mr. Bartlett's daughter, 
became its subsequent owner and occupant, and it was sold in 1880 by his 
heirs to its present owner, James M. Atwood. 

The remainder of the James Cole land was sold by him to his son 
John in 1701, who conveyed it in 1705 to John Dyer. That part of it on 
which the next house in order stands was sold in 1734 by Mr. Dyer to 
Rev. Nathaniel Leonard, pastor of the First Church, who built the house 
now standing. Mr. Leonard came to Plymouth from Norton, and the 
timber for the house was cut in that town and brought to Plymouth. He 
graduated from Harvard in 1719, :ind was ordained in 1724, continuing 
in his pastorate until 1756. At his death, which occurred in Norton in 
1761, a portion of the estate passed to his son Nathaniel, who sold it to 
George Leonard in 1770, by whom it was conveyed to his nephews, 
William and Thomas, in 1799. Thomas conveyed his share to William, 
who sold it in 1804 to Bethiah Johnson The other part was bequeathed 
by Mr. Leonard to his daughters Bethiah and Priscilla, who sold it in 
1766 to Barnabas Hedge. Mr. Hedge sold a portion of his part in 1786 
to James Bartlett, of whom it was bought by Salisbury J:ickson in 1802. 
The remainder of the estate Mr. Jackson bought of Hannah Hedge, the 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



165 



widow of Barnabas, and of the heirs of Mrs. Johnson, thus becoming 
possessed of the whole. The front part of the next lot, on which the 
house stands occupied by Miss Eliza H. Clark, was conveyed by John 
Dyer in 1739 to Gershom Holmes, who built, a part of the house now 
standing, and sold it in 1741 to Thomas Mayhew. The rear part of the 
lot, Hannah Dyer, widow of John Dyer, sold in 1742 to Thomas May- 
hew, making him the owner of the whole estate. In 1775 Mr. Mayhew 
sold it to Alexander Champion and Thomas Dickson of London, who 
sold it by their attorney, Nathaniel Goodwin, in 1785 to William Har- 
low. It was bought of William Harlow in 1800 by Robert Roberts, of 
whose estate it was purchased by his sister, Mrs. John Clark, whose 
daughter now owns and occupies it. 

The next lot, on which now stand the two houses owned by Samuel 
Nelson and Oliver N. Barrows, was sold by John Dyer, the son of the 
above-mentioned John, in 1784, to Benjamin Rider. The next lot below, 
on which the brick-end house stands, was conveyed to John Dyer in 
1698 by William Bradford, heir of Governor Bradford, and by his son 
John conveyed also with the above lot, in 1784, to Benjamin Rider. In 
the deed from William Bradford, the lot is described as running on the 
street northeasterly "as far as the northeasterly corner of the old store- 
house, which formerly stood on the lot." While the location of the 
common-house, generally spoken of as the first house, on the lots occu- 
pied by the houses of Mr. Nelson and Mr. Barrows rests on tradition 
more or less accurate, we can fix with a certainty derived from this deed 
the location of the store-house, built at the same time, on the exact spot 
occupied by the brick-end house above referred to. Mr. Dyer built a 
house on his land before it was sold to Mr. Rider. In 1794 the house 
and land were sold by Mr. Rider to Joseph Tribble and William Bames, 
and in the same year, by a division agreed upon, Mr. Barnes took the 
westerly half of the house and land and Mr. Tribble the easterly half. 
Afterwards the Dyer house was taken down, and Mr. Tribble built the 
brick-end house, and Mr. Barnes built the house now owned by Mr. 
Nelson, next to the house of Miss Clark. Mr. Tribble sold the upper 
part of his house to Bartlett Marshall, in 1796, whose heirs sold it to 
John Clark, by whom it was sold, in 1829, to Samuel D. Holmes, who 
occupied it some years. Mr. Holmes will be remembered by many 
readers as the master of the sloop Harriet, which ran as a packet for 
many years between Plymouth and Boston. He afterwards built the 
adjoining house, now belonging to Oliver N. Barrows, into which he 
moved in 1834, and sold his part of the old honse to Kimball and Brad- 
ford. Kimball and Bradford sold it to William M. Jackson, who sold 
it to Zephaniah Bradford in 1841, who again sold it, in 1865, to Bradford 
Barnes, the grantor in a deed to Martha Churchill in 1870. The lower 
part was sold in 1817 by Benjamin Drew, guardian of Joseph Tribble, 



106 



PLYMOUTH COLOXT. 



to James Tribble, by whom it was sold in 1819 to John Tribble, who 
sold it in 1822 to Atwood Drew, whose son, George Henry Drew, now 
owns it. The house built by William Barnes was occupied after 1 lis 
death by his son Levi Barnes, and finally sold in 1871 by Isaac Brewster 
and others who had become its owners to its present owner and occupant, 
Samuel Nelson. 

The next lot, on the rear of which the Drew house as it was called 
formerly stood, but which is now occupied by a barn belonging to E. and 
J C. Barnes, was probably the site of one of the store houses erected 
after the landing. It remained for many years the property of the town, 
and was finally parti}' granted and partly sold in 1707 and 1714 to 
Ephraim Kempton, and was bounded on the west by a common passage- 
way which still remains, and on the east by a way which led across the 
brook by a ford a little above the present bridge. Mr. Kempton sold 
the land, with the house which will be remembered by many readers, in 
1737, to Silas West. In 1752 it passed under an execution to Thomas 
Foster and others, who sold in the same year to Lemuel Drew. Mr. 
Drew, who appears to have moved to Nova Scotia, sold it in 1773 to his 
brother, James Drew, from whom it afterwards passed into the hands 
of Salisbury Jackson, and afterwards into the possession of William 
Drew, the father of William Drew, well-known by the last generation as 
a skilful shipwright, by whose heirs and representatives the lot was sold, 
after the house had been burned, to its present owners. 

The Turner lot was obtained in part by David Turner, the grandfather 
of the late David Turner, by a grant from the town in 1755, and by a 
deed from Isaac Morton in 1750, who obtained his title in 1748 from Job 
and Silas Morton, who came in possession by a grant from the town, and 
in part by Lothrop Turner, his son, by a deed from Wendell Davis in 
1801. The dwelling-house standing on the lot was built by David 
Turner, the grandfather of the late David Turner, who was possessed of 
the whole at the time of his death, and whose family now own and 
occupy it. The history of this estate is not as clear as the writer could 
wish, but he deems it unnecessary to present it in all its intricate details, 
alike confusing and uninteresting to the reader. 

A strip of land running on Main Street from Leyden to Middle Street, 
was once owned and occupied as a residence by Stephen Hopkins, one 
of the Mayflower Pilgrims. He died in 1644, and not long after his death 
it came into the hands of Edward Gray, who sold it in 1670 to John 
Cotton, then pastor of the Plymouth Church. In 1680 Mr. Cotton sold 
it to James Cole, who came to Plymouth about 1633, and was probably 
the first vintner or tavern-keeper in New England. In early times the 
occupation of vintner seems to have been a favorite one with persons 
of that name. In 1631 Samuel Cole set up the first house of entertain- 
ment in Boston, and at a later date the famous Mitre Tavern in London 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



167 



was kept by a person of the same name. In 1616 a James Cole lived at 
Highgate, near London, who was a great lover of plants and flowers, 
and married a daughter of Lobel, the celebrated botanist, who was the 
physician of James I., from whom the plant Lobelia derives its name. 
The fact that the Cole family had lands near the ridge of hills called 
Highgate, near the Kingston line, suggests an explanation of the name. 
Ephraim Cole, son of James Cole, was a blacksmith, and occupied a shop 
which may now be seen in the rear of Weston's Express Office. He 
married Rebecca, daughter of Edward Gray, and came into possession 
of the estate referred to at the death of his father in 1709. While in 
possession he built and occupied the house now standing on the corner 
of Leyden Street. At his death, in 1731, the house came into possession 
of his daughter Rebecca Durfee, the wife of Richard Durfee, who con- 
veyed it in 1752 to John Churchill. Mr. Churchill held and occupied it 
until 1767, when he sold it to Samuel Cole, the grandson of Ephraim, its 
former owner, who, in the same year, conveyed it to Barnabas Hedge, 
his half-brother, the father of the late Barnabas Hedge, whose family 
occupied it until the death of his widow, when it became a leased tenement, 
though it has remained, until purchased by Mr. Weston in 1872, in the 
possession of the Hedge family. 

The house occupied by William R. Drew stands on land which was 
a part of the homestead lot of John Howland of the Mayflower. It after- 
wards passed into the hands of Edward Gray, who sold it in 1670 to Rev. 
John Cotton, who in his turn sold it in 1680 to James Cole. It was 
afterwards owned by Ephraim Cole, the son of James, whose daughter 
Mary, the wife of Peleg Durfee, sold it in 1743 to Edward Sparrow. 
The administrators of Mr. Sparrow sold it in 1747 to Ezra Allen, who 
built the house now standing, and after his death it was sold by his heirs 
to the late Barnabas Hedge, in 1785. This pedigree refers, however, 
only to the lot on which the house stands with the garden in the imme- 
diate rear. The westerly part of the lot covers a part of the homestead 
of John Howland, and a part of that of Stephen Hopkins. This part, 
after possession by Ephraim Cole, was sold by his daughter Mary in 
1743 to James Hovey, who sold it in 1747 to Josiah Carver. Mr. Carver 
sold it in 1757 to Elias Trask, who sold it in 1763 to Samuel Lanman, by 
whom it was again sold to Ezra Allen, the owner of the other part and 
the grantor to Barnabas Hedge. Mr. Hedge enlarged the house by the 
addition of a third story, and occupied it after his marriage until his 
death, in 1840. In 1854 it passed into the possession of Zaben Olney, and 
is now the property of its present occupant. 

The parsonage-house now owned by Harvey W. Weston stands on 
land once owned and occupied by Samuel Fuller, who came in the May- 
flower, and died in 1633. In 1664 his wife Bridget and son Samuel 
joined in a gift to the church of Plymouth, for the use of a minister, of a 



168 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



certain " garden plat," being a half-acre, more or less. The half-acre 
was bounded south by Leyden Street, easterly by the middle of the 
alley, and so on in this same range to what is now Middle Street, 
north by Middle Street, and westerly by a line running in a range of 
land of William R. Drew. The only means of ascertaining the age of 
this house with even an approximation to certainty are in the hands of 
the writer. He has among his papers a proposal, without date, of Wil- 
liam Rickard, to finish and complete the various rooms, and entries, and 
stairways of the house, which is as follows : — 



Finishing the entray with Brackett Stars and Winscutt the hoi, . . £52 10s Od 
finishing the two front Rooms With Brest work over the Chimneys, 

Shelves, and Cornishing 50 00 

finishing the two front chambers and Entray With common carving, . 29 00 

finishing the two back chambers, 25 00 

finishing the bed room with shelves and mop boards, . . . . 20 00 

finishing the ciching and back stars with all the conveneuces common, 18 00 

£194 10s Od 

As William Rickard was in active life in 1760, and as Rev. Chandler 
Robbins was ordained in that year, it may reasonably be inferred that 
the parsonage was built at that time for his use and occupation. As 
Mr. Robbins was succeeded by Dr. James Kendall, it will be seen that 
up to the time of the purchase by Mr. Weston in 1860, during a period of 
more than one hundred years, it had but two occupants, and that at this 
time, since the death of Mr. Fuller, in 1633, the estate is in the hands of 
only its third owner. 

The land adjoining the above, as far as the middle of the alley, was 
a part of the Fuller gift, and in 1673, with a parsonage-house standing 
thereon, was conditionally granted by the town, which then represented 
the church, to its pastor, John Cotton. In 1680 the conditions were 
removed, and the estate was conveyed, without restrictions, to him and 
his heirs forever. In 1700, after the death of Mr. Cotton, it was con- 
veyed by his widow to her sons Josiah and Theophilus, and in 1705 by 
them to Return Waite. Josiah occupied the house after the death of his 
mother, in 1702, until 1709, when he occupied the Thomas Jackson 
estate, in the north part of the town, once owned by his wife's mother's 
first husband, William Crow. The Cotton parsonage-house doubtless 
stood on the extreme southeast corner of the lot, as, in 1708, Mr. Waite 
conveyed to Thomas Doty a part of the parsonage lot on that corner, 
with the house thereon, measuring on the street fifty-six and one-half 
feet, and eighty-two feet deep. This lot was, in 1725, reconveyed to 
Return Waite by Thomas Doty, son of the above Thomas, and Mr. 
W:iite sold it, in the same year, with the land in its rear, to Lazarus 
LeBaron. It is probable that, between 1705 and 1725, Mr. Waite built 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



169 



a house on the westerly part of the lot, as, in his deed to Mr. LeBaron, 
he bounds the lot sold to him fifty six and one-half feet wide on Leydcn 
Street, by the southeast corner of the house occupied by him as a resi- 
dence. It is fair, therefore, to presume that the whole or a part of the 
old Churchill house, which stood on the site now occupied by the house 
of Allen Holmes, was the house built by Return Waite before 1725. 
After 1725 the remainder of the Cotton parsonage was sold to Lazarus 
LeBaron, and at later dates it passed through the hands of Bartlett and 
Isaac, sons of Lazarus LeBaron, to Barnabas Churchill, whose family 
have, until within a few years, owned and occupied it. The Waite 
house was moved a few years since, and now stands on land owned by 
Barnabas Hedge, and is the next house south of his residence, in the 
north part of the town. That part of the parsonage lot lying on Middle 
Street was sold at different times. The stable lot was sold by the First 
Church to George Drew, and Nehemiah Burbank bought of the LeBarons 
the lot on the corner of the alley near the beginning of this century, 
and built the house now occupied by Barnabas II. Holmes. The alley 
was laid out by Lazarus LeBaron and James Rickard, who owned on 
the other side, each giving, as there is every reason to believe, one-half 
of the land. 

The Cotton house was taken down, and a new house built by Lazarus 
LeBaron, which was occupied first by Isaac and William LeBaron, two 
of his sons, and afterwards by the late Isaac LeBaron, son of Isaac, 
until the estate was sold to the late James Bartlett, who built on its site 
the house now occupied by his son-in-law, Isaac Brewster. 

The tract of land between Middle and Leyden Sheets on the north 
and south, and Cole's Hill and LeBaron's Alley on the east and west, 
covers two original garden plats, which as far back as the earliest records 
reach belonged to Robert Hicks, who built a house thereon which he 
made his residence. 

Robert Hicks was a leather dresser in London, and is supposed to have 
been a brother of Sir Baptist Hicks, a mercer of London who was 
knighted in 1605 and afterwards became Viscount Camden. He was 
the founder of Hicks' Hall, a session-house built in 1612, and made 
famous by the trial of Lord Russell, who was condemned within its walls, 
and of Count Koningsmark, the assassin of Mr. Thynne. Butler in the 
third canto of the third part of Hudibras, alludes to it in the following 
lines : — 

" An old dull sot who told the clock 
For many years at Bridewell Dock 
At Westminster and Hicks' Hall, 
And hiccius-doctius played in all." 

i 

Robert Hicks conveyed the estate under consideration in 1639 to his son 
Samuel, and after the removal of Samuel to Barnstable and Dartmouth 



170 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



it passed into the hands of Edward Gray, who made it his residence. In 
11)73 Edward Gray conveyed it to John Rickard. Mr. Rickard was son 
of Giles Rickard who was in Plymouth as early as 1G37. anil married 
before 1G07 three wives, the second of whom w:ts Jean Tilson, not dis- 
covered by Savage to have been, as she was, the widow of Edmund Tilson, 
and the third. Hannah, widow of John Churchill and daughter of William 
1'ontus. John Rickard lived on the estate, and after his death it came 
into the possession of his sons James and John, both of whom lived 
there, James in the westerly and John in the easterly part. After its 
occupation by John Rickard, senior, and before its occupation by his sons, 
it was occupied by Joseph Allyne, the son of Samuel Allyne of Barn- 
stable, and grandson of Thomas of the same place. Mr. Allyne was 
born in 1671, and married Mary, daughter of Edward Doty, who was 
drowned near the Gurnet with Elkanah Watson in 1690, and grand- 
daughter of Edward Doty of the Mayflower. He had two children born 
in the house, Elizabeth and Mary, the last of whom was born in 17u2and 
married James Otis, the father of the patriot. The fact that the records 
show that not many years after the death of John Rickard his sons lived 
in it, and that the genealogy of the Otis family declares that James Otis 
married Mary Allyne of Wethersfield, is conclusive that its occupancy 
by Mr. Allyne could not have been a long one. Its designation as the 
Allyne house, by which it was so long known, was due alone to the fact 
of its association with a distinguished family, for Mr. Allyne neither 
built nor owned it nor did his family occupy it as long as that of Mr. 
Rickard. 

With the exception of parts of the estate previously sold, the house and 
land passed out of the hands of the Rickard family in 1730 into the pos- 
session of James Shurtleff and Samuel Bartlett, and about 1750 into the 
possession of Isaac Lothrop. but whether it was ever occupied by either 
of them or became a leased house is not known. It is probable, however, 
'that during their ownership it was used as a tenement house, as it is 
known to have been during the ownership of Barnabas Hedge, which 
followed that of Mr. Lothrop, until it was sold by Mr. Hedge, in bS26, to 
Daniel Jackson and others, proprietors of the Universalist Church, when 
it was taken down to give place to the church and the house built for 
the parsonage now standing on its site. The bank in front of the church 
between the fence and Leyden Street, was a part of the estate and is now 
owned by the heirs of Barnab:is Hedge, subject to an agreement expressed 
in the deed from Mr. Hedge to the church that no building should be 
erected on the same. 

The house on the Hicks estate, standing on the corner of Middle Street 
and Cole's Hill, was new when sold by Benjamin Drew, in 1801, to Barna- 
bas Hedge, Jr., the father of Benjamin Drew with Isaac Lothrop having 
purchased the land of the Rickards. It was afterwards occupied by 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



171 



Barnabas Hedge, Jr., and finally, a few years since, sold to the late Caleb 
B. Holmes, whose family now occupy it. 

The lot on Middle Street, on the northwest corner of the Hicks land, 
was sold in 172G by James Ilickard to Samuel Bartlett, above-mentioned, 
running one hundred and four feet on the street and one hundred feet 
deep. Mr. Bartlett built the house now standing, and, after its occupa- 
tion by him, it was sold to Benjamin Drew and Isaac Lothrop and 
others, and at various times occupied by Beza Hayward, Nathaniel Rus- 
sel, Daniel Goddard, and others, until it was sold, a few years since, to 
Charles L. Jones, its present owner and occupant. 

The lot of land on which stands the house occupied by Miss Lucy 
Marcy, was a part of the Hicks estate, and sold by James Rickard in 
1736 to Samuel Bartlett, who sold it 1745 to Isaac Doten, who built the 
house now standing. In 1809 the heirs of Isaac Doten sold the house 
and lot to Thomas Jackson, who in 1814 sold it to Sarah Harlow, widow 
of Jesse Harlow, who gave it in 1828 to Rowland E. Cotton, by whom 
it was sold to Miss Marcy, its present owner and occupant. It was occu- 
pied for a time by Hon. Jacob H. Loud immediately after his marriage. 
That part of Leyden Street lying west of Main and Market Streets will 
be described hereafter under other heads. 

North Street. — This street was laid out before 1633, and was vari- 
ously called, in old deeds, New Street, Queen Street, North Street, and 
Howland Street. The last name was applied to it after the family of 
Howlands had become numerous, and were largely engaged in purchases 
and sales of lands on its northerly side. The abstracts of titles on this 
as well as other streets will be confined chiefly to those of front land, 
regardless of additions and subtractions in the rear. 

The earliest record of the lot on the corner of North and Court 
Streets is of its sale by John Morton, the brother of Secretary Nathaniel 
Morton, to Joseph Green, in 1654. Of Mr. Green little is known except 
that he was in Plymouth as early as 1643. After Mr. Green, as nearly 
as can be learned from the record, the next owner of this lot was Thomas 
Howland, who built a house thereon. Mr. Howland sold it, in 1713, to 
Ignatius dishing. In the same year in which Mr. dishing: bought the 
lot he sold it to Josiah Cotton, who seems to have made it his place of 
residence. In 1724 Mr. Cotton sold it to Edmund Tilson, who sold it to 
Consider Howland, the son of Thomas, from whom it passed to his son, 
Thomas Southworth Howland, who sold it, in 1762, to Jonathan Diman. 
Mr. Diman sold it, in 1804, to Rosseter Cotton, who took down the old 
house standing on the lot, and built the present structure, now occupied 
by Avery & Doten. In 1857 Rowland E. Cotton, son of Rosseter, sold 
it to Moses Bates, from whom it passed to Jacob W. Seaver of Boston, 
its present owner. 



172 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



The next lot, on which the house of Nathaniel Morton stands, was, as far 
back as the earliest records reach, in the i>osscssion of John Smith, who 
appeared in Plymouth as early as 1043, and married Deborah, daughter 
of Arthur Ilowland, of Marshfield. lie conveyed the lot, in 1CG0. to 
Edward Doty, son of Edward Doty of the Mayflower. Mr. Doty con- 
veyed it to Thomas Howland, who sold it, in 1713, to Thomas Phillips, 
who sold it, in the same year, to Joseph Vaughn, who sold it, in 1722, t < > 
his mother, Susannah Vaughn, who was the daughter of Samuel Grimes 
of Plymouth, and widow of John Vaughn of Newport. Susannah 
Vaughn sold it to Consider Howland in 1724. Mr. Ilowland took down 
a small house standing on its southeasterly corner, which had been occu- 
pied by the mother of Mr. Phillips, and was sold to him with the 
remainder of the estate, and built and occupied the house which many 
readers will remember as standing on the lot before the present house 
was built. In 1732 he sold it to Nathaniel Ilowland, who conveyed it, 
in 1741, to David Turner. From David Turner it passed into the hands 
of Thomas Southworth Howland, who occupied it as an inn, and made 
it historical as the resort and dining-place of the Old Colony Club. In 
17C8 Mr. Howland conveyed it to Jane Eustis of Boston, though contin- 
uing in its occupancy, and it was afterwards bequeathed by Mrs. Eustis 
to Sampson Salter Blowers of Boston, who sold it, by Samuel Danfbrth, 
his attorney, to Thomas Jackson, in 1790. Mr. Blowers was a man of 
distinction, who deserves more than a passing notice. Born in Boston, 
and graduated at Harvard College in the class of 17G3. he studied law 
with Governor Hutchinson, and was associated, in 1770, with Adams 
and Quincy in the defence of the British soldiers engaged in the Boston 
massacre. In 1774 he went to England, and, returning in 1778, found 
his name in the Proscription Act, and after a short imprisonment moved 
to Halifax, where he became one of the most distinguished men in the 
colony. In 1785 he was appointed attorney-general and speaker of the 
house of assembly, and in 1797 was created chief justice of the 
supreme court. He was also a member of his majesty's council, and 
died in Halifax in 1842, in the eighty-eighth year of his age. In 1794 
Thomas Jackson conveyed the lot in question to Stephen Marcy, whose 
family occupied it many years, and whose heirs sold it, in 1S33, to Jacob 
Covington, who built the present house. After Mr. Covington, the 
house built by him was for some years owned and occupied by Josiah 
Robbins and Peter Holmes, and was sold, in 1881, to Nathaniel Morton, 
its present owner and occupant. 

The next estate, owned by the heirs of Daniel Jackson, and occupied 
by Dr. E. D. Hill, is a part of a tract of land containing one and a half 
acres, once owned by Edward Doty of the Mayflower. This tract 
extended from the easterly line of the preceding lot to the westerly 
boundary of the lot of John J. Russell, and was conveyed by his son, 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



17J 



Samuel Doty, in 1703, to James Warren, the grandfather of James War- 
ren of the revolution. In 1710 Mr. Warren sold the whole tract to 
Charles Little, the son of Isaac Little of Marshfield, and brother of Dr. 
Thomas Little, who was largely possessed of land on the other side of 
the street. Mr. Little sold the lot in question, in 1715, to Benajah Pratt, 
a grandson of Joshua Pratt, who came in the Ann in 1623, and was one 
of the purchasers of Dartmouth. Mr. Pratt sold it to Timothy Morton 
in 1722, who sold it, in 1725, to Thomas Weston. After Mr. Weston it 
passed into the hands of Consider Howland, and was sold by his son, 
Thomas Southworth Howland, to James Warren, in 1764, and remained 
in the Warren family until it was sold by Mary Warren, the widow of 
Henry Warren, the son of James, in 1830, to Frederick Freeman, who 
built the present house, and sold it, in 1833, to Daniel Jackson, whose 
heirs now own it. A small portion of the lot passed from Thomas Wes- 
ton to Perez Tilson, which was also sold to James Warren in 1770, by 
which sale the lot was restored to its original dimensions. 

The next lot, on which the house stands occupied by Miss Pella M. 
Robbins, is a part of the land sold by Samuel Doty to James Warren in 
1705, and by Mr. Warren to Charles Little in 1710. In 1719 Mr. Little 
sold it to Nicholas Drew, who sold it, in 1721, to David Turner. Mr. 
Turner, it is believed, built the house now standing, and sold it in 1761 
to Perez Tilson. William Thomas, administrator of the estate of Mr. 
Tilson, sold it in 1771 to Josiah Morton, who reconveyed it in the same 
year to Mr. Thomas. It was sold by Mr. Thomas, in 1773, to Thomas 
and Elizabeth Finney, from whom and their heirs it passed, in 1799 and 
1807, to Josiah Finney, who sold >t, in 1813, to William Sturtevant. 
William P. Ripley and Isaac Eames Cobb, administrators of Mr. Sturte- 
vant, sold it, in 1820, to Coomer Weston, who sold it, in 1825, to Nancy 
Cobb, the wife of Job Cobb, who, after the death of her husband, mar- 
ried Lemuel Brown, the father of Stephen C. and the late Joseph P. 
Brown, and whose heirs until recently held it in possession. Before the 
occupancy of this house by Mrs. Cobb, she will be remembered by the 
oldest readers as keeping a shop in a house to which the most southerly 
of the two cellars on the lot now occupied by the bank building belonged, 
and which Mr. Cobb bought of Nathaniel Jackson. 

The three next lots, which have for many years been associated with 
the Weston family, are also a part of the land once owned by Samuel 
Doty, James Warren, Charles Little, and Nicholas Drew. The first lot, 
on which the house stands now owned by William Weston, was con- 
veyed by Nicholas Drew to Consider Howland, who sold it to Maiy 
West in 1756, who sold it, in 1761, to William Weston, who built the old 
house on the site of the present one, since which time it has been in the 
Weston family, and was for many years owned and occupied by Lewis 
Weston, the father of William, now living, who built the present house. 



174 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



The next lot was sold by Nicholas Drew to David Turner, who sold it 
to Thomas Weston, by whom it was conveyed to his son-in-law, William 
Weston, and by him, in 179G, to his son, Coomer Weston, who built and 
occupied the house now standing, and was the father of the late Coomer 
Weston. It was sold by the heirs of Coomer Weston to Daniel Jackson, 
whose heirs sold it, in 1878, to William S. Robbins, who sold it, in the 
same year, to Isaac Brewster, its present owner. Many readers were 
doubtless pupils of the widow of Coomer Weston, who kept a school 
some years in this house. 

The next lot was sold by Nicholas Drew to David Turner, who sold 
it to Thomas Weston, whose son Thomas conveyed it, in 1755, to Wil- 
liam Weston, who built the house now standing. William Weston sold it, 
in 1797, to his son, Lewis Weston, the father of the late Ben jamin Weston, 
who occupied it until his death, and whose heirs sold it in 1881 to Thomas 
B. Swift. 

The lot on which the house stands occupied by Edward L. Barnes, 
is made up of two ancient lots, one of which is covered by the main 
house, and the other by the projection recently added to its easterly side. 
The first of these lots was sold by Nicholas Drew, in 1720, to David 
Turner, who sold it in 1725 to Ichabod Delano, who appears to have 
built the easterly part of tlio main house now standing. Lemuel Delano, 
son of Ichabod, sold it in 1738 to Richard Waite, the son of Return Waite, 
and in 1739 Mr. Waite sold it to Francis Adams. In 1782 Francis and 
Lydia Adams and Kesiah Little, children of Francis, sold it to Cornelius 
Dunham, who sold it in 1791 to Thomas and William Davis, of whom it 
was purchased in 1792 by Rosseter Cotton, who added the westerly half 
of the house, and who made it his resilience until 1804, when he sold it 
to Henry Warren, who also occupied it for several years. In 1 SI 9 Mr. 
Warren sold it to Barnabas Hedge, during a part of whose ownership it 
was occupied by his son, Isaac L. Hedge, and in 1835 Mr. Hedge sold 
it to Levi Barnes, by whom and his heirs it has since been occupied. 
The easterly projection of the house was built on the lot on which 
stood, until within a few years, the house owned and occupied by 
William Rogers. 

The Rogers lot, on which the projection of the Barnes house stands, 
was sold in 1734 by Nicholas Drew to Silas West, who is thought to have 
been a grandson of Francis West, who was in Duxbury as early as 1643, 
and was one of the first proprietors of Bridgewater in 1645. Mr. Wv t 
sold it to Lemuel Cobb in 1736, who sold it in 1741 to Sylvanus Cobb, 
who built the house which many readers will remember. In 17S5 
William and Mary F'eeman, heirs of Mr. Cobb, sold it to Jonathan 
Bartlett, who sold it in the same year to Mercy Drew. In 1796 Mercy 
Drew sold it to Rosseter Cotton, who sold it in 1796 to William Rogers. 
In 1856 Nancy B. Rogers, daughter of William, to whom it was given 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



175 



by her father's will, sold it to Martha W. Barnes, the widow of Levi 
Barnes, and since that time its history is familiar. 

Sylvanus Cobb, the purchaser of the above estate in 1742, and the 
builder of the Rogers house, was the great-grandson of Henry Cobb, 
who married Patience, daughter of James Hurst, and appeared in 
Plymouth as early as 1629. John Cobb, son of Henry, married, in Ki58, 
Martha Nelson, daughter of William Nelson, who married Martha, 
daughter of widow Ford, or Foord, who came in the Fortune in 1G21. 
Elisha Cobb, son of John, was the father of Sylvanus, in question. John 
Cobb lived in Plymouth, between Castle Hill and the shore, and until 
within a few years the stump of an apple-tree in the high cliff pasture 
marked the spot where his house stood. His farm included a portion of 
land on the westerly side of the main road, owned many years by 
Nehemiah Savery, senior, and the high-top sweet apple trees now stand- 
ing there, and bearing fruit annually, were set out by him about the year 
1G70, and are probably the oldest fruit-trees in the country. Ebenezer 
Cobb, who died at Rocky Nook, in Kingston, in 1801, at the age of one 
hundred and seven years, said by Savage to have been the oldest man 
who has lived in Massachusetts, was the son of John, and was born on 
the spot referred to above, where his father lived. In 1745 Sylvanus 
Cobb was captain of a company raised in Plymouth for the expedition 
against Louisburg, and in 1758, while in command of a government 
sloop, was selected by General Monckton to conduct General Wolfe on 
a difficult and dangerous reconnoissance, in which he showed so much 
rkill and bravery as to receive the highest commendation of the general. 
He afterwards moved with his family to Nova Scotia, and was employed 
on the expedition to Havana in 1762, where he died. 

The lot on which the house stands, occupied by the widow of the late 
Isaac C. Jackson, was sold in 1738, by Joshua Drew, administrator of 
Nicholas Drew, to Samuel Nelson, who reconveyed it to Joshua Drew 
in 1743. In the same year Joshua Drew sold it to Nathan Delano, who 
built the house formerly standing on the lot, and sold it in 1771 to George 
Watson. In 1784 George Watson sold it to Samuel Jackson, Jr., who 
sold it to Daniel and Charles Jackson in 1798, and repurchased it of 
them in 1801. In the same year Mr. Jackson sold it to his father, 
Samuel Jackson, since which time the estate has remained in the Jack- 
son family. The old house was occupied at various times by Najhan 
Delano, Samuel Jackson, Jr., George Jackson, William Morton Jackson, 
Richard Bagnall, and others, until it gave way to the present house, 
built by the late Thomas T. Jackson. 

The lot on which the house stands recently owned and occupied by 
' Dr. Timothy Gordon was sold by Joshua Drew, administrator of the 
estate of Nicholas Drew, in 1738, to Samuel Nelson, who reconveyed it 
in 1743 to Mr. Drew. In 1745 Joshua Drew sold it to Nathan Delano, who 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



sold it in 1775 to James and Bathsheba Doten. In 1794 the Dotens sold 
it to Rosseter Cotton, who sold it in 1795 to Joseph Jennings. In 1802 
Mr. Jennings sold it to Dayid Warren, who built the present house, and 
sold it in 1812 to William Sturtevant, by whose heirs it was sold in 1839 
to Dr. Timothy Gordon. 

Nicholas Drew, who was largely connected with real estate in North 
Street, is little known by the present generation. He was the son of 
John Drew, who married in Plymouth in 1674, and had five children, 
John, Samuel, Thomas, Nicholas, and Lemuel. Nicholas married, in 171 G, 
Rebecca, daughter of Deacon George Morton, the son of Ephraim, and 
nephew of the Secretary Nathaniel, and had a son Joshua, who seems 
to have inherited his father's fancies for real estate, and was largely 
interested in lands for many years. His son, Nicholas, was the grand- 
father of the late Benjamin Drew, and great-grandfather of Benjamin 
Drew, now living. 

In 1705 the lot now owned and occupied by John J. Russell was in 
the possession of Thomas Howland, it having been inherited by him from 
his father, Joseph, son of John Howland, of the Mayflower, and prior to 
1715 it was conveyed by him to 1* -.thaniel Jackson, the son of Abraham 
Jackson, the progenitor of the Jackson family. "While Mr. Jackson 
owned the lot and the house standing on it at that time it was occupied 
by Ebenezer Spooner, the son of William Spooner, the progenitor of the 
Spooner family. Mr. Jackson sold it in 1715 to Nicholas Drew, who made 
it his place of residence. In 1742, shortly after the death of Mr. Drew, 
his son Joshua, administrator on his estate, sold it to Samuel Foster, who 
sold it in 1743 to Joshua Drew, who again sold it in the next year to 
James Wan-en. In 1749 Mr. Warren sold it to Thomas Jackson, the 
grandson of Abraham, and son of Nathaniel Jackson, who sold in 1753 to 
Consider Howland. In 1756 Mr. Howland sold it to his brother-in-law, 
Gideon White, and Edward Winslow. 

In 1775 the estate in question, which seems at that time to have come 
wholly into the possession of Gideon White, was conveyed by him to his 
father, Cornelius White, and by him in the same year to Samuel Jackson, 
the great-grandson of Abraham, grandson of Nathaniel, and son of 
Thomas Jackson ; and the present house on the lot was built and occu- 
pied by him. Mr. Jackson married Experience, daughter of Deacon 
John Atwood, and had nine children; of whom Mary married John 
Russell, the grandfather of the present owner and occupant of the estate. 
The house and land passed from Mr. Jackson to his daughter, Mrs. Rus- 
sell, and has since remained in the Russell family. 

The two next lots, as far as the westerly boundary of the garden lot 
east of the Winslow house, once belonged to Joseph Howland, son of 
John Howland, of the Mayflower, and descended to his son, Thomas 
Howland. They were sold by Consider Howland, son of Thomas, in 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



177 



17 r >4, to Edward Winslow, who built the house which bears his name. 
It has been stated on pood authority that the frame and carvings of this 
house were brought from England. Mr. Winslow occupied it as his 
residence until the evacuation of Boston, in 1776, when being a loyalist 
he went to Halifax, where he died, in 1785, at the age of seventy-two. 
This estate, with other property belonging to him, was confiscated and 
sold, passing finally into the hands of Thomas Jackson, who occupied it 
as his residence until he moved, in 1813, to what is known as the Cotton 
farm, in the north part of the town, where he afterwards lived until his 
death, in 1840. The Winslow lot proper, with the house, passed, in 1813, 
under an execution, from Mr. Jackson to his cousin, Charles Jackson, 
the father of Charles T. Jackson and Mrs. Ralph Waldo Emerson, who 
occupied it until his death, in 1818, and whose heirs sold it in 1872 to 
Lucia J. Briggs, the wife of Rev. George W. Briggs, who now occupies 
it as a summer residence. The remainder of the estate on the west 
passed, under an execution, in 1813, from Thomas Jackson to Henry 
Warren, who built the house now standing on the lot, and sold it in 1820 
to Daniel Jackson, who occupied it until 1834, when he moved into the 
house now occupied by Dr. Hill, and sold it to Isaac Tribble. Mr. 
Tribble occupied it until 1846, when it was sold to Anthony Morse, whose 
son, Mr. Charles P. Morse, still makes it his residence. 

As nearly as can be ascertained, the remainder of the land fronting 
on the north side of North Street, below the westerly boundary of the 
garden lot east of the Winslow house, was occupied by Thomas Prence 
as a place of residence while he was governor of the colony, for the 
first time in 1634, and sold by him in 1637 to John Atwood. After the 
death of Mr. Atwood, which occurred in 1G44, his widow, Ann Atwood, 
sold it in 1649 to Benjamin Vermayes. How long Mr. Vermayes owned 
it the records do not disclose, but after a lapse of some years Joseph 
Rowland, the son of John Howland, of the Mayflower, appeared as its 
owner, and in 1697 conveyed it to his son, Thomas Howland, who in the 
same year conveyed it to Samuel Lucas. 

It afterwards reverted from Samuel Lucas to Thomas Howland, and 
was sold in 1753 by his son, Consider Howland, to Thomas Jackson, the 
grandson of Abraham and the great-grandfather of the late Isaac C. 
Jackson. At the death of Mr. Jackson, in 1775, the whole tract passed 
to his son Thomas, except the lower house lot below the house recently 
occupied by Mrs. Jacob Jackson, with the house standing thereon, which 
was taken down within the memory of many readers. The three houses 
on the land were built by the first and second Thomas Jackson. The 
above excepted lot and house passed into the hands of Samuel Jackson, 
a brother of the second Thomas, and son of the first, and afterwards of 
Zacheus Bartlett, who married Hannah, the daughter of Samuel, and 
who held it many years leased to various tenants. John Russell, the 



178 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



grandfather of John J. Russell, who married Mary, another daughter of 
Samuel Jackson, was an occupant of the house until the death of Mr. 
Jackson, when he moved into the house now owned and occupied by his 
grandson. The building now standing on the lot, as is well known by 
most readers, was moved from Hedge's wharf prior to the erection of the 
Canopy at Plymouth Rock, where it was occupied by the business firms 
of Daniel & Abraham Jackson, and I. L. & T. Hedj^e. It now belonjrs 
with the lot to the estate of the late E. G. Hedge. At the death of the 
second Thomas Jackson the remainder of the estate, with the two 
houses standing there, except the garden lot next to the Winslow house, 
passed into the hands of his sons, Charles and Daniel, and daughter, 
Lydia, and the garden lot into the hands of his daughter Sarah, the wife 
of Thomas Withered, whose daughter Sarah, the wife of the late James 
Bartlett, sold it in 1872 to Lucia J. Briggs, the recent purchaser of the 
Winslow estate. The other two lots, with the houses standing thereon, 
remained in the Jackson family until 1878, when the upper house and 
lot were sold to George Simmons, who now owns and occupies them. 

The lot on the corner of North and Main Streets, on which the War- 
ren house, so called, stands, was at the earliest date of record in the 
possession of Nathaniel Morton, secretary of the colony, who in 1G75 
sold it to John Wood, whose son, Nathaniel Wood, sold it to Nathaniel 
Clark in 1685. In 1C98 it was sold by Clark to Thomas Gray, the son of 
his wife Dorothy, who was the widow of Edward Gray. In 1705 it was 
sold by Mrs. Gray to Thomas Little, whose heirs sold it, in 1726, to Gen- 
eral John Winslow, who built the house now standing, and sold it to 
James Warren, who occupied it until his death, in 1808, except during 
a few years during the war, when he lived in Milton. In this house 
Mrs. Warren, sister of James Otis, wrote her history of the revolution, 
and carried on the correspondence with John Adams recently published 
by the Massachusetts Historical Society. After the death of General 
Warren and his widow, the house was occupied by her son Henry, and 
finally sold to Nathaniel Russell, whose heirs sold it to Allen Dan- 
forth, whose son, William S. Danforth, is now its owner. General Wins- 
low, who built the house, is said to have been the most distinguished 
military leader of his time in New England, with perhaps the exception 
of Sir William Peppered. Aside from his services in the Cuban expedi- 
tion of 1740, and various other military enterprises, he will be remem- 
bered for his agency in the removal of the Acadians from Nova Scotia, 
in 1755. Nova Scotia, under the name of Acadia, was settled by the 
French, and ceded, in 1713, to Great Britain. Those of the French 
inhabitants who did not move into Canada were permitted to retain their 
possessions upon taking an oath of allegiance to Great Britain, with the 
stipulation that they were not to be called upon to take up arms against 
the French or Indians. Thus they acquired the name, by which they 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



179 



are known in history, of French neutrals. After the settlement of Hali- 
fax, in 1749, a requirement to take anew the oath of allegiance without 
this stipulation was resisted by them, and in 1755 General Winslow, at 
the head of a body of Massachusetts troops, was instructed by Governor 
Lawrence of Nova Scotia to remove the whole body of neutrals from the 
country. General Winslow, then a colonel, issued a proclamation to the 
inhabitants of the district of Minas, requiring " all old men and young 
men, as well as all the lads of ten years of age, to attend at the church 
of Grand Pre," on the 5th of September, 1755, at three o'clock in the 
afternoon, to receive a communication from the constituted authorities. 
Four hundred and eighteen were assembled, the doors were shut, and 
the whole number declared prisoners of the king. Arrangements were 
at once made for their removal, and on the tenth of the month four hun- 
dred and eighty-three men and boys were placed on board five transports 
in the river Gaspereaux, each vessel guarded by six non-commissioned 
officers and eighty privates. As soon as other vessels could be procured, 
three hundred and thirty-seven women, heads of families, and eleven 
hundred and three children and unmarried females followed, and the 
transportation was complete. Their houses and lands were abandoned, 
and their stock, consisting of seven thousand eight hundred and thirty- 
three horned cattle, four hundred and ninety-three horses, and twelve 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-seven sheep and swine were left to 
perish or become the property of others. They were distributed among 
the thirteen colonies, and scarcely a town or city on the seaboard, from 
Massachusetts to Georgia, was without its little band of exiles. Nine- 
teen of them were brought to Plymouth, and a few settled in Kingston 
and Duxbury, but, so far as the writer knows, their footsteps in the Old 
Colony are lost, and their names extinct. In the removal of these 
unfortunate people Colonel Winslow was only the instrument of others, 
acting under positive written instructions, and the verdict of history will 
be, that his only alternative was to obey the orders of his superiors or 
resign his commission. A portrait of the general may be seen in Pil- 
grim Hall. 

The next lot, about one hundred feet wide on North Street, belonged 
to John Cook, who came with his father Francis in the Mayflower, and 
was living in Dartmouth in 1694, the last male passenger in the May- 
flower. He married Sarah, a daughter of Richard Warren, the pilgrim. 
In 1653 he sold to Mr. Thomas Lettis the lots on North Street, on which 
the two houses stand built by Ebenezer G. Parker and James Thacher, 
and now occupied by Mrs. William S. Russell and Dr. Thomas B. Drew. 

The next lot of one hundred feet, including on North Street the 
remainder of the house lot and yard of the Jack; on house, and about 
ten feet of the Jackson garden above the alley, was the homestead of 
Andrew Ilallett, who came to Plymouth from Lynn in 1637, and after- 



180 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



wards moved to Sandwich. It afterwards passed into the hands of 
Thomas Cnshman, who sold it to Thomas Lettis in 1641. 

The next lot of one hundred feet, extending about as far as the west- 
erly face of the house now owned and occupied by the Misses Kendall, 
and including the Spooner house, was the homestead of Edward Holman, 
who sold it to Robert Waterman in 1639, of whom it was bought by 
Edward AVinslow, who sold it, in 1646, to Thomas Wallis, of whom little 
is known except that he lived in Boston in 1G43, and sold this lot to Wil- 
liam Bradford in 1641. Governor Bradford sold it to John Doane in 

1642, who was a resident of Plymouth as early as 1630, and moved to 
Eastham in 1644. Mr. Doane sold the lot to William Hanbury in 1645, 
who married Hannah Souther, was of Duxbury in 1639, of Plymouth in 

1643, and moved to Boston in 1G49, having in 1647 sold the lot to Wil- 
liam Browne, who sold it in 1657 to Thomas Lettis. Edward Holman, 
above-mentioned, came in the Ann in 1623, went back to England, and 
returned in the Lion in 1632, and was afterwards one of the purchasers 
of Dartmouth. Mr. Browne, called chirurgeon, was in Plymouth as 
early as 1645, and finally moved to Eastham. 

The next lot of one hundred feet, which includes the remainder of 
the lot occupied by the Misses Kendall and Arthur Lord, and that of 
Nathaniel B. Spooner, was the homesten.d of John Doane. and was sold, 
with the last, to Hanbury, Brown, and Lettis. 

Thus it will be seen that in 1657 Thomas Lettis owned the whole 
square between Main Street and Cole's Hill, except the upper lot on 
Main Street, and the lower on Cole's Hill, the last measuring about one 
hundred and sixty-five feet on North Street, two hundred and eighteen 
feet on Cole's Hill, and running about sixty feet on Middle Street. In 
1682, Ann Lettis, the widow of Thomas, conveyed all these lots to her 
daughter, Dorothy Gray, the widow of Edward Gray, who became the 
wife of Nathaniel Clark, and Nathaniel Clark and wife became owners 
of the whole square, including the upper and lower lots, which were 
already the property of Mr. Clark. Nathaniel Clark, and Dorothy, his 
wife, in 1697 conveyed the lower Cole lot to John Cole, and Susanna, 
his wife, and in 1698 the remainder of all the land in the square to 
Thomas Gray, the son of his wife, and in 1705 it was sold by Mr. Gray 
to Dr. Thomas Little. Thus in 1705 Thomas Little owned the whole 
square, except the lower or Cole lot, which then belonged to John and 
Susanna Cole. Thomas Gray was son of Edward, and in 1722 was living 
in Little Compton, where he had been settled many years as a physician. 

After the death of Thomas Little, in 1712, these lots came into the 
possession of his children, Isaac, Thomas, Mayhew, and Mary, the wife 
of Jonathan Bryant. They afterwards released, in 1724, to Jonathan 
Bryant the lot on which he built his house on what is now the northerly 
comer o r Middle Street, extending down that street as far as the westerly 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



181 



side of the Hathaway lot. They also sold the Hayward lot and house to 
Cornelius White in 1641, the George H.Jackson lot to Joseph Morton 
in 1640, and the North Street corner lot, including the present Warren 
house lot and the Danforth lot, and the lots occupied by Mrs. William 
S. Russell and T. B. Drew, to John Winslow in part in 1726, and in part 
to James Warren in 1737, after he had bought of Winslow, making up 
the lot which was occupied for many years by James Warren. They 
sold also in 1737 fifty-six feet on North Street, below the Warren lot, to 
John Watson, the father of George Watson, who built the Watson house 
of which the Jackson house is the successor; fifty-five feet in 1737 to 
John Winslow and Willi.im Dyer; one hundred and sixty-five feet in 
1725 to Nicholas Drew, and sixty feet in 1725 to David Turner, 
which last lot reached the lot which was owned by John and Susanna 
Cole, and which extended to Cole's Hill. John Winslow and William 
Dyer in 1712 sold their lot to John Watson, who also bought thirty- 
five feet of the Nicholas Drew purchase, which sales completed the 
frontage on North Street belonging to the old Watson or present Hatha- 
way estate. 

The present Hathaway house was built between thirty and forty years 
since, by Mr. Abraham Jackson, on the site of the house previously 
occupied by him, which was built by Colonel George Watson probably 
between 1740 and 1750. The row of linden trees in the rear of the 
house was set out by Colonel Watson about 1750, having been imported 
by him, and brought from London by a Captain Cameron of Boston. 
These trees are said to be the largest and finest specimens of the kind in 
the country. The row on the street was taken from them and set out 
about fifteen years later. Colonel Watson died in the year 1800, at the 
age of eighty-three, and possessed a character sustaining a reputation 
which his distinguished ancestry had established and which has been 
perpetuated by his descendants. He had three children. Mary, who 
married Elisha Hutchinson, son of Governor Hutchinson; Sarah, who 
married Martin Brimmer, and Elizabeth, who married first Thomas 
Russell, and afterwards Sir Grenville Temple. Mrs. Russell presented 
a bell to the town in 1794, which took the place, in the steeple of the First 
Church, of the smaller one purchased in or about 1679, which is under- 
stood to have been the first church-bell used in New England. That 
presented by Mrs. Russell weighed five hundred and sixty-four pounds, 
and having been broken in 1801 was replaced by the bell now in the 
tower of the Unitarian Church, which weighs about eight hundred 
pounds, and was made by Paul Revere. Mr. Brimmer was connected 
for a time with the iron-works in Plymouth, in which his father-in-law 
had an interest, and on their grounds made and introduced the first coal- 
gas used in this country for illuminating purposes not far from the year 
1794, twenty-nine years before it was introduced into New York, and 



182 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



only two years after the first experiments had been made by Mr. Murdock 
in Cornwall, in 1792. 

Of the remaining one hundred and thirty feet purchased by Nicholas 
Drew of the Little's he sold, in 1739 fifty feet to Thomas Foster, who 
sold it in the same year to Judah West, by whom it was conveyed in 
1742 to Josiah Rider, who built the Spooner house now standing, and 
Mr. Rider sold it in 1749 to widow Hannah Jackson, who gave it to her 
granddaughter Elizabeth, the wife of Ephraim Spooner, from whom it lias 
descended in the Spooner family, and is now owned and occupied by 
them. The remaining eighty feet Nicholas Drew sold in 1725 to Judah 
West, who sold it in 1738 with the house now standing on it, occupied 
by the Misses Kendall and Arthur Lord, to Thomas Holmes, whose sons, 
Thomas and Abner Holmes, sold it in 1755 to Jacob Taylor, the grand- 
father of Jacob and Abner S. Taylor, who in the last generation 
remodelled the house. The lot of sixty feet sold by the Littles to David 
Turner in 1725 is the lot on which the house of N. B. Spooner now 
stands. Mr. Turner built a house on the lot and sold it in 1725 to John 
Cobb. Nathan Ilayward, executor of Sarah Cobb, daughter of John Cobb, 
sold it in 1800 to Simon Richmond, who sold it in 1825 to Jacob and Abner 
S. Taylor The present house was built by Jacob and Abner S. Taylor in 
1829. They had the contract for building the steamboat wharf in the 
previous year, and built a part of the house of material purchased ami 
not needed in the construction of the wharf. It was purchased of the 
Taylors by William P. Ripley in 1833, and after its occupation by him, 
and before Mr. Spooner, it was owned and occupied by Phinehas Wells 
and Benjamin Whiting. 

The lot next east was purchased of Consider Ilowland, as has been 
stated in a previous number, by David Turner, who built the old Drew 
house' and sold it in 1734 to William Dyer, who sold it to Edward 
Winslow. Mr. Winslow sold it in 17G4 to Benjamin Drew, who 
occupied it, and who was succeeded in its ownership and occupation 
by his sons, Malachi and Ebenezer, until their deaths, not many years 
since. 

All the lots on Cole's Hill were a part of the James Cole estate, which 
came into the possession of Nathaniel Clark, and was conveyed by him 
to John and Susanna Cole, as has already been stated. The lot now 
occupied by the Plymouth Rock House, extended about seventy-two 
feet on the hill, as hereafter described. The remainder was con- 
veyed by John and Susanna Cole to Consider Howland in 1725. The 
lot now occupied by Joseph Smith was sold by Consider Howland to 
Quentin Crymble in 1725, and the remainder in the same year to Jere- 
miah dishing, who in 172G sold it to Mr. Crymble. Mr. Crymble sold 
in 1728 the Smith lot to James Young, by whom it was sold to Thomas 
Foster in 1729, from whom, through the hands of Nathaniel Jackson and 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



183 



his son Nathaniel, it passed in 1802 to Daniel Goddard, who it is believed 
built the house and occupied it many years. 

The Spooner house, on North Street, above referred to as built by 
Josiah Rider on land bought of Judah West, was conveyed by him in 
1740 to his sister, Hannah Jackson, the widow of Jeremiah Jackson. 
Mr. Jackson came to Plymouth from England in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century, and after a few years 1 residence in Plymouth moved 
to Boston, where he carried on the business of clothier, and died about 
1740. After his death his widow returned to her native town and occu- 
pied the house referred to, in which she kept a shop for the sale of 
chocolate of her own manufacture, and died in 176S. She had two sons 
an«l two daughters ; Jeremiah, who married and died in Boston ; Thomas, 
who moved to North Carolina and has descendants now living in New 
Jersey ; Hannah, who married Captain James Nicholson, the father of 
Captain Thomas Nicholson, whose widow is remembered by many 
readers as the matron of the estate in Court Square; and Faith, who 
married James ShurtlefF. The son, Jeremiah, had a daughter, Hannah, 
who married John Peck, who was a government naval constructor during 
the revolution, and was sent to Plymouth to design and build several 
vessels-of-war. Two of these were the Belisarius and the Mercury, the 
last of which was commanded by Captain Simeon Sampson of Kingston, 
who was the first naval officer commissioned by the Provincial Congress. 
Captain Sampson had previously had command of the ship Independence, 
built in Kingston, which was the first war-vessel put in commission. 
The yard in which Mr. Peck's vessels were built was on the site now 
occupied by the garden of Mrs. David Turner, at the foot of Leyden 
Street. 

Mrs. Shurtleff, the daughter of Mrs. Jackson, who bought the house 
on North Street, had a daughter Elizabeth, who married Deacon 
Ephraim Spooner in 1763 or 1764, shortly after her grandmother's death. 
Mrs. Spooner came into possession of the house under her grandmother's 
will, and while occupied by Deacon Spooner it was enlarged by an 
addition on the easterly side, and the garden was extended to Middle 
Street by the purchase of a part of the lot which had been occupied by 
the church under the pastorate of Rev. Mr. Frink, built in 1744 by a 
body of seceders from the First Church. Since the death of Deacon 
Spooner, in 1817, the house has always been occupied by his descendants, 
and since its erection by Josiah Rider has uninterruptedly sheltered the 
same family through seven generations. 

The lot of land on which the Plymouth Rock House now stands, at the 
corner of North Street and Cole's Hill, was a part of the land granted 
to James Cole, one of the early settlers referred to in the last number. 
Before 1685 it came into the possession of Nathaniel Clarke, who, before 
the year 1700, seems to have been largely concerned in land on that 



184 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



street. In 1697 he conveyed it to John Cole, and his wife, Susanna 
Cole, who was the daughter of Dorothy, the wife of Mr. Clarke by her 
first husband, Edward Gray. In 1725 Susanna Cole, then a widow, con- 
veyed it to Consider Howland, and the next year Mr. Howland conveyed 
it to John Foster, who sold it, in 1731, to his brother, Thomas Foster. 
The last owner, Thomas Foster, built the house now standing. In 1748 
he sold the land and house to Job and Silas Morton, and in 1767 Nicholas 
Drew bought the share belonging to Silas, and in 1773 the share of Job. 
In 1778 it was sold by Nicholas Drew to Thomas Davis, the grandfather 
of the late Nathaniel M. Davis and William Davis, Jr., since which date, 
until within a few years, it has been in the possession of the Davis 
family. The linden tree on the corner of Cole's Hill was set out in 
1812 by William Davis, Jr., while he was the owner and occupant of 
the house. 

The lot next south of the Smith lot on Cole's Hill, on which stood 
until within a few years an old house in the same block with the Smith 
house, which many of the present generation will remember, was sold 
by Mr. Crymble, in 1728, to Joshua Dunham, who built the house re- 
ferred to, and sold it to Nicholas Drew in 1732. Joshua, son of Nich- 
olas, sold it, in 1734, to Noah Bradford, by whom it was sold, in 1748, 
to Samuel Clark, who sold it, in 1749, to Thomas Davis, the father of 
Judge John Davis, who was there born. 

The next lot on the corner of Middle Street, now occupied by Edwin 
Jackson and Arad Perkins, was sold by Mr. Crymble, in 1734, to Robert 
Brown, including, on Middle Street, the sixty feet of the original Cole 
lot, and twenty feet purchased by Mr. Crymble, in 1729, of John Cran- 
don. This lot of twenty feet was afterwards sold to Benjamin Goodwin, 
who built the house which will be remembered by the last generation as 
the Caswell house. When the Caswell house was taken down it was 
bought by Henry F. Jackson, and added again to the corner lot. Robert 
Brown sold it to Lemuel Cobb, who, in 1736, sold it to Silas West, who, 
in 1751, conveyed it to Thomas Foster and others, who sold it, in 1752, to 
Lemuel Drew, from whom it passed into the hands of Samuel Jackson. 
In 1801 it became the property of Henry Jackson, the father of Edwin, 
now living, who sold, in 1802, one-half of the lot to John Dickson, and 
Mr. Jackson and Mr. Dickson built the block of two houses now standing. 

Middle Street. — The lot on which the house stands recently occu- 
pied by the late John S. Paine, was sold, in 1725, by the heirs of Thomas 
Little, to Benjamin Bartlett, who sold it, in 1726, to John Crandon, by 
whom it was sold, with the twenty feet above mentioned, to Mr. Crym- 
ble, in 1729. Mr. Crymble sold it, in 1733, to Joshua Dunham, who 
built the house now standing on the lot. Mr. Dunham sold it, in 1736, 
to Nathan Delano, who sold It to Thomas Doty in 1737. Thomas Doty 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



185 



sold it, in 1771, to Stephen Sampson, and Stephen sold it to Simeon 
Sampson in 1780. In 1786 Simeon Sampson sold it to Samuel Robbins, 
the father of Henry Robbins, now living, who owned and occupied it 
within the memory of the present generation. 

Beginning where the last lot terminated on Middle Street, at the 
westerly corner of the lot on which stands the house of the late John S. 
Paine, it will be remembered that at the time of the death of Thomas 
Little, in 1712 he owned all the land above that point. In 1726 his heirs 
conveyed to Tomson Phillips one hundred and ninety feet, extending 
from the Paine house to the easterly face of the house occupied by Wins- 
low S. Holmes. In 1748 Tomson Phillips conveyed to Thomas Foster 
one hundred and one and one-half feet, extending from the Paine house 
to the westerly side of the house occupied by Chandler Holmes. The 
conveyance from Phillips to Foster included the house, now standing, 
occupied by Charles May and Sarah M. Holmes, which had been built 
by Mr. Phillips between 1726 and 17-18. The frame of this house, like 
the Winslow house on North Street, was brought from England, and 
like that house, also, the second story is higher in the walls than the 
lower, the only two instances of the kind in Plymouth known to the 
writer. In 1767 the house and lot passed out of the hands of Thomas 
Foster, under an execution, into the hands of John Hancock of Boston, 
who sold it, in 1774, to Nathaniel Torrey. Mr. Torrey conveyed in 
the same year an undivided half to Mary Foster, the wife of Thomas, 
and by a division agreed upon in 1778 Mr. Torrey took the westerly half 
of the house, with the land west of it, and Mrs. Foster the easterly half, 
with the land east of it. In 1799, Eunice Prince, the representative of 
Mary Foster, conveyed a strip twenty feet wide, east of the house, to 
Samuel Rolibius, on the rear of which stands what was formerly called 
Robbins's Hall, but more recently Paine's Hall. In 1800 and 1801, Mi's. 
Prince sold Mrs. Foster's part of the house to Joseph Jennings, who car- 
ried on the business of baking in the small building on the opposite side 
of the street, which readers will remember as at one time a painter's 
shop, and afterwards a storehouse of Nathaniel L. Hedge. In 1807 Mr. 
Jennings sold it to Eliphalet Holbrook, his father-in-law, who sold it, in 
1810, to Samuel Robbins, after which time it was occupied for many 
years by his son, the late Josiah Robbins. The westerly half of the 
house, with the land on the westerly side, was sold by John Torrey, the 
representative of Nathaniel Torrey, in 1782, to Edward Morton, who 
sold it, in 1786, to Daniel Jackson, his brother-in-law, by whom it was 
conveyed, in the same year, to Sarah Morton, the wife of Edward. In 
1805, after the dea.h of her husband, Mrs. Morton gave her part of the 
house to her daughters, Eleanor Morton, a minor, and Eunice Holmes, 
the wife of Thomas Holmes, and mother of Sarah Morton Holmes, who 
now owns and occupies it. She gave at the same time the vacant lot 



186 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



adjoining, on which the house of Chandler Holmes stands, to her sons, 
George and Edward. George bought Edward's share, and built the 
house now standing, which he sold, in 1817, to Barnabas Hedge. After 
the death of Mr. Hedge, his widow, Eunice D. Hedge, conveyed it, in 
1812, to Sarah T. Cushman and others, since which time its history has 
been a familiar one. During its ownership by Mr. Hedge it was occu- 
pied, at various times, by Thomas Hedge, Charles Sever, Dr. Mackie, 
Madam Warren, and others. 

The remaining eighty-eight and one-half feet which the heirs of 
Thomas Little conveyed in 1726 to Tomson Phillips, Mr. Phillips sold 
in 1738 to John Rickard. In 1740 Mr. Rickard conveyed fifty-two and 
one-half to Thomas Murdock and thirty-six feet to Nathaniel Dunham. 
In 1743 Mr. Murdock gave to the third precinct the land he had pur- 
chased, and Nathaniel Dunham sold them twenty feet of his purchase, 
making about seventy-two and one-half feet, including the lot on which 
the building of Edgar C. Raymond now stands, the alley and the lot 
on which the house of Charles H. Frink stands. On this lot, in 1743. the 
third precinct built their church, and Rev. Thomas Frink of Rutland, 
Vermont, a graduate of Harvard in the class of 1722, became, in 1744, 
their pastor. It is somewhat singular that the only two persons bear- 
ing the name of Frink ever in Plymouth, as the writer believes, and 
both from Vermont, should be so closely associated with the same spot 
of ground with an interval of one hundred and forty years between them. 
The third precinct was made up of persons connected with the First 
Church who had become dissatisfied with the itinerant preaching which 
had been permitted in the old church, and the severity of condemnation 
and judgment which had resulted from the religious excitement it had 
engendered. The Rev. Andrew Croswell, who had been a preacher at 
Manomet Ponds before any regular church was established there, was 
one of the preachers, and in his first sermon he declared that he had 
reason to think that three-quarters of the communicants were uncon- 
verted. He continued exhorting from the 7th to the loth of March, 
1743, during each day and a part of the night, while many of his ad- 
herents went about the streets singing hymns and crying for mercy. 
Mr. Croswell being sustained by the pastor. Mr. Leonard, against the 
remonstrances of a large number of the church, the disaffected drew off 
and formed the new church in Middle Street. Mr. Frink remained in 
Plymouth until 1748, when he returned to Rutland, and Rev. Joseph 
Bacon was installed in his place. The pastorate of Mr. Bacon continued 
until 1776, and in 1783 the church dissolved, and its members reunited 
themselves with the old society. In 1785 the first precinct, to whom the 
property seems to have reverted, conveyed thirty-two feet of the lot to 
Ephraim Spooner, and twenty-nine feet to George Watson, with an alley 
opened between the two lots. The lower lot remained in the possession 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



187 



of the Spooner family, with a hatter's shop built upon it, occupied by 
Ebenezer Spooner, until within a few years, when it was sold to Allen 
Danforth, and afterwards to Anthony Morse, and finally to its present 
occupant. The other lot remained in the possession of George Watson 
and his heirs until 1825, when it was sold as a part of the North Street 
estate to Abraham Jackson. Abraham Jackson sold it in 1831 to 
William Churchill, who built the house now standing, and sold it in 
1838 to Jeremiah Karris, who occupied it as a residence. In 1857 Mr. 
Farris, in an exchange of estates, sold it to Nathaniel Russell, who after- 
wards sold it to its present occupant. 

In 1737, Nathaniel Dunham purchased of the Littles fifty-four feet, 
with a westerly boundary on what is now the Hathaway garden. In 1740, 
as has been said above, he purchased of John Rickard thirty-six feet 
next below, of which he sold twenty feet to the third precinct. He was 
thus left in possession of a lot of seventy feet, which covers the Winslow 
S. Holmes house and lot and the Burbank house and lot. He sold that 
part on which the house of Mr. IIoln.es stands, in 1743, to Thomas Foster, 
who sold it, in 1757, to James Carver, who built the house now standing. 
In 1790 Andrew Croswell, administrator of James Carver, sold what is 
now the garden on the easterly side of the house, with a small building 
on it built for a shop, in connection with the Carver house, to Osborne 
Morton, father of Osborne Morton, whom many readers will remember 
as the blind peddler, who occupied it until 1800, when he sold it to John 
Burbank. The house and remainder of the lot Mary Carver, widow of 
James Carver, sold in 1790 to Samuel Jackson, who sold it in 1797 to 
William Coye, by whom it was conveyed, in 1798, to Samuel Burbank, 
who sold it, in the same year, to John Burbank. Winslow S. Holmes, 
the present owner and occupant, bought it of Mrs. Southworth Barnes, 
now living, who was the daughter of Mr. Burbank. 

The next lot, on which the Samuel Burbr.nk house now stands, was 
connected with the last in the sales to Foster and to Carver. In 1794 
Andrew Croswell, administrator of James Carver, sold it to James 
Thacher, who sold it, in 1797, to William Coye, who sold it in the same 
year to Samuel Burbank, who built the house, and whose family have 
since that time owned and occupied it. 

The next lot, which is a part of the Hathaway garden, was originally 
a part of the Thomas Little estate, and purchased of Hannah Dyer by 
George Watson in 1745. The Standish Hall lot was originally a part of 
the Jonathan Bryant estate on the corner, and remained connected with 
most of the transfers down to its purchase by Samuel H. Doten, since 
which time its history is familiar. In some of the old deeds the house 
of Mr. Bryant on the corner is referred to as Bryant's tavern. It is a 
little singular that after the lapse of one hundred and twenty years, and 
the flight of nearly four generations, a house on the same spot should 



188 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



have been occupied by Danville Bryant, in 1840, and again called Bry- 
ant's tavern. 

It will be noticed that Thomas Foster was largely concerned in the 
purchase and sale of land in this square. He was a son of John Foster, 
who was one of the deacons of the First Church, and grandson of 
Thomas Foster, who came to Weymouth in 17-47. He was born in 1704, 
and died of small-pox in 1777. He also was a deacon of the church, and 
whatever his occupation or profession may have been, it is evident that 
speculating in real estate was an avocation which resulted in disaster. 
He represented Plymouth several years in the General Court, and in 
1765 received instructions from his constituents to govern his action on 
the exciting questions of that time. At the commencement of the revo- 
lution he continued loyal to the crown, and, according to Sabine, in his 
Lives of the Loyalists, accompanied the British army to Halifax in 1770. 
His absence must have been short, however, as his death is recorded as 
having occurred in Plymouth in the following year, as above stated. In 
his loyalty to the mother country Mr. Foster was by no means an excep- 
tion in Plymouth. The writer has in his possession two original war- 
rants issued by the committee of correspondence, inspection, and safety, 
in 1778, of which the following is a copy, with the names inserted which 
both wan-ants contain, affording abundant evidence of the indifference 
on the part of at least some of the descendants of the Pilgrims to revo- 
lutionary measures : — 

To Thomas Maybew, Esq., one of the Justices of the Peace in the County of 
Plymouth : — 

I, the subscriber, clerk of the committee of correspondence, inspection, and safety 
for the town of Plymouth, trulv represent to you as a Justice of the Peace in the 
county aforesaid, that there is, in the opinion of said committee, sufficient reason to 
suspect that the following persons, viz., Edward Winslow and George Watson, 
Esquires, Captain Gideon White, John Watson, Benjamin Churchill, Captain Thomas 
Davis, Captain Barnabas Hedge, Isaac LeBaron, Samuel Hunt, Ichabod Shaw, John 
Kempton, John Kempton, Jr., Zaccheus Kempton, Benjamin Ryder, William Le- 
Baron, Enoch Itandall, William Cuffec, Jerry Connel, Richard Durfey, Lemuel Cobb, 
and James Doten, Jr., are inimical to the United States, and you are requested, upon 
this representation, to proceed immediately against the above-named persons, agree- 
ably to an Act of said State passed the present session of the General Court, entitled, 
an Act for prescribing and establishing an oath of fidelity and allegiance. 
Per order of the Committee of Correspondence, 

Andrew Croswell, Clerk. 

Plymouth, 11th February, 1778. 

The two lots on the south side of Middle Street, on the corner of Cole's 
Hill and on the corner of the alley, were referred to under the head of 
Leydcn Street. The lot between the two, occupied by a painter's shop, 
was also a part of the old Hicks land, and after its ownership by Barnabas 
Hedge cam<- into the possession of Nathaniel L. Hedge, who sold it to 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



189 



William T. Davis in 18C1. In 1864 Mr. Davis sold it to Jeremiah Farris, 
who sold it in 1878 to Charles L. Jones, its present owner. 

The lot on the westerly corner of the alley was a part of the LeBaron 
lands described under the head of Leyden Street, and was sold by Isaac 
anil William LeBaron, in 1806, to Xehemiah Burbank, who built the 
house now standing, which his son-in-law, Barnabas H. Holmes, occupied 
for many years before his recent decease. 

The next lot was a part of the Leyden Street land which came into 
the possession of Barnabas Churchill, and it was sold in 1856 by his 
granddaughter, Hannah T., wife of Allen Holmes, to Benjamin W. Barrett, 
who built the house which his widow now owns and occupies. 

The next lot was a part of the Fuller estate on Leyden Street, and 
was sold in 1839 by the trustees of the First Church, having charge of the 
Fuller Fund, to George Drew, who established the stable now occupying 
the lot. In 1843 Jacob II. Loud, assignee of Mr. Drew, sold it to Granville 
Gardner, whose heirs sold it in 1865 and 1866 to E. Y. Perry. In 1867 
Mr. Perry sold it to Albert C. Chandler, who still owns and occupies it. 

The next lot, on which the Grand Army Hall and another small 
building stand, was a part of the adjoining lot, which will be described 
more fully under the head of Main Street. It came into the possession 
of Barnabas Hedge, and was sold in 1855 by Eunice D. Robbins, daughter 
of Mr. Hedge, to Charles G. Davis, its present owner. 

Main Street, East Side. — The whole strip of land extending from 
North Street to what is now Middle Street was, at the earliest known 
date, owned by Nathaniel Morton, and was sold by him in 1675 to John 
Wood. In 1685 Mr. Wood's son, Nathaniel, sold it to Nathaniel Clark, 
who sold it in 1698 to Thomas Gray. In 1705 Mr. Gray sold it to 
Thomas Little. In 1726 the heirs of Thomas Little sold a portion of the 
lot on the corner of North Street to John Winslow, and in 1737 to James 
Warren, the grantee of John Winslow, the remainder of what has been" 
for many years known as the Warren lot, including the corner lot, that 
of Mrs. William S. Russell, and that of Dr. Drew. After the death of 
James Warren, the whole Warren lot came into the possession of his 
son James, and was sold by his heirs to Nathaniel Russell in 1832. In 
the same year Mr. Russell sold a portion of the lot at its easterly end to 
Mrs. Betsey II. Hodge, who built the house in which Dr. Drew now 
lives. In 1839 Mr. Russell sold another portion on North Street to 
Ebenezcr G. Parker, who built the house now occupied by Mrs. Russell. 
In the same year he sold a portion on Main Street to Allen Danforth, 
who built the house now standing on it, and whose daughter now owns 
and occupies it. The remaining portion of the Warren lot with the old 
house was sold, by some of the heirs of Mr. Russell, to Mr. Danforth 
in 1865, whose son, William S. Danforth, is now its owner. 



190 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



The next lot, a part of the Little estate, after the death of Thomas 
Little, came into the hands of Isaac, his son, who sold it in 1710 to 
Joseph Morton, and up to that time no house is mentioned in connection 
with the land in any of the deeds of transfer. In 17G3 Joseph Morten 
sold it, with the house now standing, which he had himself built, to 
Ephraim Cobb, whose daughter, Abigail Tupper, sold it to Lothrop 
Turner. In 1793 Lothrop Turner sold the north half to his brother 
David, and in 1800 the south part to John Goddard. In 1S35 David 
Turner conveyed the north half to Abraham Jackson and Arthur French, 
the husbands of two daughters of Mr. Goddard, and in 1842 they con- 
veyed it to Mrs. Grace H. Goddard, his widow, who thus became 
possessed of the whole. Mr. Morton, who bought the land in 1710, must 
have built the house before 1748, for in that and the succeeding year 
James Otis, the patriot, occupied the south front room as a lawyer's 
office immediately after his admission to the bar, anil before his removal 
to Boston. The house and lot are now owned by George II. Jackson, 
one of the grandchildren of Mrs. Goddard. 

The next lot, also a part of the Little estate, after it came into the 
hands of Nathaniel Clark, in 1G8-), was built upon and occupied by him 
as a residence. The house built by him was the northerly part of the 
house recently owned and occupied by the heirs of Nathan Ilayward, and 
sold by them to the town in 1877. It was the residence of Thomas 
Little, and for many years the only structure on Main Street between 
North and what is now Middle Street. It was sold in 1741 to Cornelius 
White by Isaac Little, son of Thomas, and occupied, until it became the 
property of the town, by Cornelius White, born 1082; his son Gideon, 
born 1718; the two daughters of Gideon, Mrs. Pelham Winslow and 
Hannah White, born about 1750; by Nathan Ilayward, whose wife was 
a daughter of Pelham Winslow, born 1773; and by William S. Russell, 
whose wife, Mary Winslow, was daughter of Nathan Ilayward, born 
1798, making, with the children of Mr. Russell, six generations of the 
same family. Additions to the house were made at various times, the 
most recent of which was that of the shop for the use of Mrs. Winslow, 
after the death of her husband. After Mrs. Winslow, a shop was kept 
in the addition at various times, by James LeBaron, cousin of the late 
Isaac LeBaron, William S. Russell, and Stevens Turner, and for many 
years it was used as a lawyer's office by John Thomas and Gustavus 
Gilbert. 

The next estate on the corner of Middle Street was also a part of the 
Little estate, and for more than a hundred years was sold as one lot as 
far as the garden of the'Jackson house, now owned by Mr. Benjamin A. 
Hathaway. 

In 1742 Hannah Dyer obtained possession of a strip of this estate, 
ninety feet on Middle Street, on an execution against Thomas Little, son 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



191 



of Thomas, and sold it in the same year to Robert Brown. In 1756 Mr. 
Brown sold it to Edward Gray, and in 1762 Mr. Gray sold to George 
Watson and Nathaniel Goodwin, the grantors to Jeremiah Holmes in 
1763. The westerly part of the estate, seventy-seven feet on Middle 
Street, came into the possession of Jonathan Bryant, son-in-law of 
Thomas Little, who built a house and kept an inn. In 1755 Thomas 
Foster, administrator of Mr. Bryant, sold it to Perez Tilson, who sold it, 
in 1759, to Jeremiah Holmes, making him the owner of the whole estate. 
In 1772 Mr. Holmes sold it to Nathaniel Goodwin, who made it his resi- 
dence, and in 1790 sold it to Thomas and William Davis. In 1791 
Messrs. Davis sold it to James Thaeher, who in 1807 sold it to William 
Davis. In 1811 Mr. Davis sold it to Betsey II. Elliot, daughter of 
James Thaeher, and in 1821 Mrs. Elliot, who then had become Mrs. 
Hodge, sold it to George Drew. In 1813 Jacob H. Loud, assignee of 
George Drew, sold it to Benjamin Hathaway, who sold it, in 1848, to 
Samuel II. Doten. In 1852 Mr. Doten sold one hundred and one feet 
and four inches of the lower end of the lot to Mr. Hathaway, who recon- 
veyed it, in 1856, to Mr. Doten, who built Standish Hall, standing on this 
part of the lot, and is still the owner. Mr. Doten built, also, Union 
Hall on the corner, and sold it in 1869 to its present owners, the Ply- 
mouth Lodge of Masons. 

The strip of land extending from Leyden Street to Middle Street was 
once owned and occupied by Stephen Hopkins, of the Mayflower. He 
died in 1644, and soon after his death it came into the possession of 
Edward Gray, who sold it in 1070 to John Cotton, by whom it was sold, 
in 1680, to James Cole. That part of the lot on the corner of Leyden 
Street has already been described as having come into the possession of 
Samuel Cole, great-grandson of James Cole, and been sold, in 1767, to 
Barnabas Hedge. The lot sold to Mr. Hedge extended seventy-nine feet 
on Main Street, and included the house which was sold in 1872 by the 
heirs of Thomas Hedge to Harvey W. Weston. A lot adjoining, fifty-six 
feet wide, descended from James Cole through several generations, and 
was sold by William LeBaron. whose wife's mother was a great-grand- 
daughter of James Cole, to Barnabas Hedge in 1797. These two lots, 
extending to the line of land of Dr. Benjamin Hubbard, remained in the 
Hedge family until after the death of the late Barnabas Hedge. The 
corner buildinsr was erected by Ephraim Cole about 1715, around the 
blacksmith-shop which he had used for some years, and which may still 
be seen. The next onc-sto'-y building was erected by Barnabas Hedge, 
and sold by Nathaniel L. Hedge and other heirs in 1852 to Harrison 
Finney, by whose heirs it was sold in 1879 to Benjamin Bramhall, 
recently deceased. The next two-story building, as far as the shop 
occupied by Frederick L. Holmes, was also erected by Barnabas Hedge. 
In 1844 Joseph Cushman and wife, and other heirs of Mr. Hedge, sold 



192 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



the southerly half to Samuel Kimball and Eleazer H. Barnes, and in 
1846 Isaac Brewster, assignee of Kimball and Barnes, sold it to Benja- 
min Bramhall, to whose estate it now belongs. In 1854 some of the 
heirs of Mr. Hedge sold the northerly half to John T. Hall, its present 
owner. On the next lot Mr. Hedge also erected a one-story building, 
and in 1844 his heirs sold it to Mr. Hall, who added the second story, 
and is now its ownei\ 

The next lot, on which Leyden Hall building stands, is substantially 
the lot sold by William LeBaron in 1797 to Mr. Hedge. At that time a 
small one-story building stood on the lot, which was occupied at various 
times by Solomon Churchill and Daniel Gale. The heirs of Mr. Hedge 
erected the present building, and after some years Nathaniel L. Hedge, 
who had bought, in 1849, the shares of his sister, Mrs. Cushman, and 
brother, James G. Hedge, sold it, in 1861, to William T. Davis, who sold 
it, in 1869, to John T. Hall. In 1876 it was conveyed by Mr. Hall to 
Benjamin O. Strong, and in 1878 reconveyed to Mr. Hall, who is its 
present owner. 

The remainder of the land as far as the corner of Middle Street, and 
extending down that street one hundred and fifty-five feet, continued in 
the Cole family, and came into the possession of Samuel Cole, who died 
in 1812. In the division of his estate the corner lot, forty-four feet eight 
inches on Main Street, including the building erected by Mr. Cole and 
many years his residence, was set off to Barnabas Hedge, whose heirs 
sold it, in 1841, to Ezra Finney. In 1868 the heirs of Mr. Finney sold it 
to Caleb B. Holmes and Harrison Holmes one-half, and to James E. 
Dodge one-half. In 1869 the first-named sold his interest to Charles II. 
Snell, who sold it, in 1870, to Harrison Holmes. In 1882 Mr. Holmes 
sold his half to Mr. Dodge, who is now the owner of the whole. 

The three next lots, extending eighty-nine feet four inches by the 
street, were set off, in the division of Mr. Cole's estate, to his kinsmen, 
William, John, and Samuel Davis, in the order named. William Davis 
erected a store on his lot, and in 1847 his son Thomas sold it to Jason 
Hart. In 1856 the assignees of Mr. Hart sold it to David C. Francis, 
who in 1857 sold it to C. II. Mills, assignee of David F. McGilvery and 
others, by whom it was sold in the same year to Leander Lovell and 
John H. Harlow. In 1874 Daniel E. Damon, assignee of Mr. Harlow, 
sold his interest to Mr. Lovell, who sold the whole, in 1874, to its pres- 
ent owner, James E. Dodge. The old building has been moved back, 
and forms the rear part of the modern structure. The next lot was sold 
in 1823, with a shop standing on it, probably built by Mr. Cole, by John 
Davis-to Benjamin M. Watson, whose widow sold it, in 1854, to James 
Barnes and Calvin Ripley. In 1857 Mr. Ripley sold his part to William 
Churchill, who sold it in the same year to Mr. Barnes, by whose heirs 
it was sold, in 1864, to Timothy Gordon, to whose estate it now belongs. 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



193 



The next lot, with a one-story shop erected by Samuel Davis, was sold 
in 1829 by the heirs of Mr. Davis to Nathaniel Russell. In 1839 Mr. 
Russell sold it to William S. Bartlett, who erected the building now on 
the lot, and sold it, in 1846, to Dr. Benjamin Hubbard. 

Town Square, North Side.- — A special interest attaches to the 
north side of Town Square, as there the house of Governor Bradford and 
the first meeting-house of the colony were situated. The writer believes 
that he can satisfy readers as to the precise location of both these 
structures. The earliest records indicate that all the land between 
Burial Hill and Main Street once belonged to John Alden and William 
Bradford. The land of Mr. Alden covered the site of the old school- 
house and School Street, and it is quite probable that before his removal 
to Duxbury in 1627 he there lived. On his removal it was probably 
surrendered, as in later records it is called Town Commons. 

The remainder of the land between School Street and Main Street 
belonged to Governor Bradford, and the tradition that his house was 
located there has never been disputed by the most critical antiquarian. 
The letter of DeRasieres, giving: an account of his visit to Plymouth 
in 1627, and a description of the town at that time, places the house 
beyond the possibility of a doubt on the corner of the square and 
Main Street. He says " in the centre on the cross street stands the 
governor's house." The settlement of the location of Governor Brad- 
ford's house settles also the location of the first meeting-house, as readers 
will see in the following description. After the death of the governor, in 
16.57, this land passed to his two sons, William and Joseph — the first 
coming into possession of the lower part up to a point about seventeen 
feet east of the lot of the Pilgrimage Church, and the last of the remainder 
up to School Street. At a town meeting held on the 19th of May, 1701, 
it was voted " that with reference to the spots of la.^d in controversy 
between Major Bradford and the town, viz: that spot he sold to John 
Dyer and the spot of land where the old meeting-house stood, the town 
do hereby 7 quit their claim to said lands. If it were possible to doubt 
which of the two sons of Governor Bradford was the Major Bradford 
alluded to in the above vote, it would be uncertain whether the meeting- 
house was situated on the land of Joseph, in the upper part of the 
square, or on the land of William, in the lower part. But all doubt is 
removed on this point by the fact that William Bradford conveyed to 
John Dyer, in 1698, the lot of land at the foot of Leyden Street on which 
the old storehouse formerly stood, and that the records disclose no other 
conveyance to Mr. Dyer from either Joseph or William. Nor is it left 
in doubt whether William Bradford owned the land in question on the 
square, for that is proved by his conveyance of the lot to John Murdock, 
which readers will notice as the description proceeds. Thus it is demon- 



194 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



strated that Major William Bradford owned from Main Street to a point 
about seventeen feet east of the line of the Pilgrimage land, and that the 
house of his father was located on the corner of this lot. As the lot 
owned by Mr. Bradford included all the land covered by Odd Fellows' 
Hall, except that part on which the upper store occupied by Charles 
Barnes stands, it may be considered as established beyond a doubt, 
giving the governor's house lot a front of forty or fifty feet, that the first 
meetiHg-house, erected in 1637, stood facing Market Street, on the site 
of the tower of Odd Fellows 1 Building, the store of Hatch & Shaw, and a 
small portion of the westerly end of the post office. The writer trusts 
that by this simple statement he has satisfactorily solved a problem 
which has heretofore puzzled and perplexed Thaeher and Russell and 
other writers on the subject. When the governor's house was removed 
is not known, but the meeting-house was abandoned in 1G83, after the 
erection of a new one substantially on the site of the present First 
Church. 

In 1698 Major William Bradford sold his lot six rods square to John 
Murdock, with a shop standing thereon, which Mr. Murdock then occu- 
pied. The lot extended on Main Street as far as the southerly line of 
the building occupied by Harlow & Bailey, and, as above stated, on the 
square from the corner near the old stone post, which readers will 
remember, to about the westerly line of the store of Hatch & Shaw. 
The seventeen feet above that line were token from the Joseph Bradford 
lot, as readers will see as they proceed, by parties who subsequently 
owned both the William and Joseph Bradford lots, and were finally 
incorporated with the lower lot when Bridgham Russell, a recent owner 
of the whole land, sold the upper part to the Pilgrimage Society in 1839. 
Mr. Murdock built the whole or a part of the house recently taken down 
on the corner, covering in its erection the easterly half of the shop 
alluded to, and sold the lot with the house and easterly half of the shop 
in 1700 to Nathaniel Warren, son of Richard Warren of the Mayflower, 
reserving the upper forty-five feet on the square and the westerly half 
of the shop. Mr. Murdock soon after built the house which will be 
remembered by most readers as the residence of Bridgham Russell, 
covering in its erection the westerly half of the shop above mentioned, 
and in 1706 bought of Joseph Bradford the land belonging to him up to 
the line of School Street. The easterly half of the shop was destroyed 
when the corner building was taken down a year or two since, but the 
westerly half may still be seen in the Russell building which was pur- 
chased by William Hall, and now stands on his land in the north part of 
the town. 

After the death of Nathaniel Warren his widow married Thomas 
Gray, and in 1709 Mr. Gray and wife conveyed the house and lot pur- 
chased by Mr. Wan-en of John Murdock to Thomas Witherell, reserving 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



195 



a strip on its northerly side fronting on Main Street. In 1722 Ephraim 
Little, attorney of Thomas Gray, conveyed to Mr. Witherell the reserva- 
tion, and thus Mr. Witherell became owner of all the estate once owned 
by Nathaniel Warren. From Thomas Witherell and wife, Kebecca, it 
passed, at their death, into the hands of their son Thomas, and from him 
to a third Thomas, whose heirs recently sold it to its present owners. 
Previous, however, to the final sale the lot on Main Street on which the 
building stands owned by Edward L. Barnes and the heirs of George W. 
Virgin was conveyed, in 1826, to William P. Ripley, by Anna M. and Sarah, 
daughters of the last-mentioned Thomas Witherell, and wives of Joseph 
and James Bartlett, together with Thomas Jackson, who had purchased 
the life estate of Joseph Bartlett. Mr. Ripley built the block of two 
stores standing on the lot, and sold in 1827 the southerly store to Mr. 
Virgin, and in 1841 the northerly one to Southworth Barnes, whose heirs 
were the grantors to Mr. Barnes, its present owner. 

The upper part of the lot which John Murdock reserved in his sale to 
Nathaniel Warren, and on which he built the house alluded to as now 
standing on land of William Hall, was for many years his place of 
residence, until he sold it with the land bought of Joseph Bradford, in 
1755, to Rebecca Witherell, the widow of the first Thomas Witherell 
above-mentioned. In 17G5 Thomas Mayhew, administrator of Rebecca 
Easdell, daughter of Thomas and Rebecca Witherell, sold one-seventh 
of the estate to Thomas Davis, and in 1767 Thomas Mayhew and wife, 
Mary, a daughter of Thomas Witherell, and Thomas and Hannah 
Witherell, two other children, conveyed to Mr. Davis the remainder. 
Mr. Davis made it his residence until his death, in 1785, when it became 
the property of his daughter Sarah, the wife of LeBaron Bradford, who 
occupied it until her death, in 1821. In 1830 it was sold by LeBaron 
Bradford, son of the above LeBaron, whom many of the readers will 
remember, to Bridgham Russell. In 1839 Biidgham Russell, who occu- 
pied the house in question until his death, sold the old Joseph Bradford 
lot to Ezra Finney and others acting in behalf of the Pilgrimage Society, 
retaining seventeen feet before alluded to, which readers will remember 
as the yard and passage way at the westerly end of his house, and the 
house and lot connected with it remained in possession of his widow and 
heirs until it was sold to the present owners. 

Main Street, West Side. — The two first lots, covered by a block 
of two two-story stores, were described under the head of Town Square. 
The land extending from that point to the southerly line of the Davis 
Hall lot, and westerly to School Street, as far back as the records reach, 
belonged to William and Joseph Bradford, sons of Governor Bradford, 
and was sold by them, in 1697, to Nathaniel Howland. In the same 
year Mr. Howland conveyed it to Abicl Shurtleff, the son of William 



196 



PLYMOUTH COLOXY 



Shurtleff. Mr. Shurtleff sold tlie lot on which the building stands owned 
by Harlow & Bailey, in 1733, to Ephraim Cobb, who sold it, in 1754, to 
Nathaniel Torrey. Mr. Torrey sold it, in 1758, to John Bartlett, whose 
wife, Dorothy, the administratrix of his estate, sold it, in 1792, to Na- 
thaniel and John Carver. The two Carvers sold it, in 1799, to Dr. 
Zacheus Bartlett, who built the house now standing, which was the first 
structure erected on the lot. Dr. Bartlett occupied the house, and sold 
it, in 1828, to Daniel Gale, who also occupied it for some years, and sold 
it, in 1837, to Jacob and Abner S. Taylor, who again sold it, in 1840, to 
John Washburn, since which time its history is familiar. 

The next lot, on which the building stands owned and partly occupied 
by John T. Hall, was conveyed, with the preceding lot, to the parties 
above-mentioned, until it reached John Bartlett in 1758. While in the 
possession of Abiel Shurtleff, who purchased it of Nathaniel Howland 
in 1C97, he built a house on the lot, in which he lived. Ephraim Cobb 
and Nathaniel Torrey also occupied the house after him, and John Bart- 
lett occupied it many years as an inn, bearing the name of "The Bunch 
of Grapes. 1 ' The estate referred to remained in the family of John 
Bartlett and his heirs until it was sold, in 1820, to Joseph Avery, who 
built the present house on the site of the old one, and whose heirs sold 
it to Dr. Zacheus Bartlett in 1826, by whom and his daughter, the wife 
of the late Dr. Winslow Warren, it was owned and occupied until 
recently sold to John T. Hall, its present owner. 

Mr. Avery, while superintending the workmen engagea in ouilding 
the house in question, on the 29th of July, 1822, in consequence of an 
incautious step on an unsupported board, fell from the upper to the lower 
story, and received such injuries as resulted in his death on the fourth of 
the following month. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and occupied by Ben- 
jamin B. Gooding and others, remained a vacant lot during its ownership 
by the Bradfords, Nathaniel Howland, and Abiel Shurtleff, and after the 
death of Mr. Shurtleff came into the possession of his son James, who built 
the house which readers will remember as the residence for many years 
of the late John Gooding, and which gave way, a few years since, to the 
present house erected by him. In 17G8 the executor of the will of James 
Shurtleff sold the house and land to Ephraim Spooner, who must have 
rented the house to tenants, as it is known that, from his marriage in 
1763 to his death in 1818, he lived in the Spooner house on North Street 
In 1789 Deacon Spooner sold it to Caleb Leach, a watchmaker, Mho 
occupied it as a dwelling-house and shop. Mr. Leach came to Plymouth 
from Halifax, and was largely instrumental in the projection and con- 
struction of the old aqueduct, which is believed to have been the first 
constructed in the country. In the year 1800 Mr. Leach sold the estate 
to Robert Roberts, and moved to the State of New York, carrying his 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



197 



enterprise and ingenuity into a wider field of action, where he earned a 
deservedly high reputation. Mr. Roberts sold the estate immediately 
after to Asa Hall, a watchmaker from Boston, who carried on his busi- 
ness in the old shop until 1806, when he sold it to Benjamin Barnes, who 
bouo-ht it for the benefit of Mr. Gooding, who married his daugter Deb- 
orah, and who, with his wife, received a deed of the property from Mr. 
Barnes in 1836. It will thus be seen that since 1789 the business of 
watchmaking has been carried on upon the site of the present shop, and 
by one family, for the term of seventy-five years. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and partly occupied 
by Thomas B. Bartlett, was also sold by Joseph and William Bradford 
to Nathaniel Ilowland in 1697, by Mr. Howland to Abiel Shurtlefl in the 
same year, and descended to James Shurtleff, his son. In 1749 James 
Shurtleff sold it to Joseph Shurtleff, his brother, who built the house now 
standing and occupied it as a residence. In 1759 Sarah Shurtleff, widow 
of Joseph, and administratrix on his estate, sold it to John Russell, the 
progenitor of the Russell family in Plymouth. Mr. Russell occupied 
the house until his death in 1776, and his widow, Mercy Russell, sold it, 
in 1788, to her sons, John and James, neither of whom made it his resi- 
dence. In 1794 James Russell released his share to John, and in 1796 
John sold it to his brother, the late Nathaniel Russell, who sold it, in 
1801, to John Churchill, father of the late George Churchill, who lived 
in it until his death, and whose son George sold it, in 1831, to Thomas 
B. Bartlett, its present owner. 

The next lot, on which the house known as the Jackson house stands, 
has the same record as the last down to its possession by Abiel Shurt- 
leff. While owned by Mr. Shurtleff, Joshua Morse built the present 
house on the lot about the year 1717, which he afterwards sold to Josiah 
Sturtevant, and in 17*23 Mr. Shurtleff, by a deed in which his son James 
joined, sold the land, with the house, to Robert Brown, who occupied it 
as a residence for many years. At this point the record is obscure, 
though it is known that Mr. Brown was in possession as late as 1757, as 
in that year he gave a mortgage of the property to James Bowdoin of 
Boston. The writer believes that he afterwards mortgaged it to Thomas 
Hancock of Boston, and that it finally came into the possession of his 
nephew, John Hancock, who inherited his property, This, however, is 
certain, that John Hancock sold it, in 1774, to John Watson, who sold 
it, in 1785, to Jonathan Amory of Boston. In 1787 Mr. Amory sold it 
to Thomas and William Jackson, who occupied it during their lives. 
After their deaths, the northerly half was owned by Susan, Sarah, and 
Deborah L. Turner, the devisees of Thomas Jackson, who mortgaged it, 
in 1846, to Sarah Bartlett. The mortgage was assigned, in 1851, to the 
Plymouth Savings Bank, the present owner, under possession taken in 
1854. The southerly half was owned by Frances Leonard Maynard, 



198 



PLYMOUTH COLOXY. 



■wife of Samnel Maynard, the daughter and devisee of William Jackson, 
•who sold it to the Plymouth Institution for Savings in 1873. 

It will be seen by the record of this house here given that the tradi- 
tion that the frame of the old court house in Town Square, which was 
taken down in 1749, was used entire in its construction, has no founda- 
tion. The old deeds, however, describe the building as a dwelling- 
house, with a shop at each end, and it is possible that during its owner- 
ship by Mr. Brown the south side may have been one story in height, 
and been carried up by him to its present dimensions. What materials 
were used, if such was the case, cannot now be ascertained, but possibly 
so much of the tradition may be true as applies to the use of a few tim- 
bers of the Old Colony court-house, in building the upper story on the 
southerly end. That part of the tradition which states that the colonial 
court held its sessions in this house is, in the opinion of the writer, 
purely fanciful. The completion of the addition after the old court- 
house was taken down must have required as much time as the con- 
struction of the new court-house itself, and in the meantime the court 
must have had a place for its sessions, which it is probable was occupied 
until its new quarters were in readiness. 

The next lot, on which the bank building stands, has the same record 
as the last down to Abiel Shurtleff, who bought it of Nathaniel Howland 
in 1697. In the same year Mr. Shurtleff sold it to Caleb Loring, who 
built the house to which the northerly cellar belonged, which many 
readers will remember on the lot before the bank building was erected. 

In 1703 Mr. Loring sold the house and lot to William Clark, son of 
Thomas Clark, and brother of Nathaniel, the counsellor of Andros. In 
1714 Mr. Clark sold it to Jonathan Randall, who sold it, in 1716, to John 
Hayward, by whom it was again sold, in 1717, to Josiah Carver. Mr. 
Carver occupied it as his residence for many years, and while in pos- 
session sold the south half cf the lot to Jonathan Diman. In 1752 
Josiah, his son and administrator, sold his house and the north half of 
the lot to Thomas Foster, who sold it in the next year to Nathaniel Dun- 
ham. It was the residence of Mr. Dunham for many years, and was 
sold by his heirs, in 1796, to William Hall Jackson, who also occupied it 
until he sold it, in 1803, to Job Cobb, Jr. Jonathan Diman, above 
mentioned as the purchaser of the south half of the lot, built the house 
to which the southerly cellar belonged, which readers will remember on 
the lot, and occupied it until 1760, when he sold it to John Lothrop. In 
1767 Gideon White, administrator of Mr. Lothrop, sold it to George 
Watson and Thomas Davis, who sold it, two years after, to William Hall 
Jackson, by whom it was sold, in 1805, to Job Cobb, Jr., who thus 
became the owner of the whole of the original lot, and the two houses 
built by Caleb Loring and Jonathan Diman. When the houses were 
taken down the writer has no means of ascertaining, but in 1810 Mr. 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



199 



Cobb sold the lot to Thomas and William Jackson, by whose heirs it was 
sold to the Old Colony and Plymouth Banks, Plymouth Institution for 
Savings, and Old Colony Insurance Company, in 1841. 

The next lot, on whicli Davis Hall stands, was conveyed, in 1697, by 
William and Joseph Bradford, sons of Governor Bradford, to Nathaniel 
Howland, and in the same year by Mr. Rowland to Dr. Francis Le Baron. 
Dr. LeBaron built a house on the lot, and died in 1704, leaving three 
children, Lazarus, already referred to, James, and Francis. Francis 
occupied the house after his marriage, in 1721, until his death, in 
1731. In 1733 Samuel Bartlett and Lazarus LeBaron, administrators 
on his estate, sold it to his widow, Sarah LeBaron, who lived on 
the estate until 1763. In 1734 she sold the southerly part of the lot 
to Samuel Clark, who built the southerly portion of the house 
which readers will remember as standing on the lot before Davis Hall 
was built. Mr. Clark occupied the house until his death, when it 
was sold by his son, Samuel Clark, Jr., to Abiel Shurtleff, Sr., in 
1766, who also made it his residence. In 1787 it passed under an 
execution after the deatli of Mr. Shurtleff to Henry Warren, who sold 
it in 1789 to his father, James Warren. It afterwards reverted to 
Timothy Goodwin, the administrator on the estate of Mr. Shurtleff and 
the husband of one of his daughters, and finally came into possession of 
Mr. Goodwin, whose heirs sold it in 1846 to Benjamin Hathaway. In 
1851 Mr. Hathaway sold it to John B. Thomas, and in the same year 
Colonel Thomas sold it to Bradford Barnes, who sold it in 1858 to Charles 
G. Davis, who built the structure now on the land. To resume the 
consideration of that part of the lot occupied by Mrs. Swift, it was con- 
veyed by her in 1763 to Thomas Davis, who sold it in 1774 to Abiel 
Shurtleff, Jr., at which time Mr. Swift's house had been either taken 
down or removed. It will be remembered, as heretofore stated, that 
Mr. Davis purchased the Murdock house in Town Square in 1765-7, 
at which dates, as stated above, he was in possession of the Swift 
estate. The writer has in his possession a contract made by Abiel 
Shurtleff, the person to whom Mr. Davis sold the Swift land, dated 1768, 
to finish off a kitchen annexed to the house of Mr. Davis in the square, 
and it is possible, if not probable, that the house in question was moved 
to the rear of his mansion and converted into a kitchen. If this is so, 
those who are intei-ested in ancient relics may see the Swift house, which 
was built by Dr. Francis LeBaron about the year 1700, now standing on 
the land of William Hall, in the north part of the town, the first house 
on the left on the Hall Lane leading to the woods. Mr. Shurtleff, who 
came into possession of the northerly side of the lot, built the northerly 
part of the house which has been referred to as standing on the site of 
Davis Hall. In 1786 Mr. Shurtleff died, and his brother-in-law, Timothy 
Goodwin., administrator on his estate, sold the lot and new house to 



200 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



William Warren, who sold it the next year to Dr. James Thacher. In 
1791 Dr. Thacher sold it to William Goodwin, who occupied it until his 
death, in 1825, after which, in 1828, it was sold by Thomas Russell and 
his wife Mary Ann, daughter of Mr. Goodwin, to George Churchill. 
Mr. Churchill occupied it some years and sold it in 1839 to Bradford 
Barnes, who sold it with the other part of the house and lot to Mr. Davis, 
the present owner, in 1853. 

The next lot, on which the Central House stands, was sold by William 
and Joseph Bradford to Nathaniel Rowland in 1697. Mr. Howland built 
the nucleus of the present house and occupied it until 1718, when he sold 
it to John Murdock, who sold it in 1720 to Thomas Howland. Mr. 
Howland sold it to his son, Consider Howland, in 1722, who sold it in 
1723 to Peleg Durfee, who married Mary, daughter of Ephraim Cole. 
In 1743 Mary, daughter of Mr. Durfee, sold it to James Hovey, an 
attorney-at-law, who occupied it until his death, in 1781. In 1786 
Joshua Thomas bought the house and land of the estate of Mr. Hovey, 
and made it his residence, enlarging the house and adding the third story. 

Court Street. — The next lotto be mentioned is that on which the house 
recently occupied by the late Jeremiah Farris, and that occupied by Mrs. 
Isaac L. Hedge, now stand. It was a part of the land conveyed by William 
and Joseph Bradford to Nathaniel Howland in 1697, and was conveyed 
by Mr. Howland to Rev. Ephraim Little in 1707, at which time Mr. 
Little lived in a house standing on the lot. In 1709 Mr. Little sold it to 
Major Isaac Lothrop, who built the Lothrop house, which was taken 
down not long after the death of his grandson. Dr. Nathaniel Lothrop, 
in 1828. In 1839 the heirs of Dr. Lothrop sold the southerly part of 
the lot to Nathaniel Russell, who built and occupied for many years the 
house recently owned and occupied by Jeremiah Farris, and now in the 
possession of his heirs. In 1832 they sold the northerly part to Jacob 
H. Loud, who built the house now owned and occupied by Mrs. Isaac 
L. Hedge. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and occupied by Albert 
C. Chandler, was owned, as far back as the earliest records reach, by 
Nathaniel Clark, the successor of Nathaniel Morton in the office of 
secretary of Plymouth Colony. After his return from England, where 
he had been sent as a prisoner, with Sir Edmund Andros, in 1688, he 
built a house on the lot, which stood, within the memory of many 
readers, on the northeast corner, between the house of Mr. Chandler and 
the boundary line of the land of William Thomas, and was in its later 
years occupied by Joseph Howland and Zacheus Kempton as tenants. 
In 1719, two years after the death of Mr. Clark, Rev. Ephraim Little 
and wif", Sarah Little, sold it to Ebenezer Curtis, who built the house 
now standing on the lot. Sarah Little, the daughter of William Clark, 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



201 



inherited the estate from her uncle, Nathaniel, who left no children. 
Mr. Curtis occupied the house until 1724, when he sold it to John Cran- 
don, who sold in 1726 to Joshua Dunham. In 1728 Mr. Dunham sold it 
to Benjamin Lothrop, who sold it in 1734 to John Sparhawk, who again 
sold it in 1749 to Richard Waite, the son of Return Waite, who married 
the widow of Francis LeBaron. In 1750 Mr. Waite sold it to Dr. William 
Thomas, the grandfather of its late owner and occupant, John B. Thomas, 
whose heirs sold it to Mr. Chandler. 

The next lot, on which the house of William Thomas stands, was 
granted by the town in 1701 to John Doty, grandson of Edward Doty of 
the Mayflower. After his death it was sold by Joshua Morse, who 
married his daughter Elizabeth, to Isaac Lothrop, by whom and by his 
son Isaac and grandson Isaac it was held as a vacant lot until 1810, 
when it was sold by the last Isaac Lothrop to Barnabas Hedge, who sold 
it in 1811 to the late Benjamin M. Watson, who built the present house 
and occupied it until his death. B. M. Watson, now living in Plymouth, 
the son of Mr. Watson, sold it to its present owner and occupant in 1845. 

The next lot, owned by the heirs of the late William Bartlett, was 
included in the grant to John Doty by the town in 1701. Joshua Morse, 
his son-in-law. who inherited the estate, began to build the house now 
standing on the lot, and while it was unfinished sold it to Josiah Sturte- 
vant, who completed its construction and occupied it until 1739, when 
he sold it to Benjamin Lothrop. Mr. Lothrop occupied it until 1746, 
when he sold it to Ansel Lothrop, his son. After the death of Ansel 
Lothrop, William Warren, who married his daughter Elizabeth, sold it 
to Charles Dyer in 1774. Mr. Dyer had six children, Charles and Mary 
unmarried; Lucy, who married the late Joseph Bartlett; Martha, who 
married Joseph Holmes ; and Margaret and Bethiah, who were the first 
and second wives of Jeremiah Holbrook, brother of the late Gideon 
Holbrook. William Bartlett married Lucy, a daughter of Mr. Joseph 
Holmes, and by a purchase of the shares belonging to the heirs of Mr. 
Dyer became a few years since the sole owner of the estate. 

The record of lots on Court Street would be incomplete without 
including that which, until within a few years, formed the corner of the 
square, and which was purchased by the town and given to the county 
for the purpose of enlarging Court Square at the time of the enlargement 
of the court-house. The earliest records place it in the possession of 
Eleazer Jackson, son of Abraham Jackson, who married Remember, 
daughter of Secretory Morton, who built a house on the lot. Mr. Jack- 
son lived in the house until 1717, when he sold it to Rev. Ephraim Little, 
who sold it in the next year to Edmund Tilson. In the same year Mr. 
Tilson sold it to Luke Perkins. In 1719 Mr. Perkins sold it to Robert 
Cushman, who in 1722 sold it to Joseph Langrell. In 1723 Mr. Langrell 
sold it to Joseph Lewin, of whom no record exists within the writer's 



202 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



knowledge. Mr Lewin occupied the house until 1730, when he sold it 
to John Murdock and Samuel Bartlelt, already referred to, who sold it in 
the following year to Job Cushman, who made it his place of residence. 
James Hovey afterwards owned the estate for a short time and sold it 
to Solomon Atwood in 1772. Mr. Atwood occupied it as a residence, 
and sold it in 1782 to Nathaniel Thomas, brother of Hon. Joshua Thomas, 
who removed the old house and built the one which readers will remem- 
ber on the lot, and which was removed when the square was enlarged. 
In 1800 Mr. Thomas sold it to Joseph Bartlett, who occupied it until he 
built and occupied the brick house on the other corner of the square. 
While he lived in the brick house the house in question was occupied by 
his son, William Bartlett, the father of John Bartlett, of Cambridge. 
After some years he moved back to the old house and occupied it until 
his death, and it was finally sold to the town. 

The open space now known as Court Square was for many years after 
the settlement of Plymouth the outlet of a valley which took the waters 
of the hills on both sides, and in ancient deeds of lands in its vicinity 
was called the " great gutter." When land on either side of it on Court 
Street was sold by the town to individuals it is probable that its reserva- 
tion was due rather to its ragged condition than to any intent to lay out 
a square. In the earliest deeds of lots on its margin it is simply called 
land belonging to the town of Plymouth. After a time it seems to have 
been graded, with the view of making a suitable place for framing 
houses, and its true name was " Framing Green " until the present 
court-house was built in 1820, when it assumed the name it has since 
borne of " Court Square." 

The lot of land on which the brick house stands now occupied by 
William Hedge, on the northerly corner of Court Square, was granted 
by the town, in 1709, to Francis Curtis, who appeared in Plymouth as 
early as 1671. In 1724 Mr. Curtis sold the land to Rev. Nathaniel 
Leonard, who built a house on the lot and occupied it until 1740, when 
he sold it to Elkanah Cushman, and moved into the house which he 
built on Leyden Street, now occupied by Miss Louisa S. Jackson. The 
estate passed, at the death of Mr. Cushman, to his son Elkanah, who 
sold it, in 1764, by his attorney, Lazarus LeBaron, to Benjamin Good- 
win. Mr. Goodwin was a brother of Nathaniel Goodwin, who married 
Lydia LeBaron, and married Hannah LeBaron, a sister of his brother's 
wife. He lived in Boston, on the estate of his father, John Goodwin, 
and sold the Plymouth estate, in the same year in which he bought it, to 
Thomas Matthews. Mr. Matthews occupied the house as an inn, and his 
widow at her death gave it by her will to Thomas Lombart, who sold 
it, in 1803, to Joseph Bartlett. Mr. Bartlett built the house now stand- 
ing, and occupied it as a residence until about 1820, when he moved 
back to the house owned by him in which he had formerly lived, on the 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



203 



other corner of the square. After its occupation by Mr. Bartlett it was 
occupied, at different times, as a hotel, by William Bartlett, son of 
Joseph, by Brackley Cashing, and William Spooner, until 1827, when 
Mr. Bartlett sold it to Nathaniel Russell, after whose death it passed 
into the possession of his son Nathaniel, by whose heirs it is now owned. 

The next ancient lot is that which is now the garden, on the northerly 
side, and now a part of the above estate. This lot was granted by the 
town, about the year 1700, to Martha Waite, after whose death it came 
into the possession of Jabez Shurtleff, who married her daughter Mar- 
tha, and the old house, which some readers will remember, was probably 
built by him. The estate afterwards passed into the hands of Return 
Waite, probably a brother of Mrs. Shurtleff, and in a few years after 
became the property of Thomas Clark. After the death of Mr. Clark it 
passed into the hands of his son, William Clark, who sold it, in 1800, to 
Samuel Clark, by whom it was sold, in the same year, to Lemuel Drew, 
who occupied it until his death. In 1823 it was given by Mr. Drew to 
his daughter Sally, in consideration of her care of him in sickness, and 
in 1829 was sold by William Thomas, her administrator, to her brother, 
Isaac Drew, who conveyed his interest, in 1839, to Nathaniel Russell, 
who had in 1835 bought of George Drew, brother of Isaac, an interest 
which had been set off to him in satisfaction of an execution against his 
brother. Mr. Russell took down the old house and added the lot to his 
estate. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and occupied by 
Lewis G. Bradford, as far back as the records reach seems to have been 
in the possession of John Doty, son of Edward Doty of the Mayflower. 
The old house, which many readers will remember, was probably built 
by Elisha Doty, son of John, who sold the land, with a house, in 1725, 
to Timothy Morton, who made it his residence. Mr. Morton lived in 
the house until his death, after which his son Job sold it, in 1748, to 
Deacon John Atwood, after whose death it was sold by his son, Isaac 
Atwood, to Nathaniel Goodwin and James Warren, who took a deed in 
the name of the firm of Goodwin & Warren. By a division of estates 
owned in common, made in 17G0, the lot in question fell to James War- 
ren, who sold it, in 1761, to Widow Margaret Keen, after whose death 
it came into the possession of her son, William Keen, who occupied it 
many years. In 1829 Joseph Lucas, administrator of the estate of Mr. 
Keen, sold it to Sylvester Davie, at whose death it passed into the hands 
of his father, Solomon Davie, of whom it was bought by Johnson Davie, 
his son, who sold it, in 1840, to Nathaniel Russell. Since that time it 
has been owned and occupied by the late Andrew L. Russell, who built 
the house now standing on the lot, William Morey, Jr., and Mrs. Adams, 
who sold it recently to Lewis G. Bradford, the present owner and 
occupant. 



204 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



The next lot of land, as far back as the records reach was the prop- 
erty of Nathaniel Holmes, who married Mercy, daughter of John 
Faunce, and sister of Thomas, the elder of Plymouth church. Mr. 
Holmes built the house now standing on the lot, and occupied it until his 
death, after which, in 1748, his children. Widow Mercy Tinkham and 
Patience and Melatiah Holmes, sold it to Hannah Jackson, the widow of 
Jeremiah Jackson. In 1755 Mrs. Jackson sold it to John Murdock, a son 
of John Murdock. In 1764 John Murdock sold it to his brother James, 
who sold it, in 1708, to Samuel Pierce, by whom it was again sold, in 
1774, to Elizabeth Edmonds. In 1777 Elizabeth Edmonds sold it to 
Joseph Croswell, who occupied it until 1798. In 1798 Mr. Croswell sold 
the southerly half of the land and house to Solomon Davie, father of 
Johnson Davie, now living in Plymouth, who occupied the house until 
his death. It was the property of his daughter, Miss Sarah J. Davie, at 
the time of her recent death, and afterwards, by her will, the life estate 
of Mrs. John Virgin, her sister. After the death of Mrs. Virgin it was 
sold, in 1880, to Julianna Shaw, its present owner and occupant. The 
north half was sold by Mr. Croswell, in 1799, to Anselm Rickard, whose 
son sold it to Barnabas Holmes in 1834, by whom it was sold to David 
Peckham. Judith Peckham, the widow of Mr. Peckham, sold it to 
Everett F. Sherman in 1857, who sold it, in 1867, to Jane T. Lanman, 
the wife of Ellis T. Lanman, who now owns and occupies it. Like 
other ancient houses now standing in Plymouth, alterations and addi- 
tions made by its different occupants have so changed its character and 
shape that little is left to reveal its age besides the timbers of which its 
frame was constructed. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and occupied by the 
widow and heirs of the late John Perkins, was sold, in 1718, by the 
town to Ebenezer Curtis, who built a house on the land, and sold it, in 
1719, to Rev. Ephraim Little. Widow Sarah Little, in 1736, sold it to 
John Dyer, who sold it, two years after, to Seth Cobb. In 1741 James 
Hovey, administrator on the estate of Mr. Cobb, sold it to Thomas 
Witherell, whose son, Thomas Witherell, sold it, in 1767, to John How- 
ard, Jr. Mr. Howard sold it, in 1772. to Thomas Davis, who sold it, in 
1782, to Ebenezer Howard. Mr. Howard sold it, in 1804, to Lemuel 
Drew, who took down the old house, and built that now standing. From 
Lemuel Drew it passed to George Drew, his brother, who occupied it 
within the memory of many readers, and after the failure of George in 
business it was conveyed, by Jacob H. Loud, his assignee, to Fanny G. 
Drew, his wife, in 1843, who sold it, two years after, to Granville Gard- 
ner. In 1853 Mr. Gardner sold it to John Perkins, who lived in it until 
his death, a year or two since, and whose family continue to occupy it. 

The next lot, on which the double house stands known as the Lanman 
house, was a part of the land sold by the town to Ebenezer Curtis in 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



205 



1718, and has the same record as the last down to its possession by John 
Howard in 1767. In 1771 James Mcrritt of Scituate obtained pos- 
session of it under an execution against Mr. Howard, and sold it, in 
1773, to Thomas Jackson, who sold it to Samuel Lanman in the same 
year, the father of Peter Lanman, who afterwards became its owner, 
and built the house now standing on the lot about the year 1812. After 
the death of Peter Lanman, it became the property of his sons, Samuel 
and Isaac Lanman, and is now owned by the widow of Winslow P>. 
Bradford, daughter of Samuel Lanman, and Andrew J. Bradford, who 
purchased the northerly end of Thomas Lanman, to whom it was given 
by the will of his brother Isaac. 

The next lot, on which the Morey house, so called, stands, was 
granted by the town, in the early part of the last century, to Martha 
Waite, from whom it passed to Eleazer Rogers, a grandson of Joseph 
Rogers, who came, with his father Thomas, in the Mayflower. The 
present house, built by Mr. Rogers, though at various times remodelled 
and rejuvenated, has much of its original material left, and is one of the 
oldest structures standing in the town. Mr. Rogers sold it, in 1721, to 
Thomas Phillips, who sold it, in 1723, to Anthony Decosta, of whom the 
writer knows nothing except that he lived on the estate many years, and 
that his widow, Joanna, sold it, in 1765, to Samuel Piei-ce. Mr. Pierce, 
in 1775, sold the house and land to Samuel Jackson. Mr. Jackson prob- 
ably occupied it before he moved into the house in North Street standing 
on the site of the house of Mrs. Isaac C. Jackson in 1784. In 1777 Mr. 
Jackson sold it to George Dunham of Providence, who sold it to Samuel 
Rider in 1795. In the same year Mr. Rider sold the south half to John 
Edwards, whose widow, with Daniel Doten, her second husband, sold it, 
in 1812, to William Morey, whose wife was the daughter of Mr. 
Edwards. In 1824 Mr. Morey purchased of Samuel Rider the north 
half, and thus became, as he continues to be, tho owner of the whole 
estate. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and occupied by 
Johnson Davie, was granted by the town to Ebenezer Curtis, with the 
condition that he should build a house before the 1st of May, 1712. In 
that year Mr. Curtis sold the lot to John Murdock, who complied with 
the conditions of the grant, and built a house, which was undoubtedly 
held by him as a tenement, as he continued to reside in the house which 
he had previously built in Town Square. It afterwards passed into the 
hands of Samuel Shaw, who sold it, in 1760, to Ebenezer Robbins. In 
1773 it was sold by Mr. Robbins to Thomas Lewis, who sold it, in 1777, 
to William Holland. Mr. Holland conveyed it to Benjamin Clark in 
1801, who mortgaged it back to Mr. Holland, by whom it was sold under 
a mortgage possession in 1807 to Elias Cox, the father of James Cox, 
now living. Mr. Cox built the house now standing on the lot, and lived 



206 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



in it during his life, his heirs selling it, in 1854, to Johnson Davie, its 
present owner. 

The next lot was granted by the town about the year 1700 to John 
Holmes, a son of Nathaniel, who married Patience, a sister of Elder 
Faunce. In 1711 Mr. Holmes sold it to Rev. Epliraim Little, who began 
to build a house on the lot, and sold it while in frame to Return Wake, 
who held it until 1723, when he sold it to Dr. Lazarus LeBaron. In 
1727 Dr. LeBaron sold it to Cornelius Holmes, who sold it in 1729 
to Widow Katharine White. Mrs. White owned and occupied it 
until 1747, when she sold it to Nathaniel Goodwin, after whose death, 
in 1771, it was setoff to his son Francis LeBaron Goodwin, who occupied 
it until 1791, when he sold it to his mother's brother, General Nathaniel 
Goodwin. In the same year General Goodwin sold it to Lemuel Drew, 
the uncle of Winslow Drew, now living, who took down the old house 
and built the present one, the south half of which he occupied until 1804. 
In 1795 Mr. Drew sold the north half to Thomas Bartlett, his brother-in- 
law, who occupied it until he sold it to David Bacon in 1811. After four 
years 1 occupancy Mr. Bacon sold it, in 1815. to Benjamin Barnes, who 
sold it in 1824 to Johnson Davie. Mr. Drew sold the south half in 1808 
to Thomas and Amasa Bartlett, who sold it the next year to Rufus 
Robbins. After the death of Mr. Robbins it became the property of his 
son Rufus, and it was sold by Nathan Hayward, at a sheriff's sale in 
1829, to Allen Danforth, who occupied it some years, and sold it in 1844 
to Johnson Davie, who thus became, as he continues to be, the owner of 
the whole estate. 

The next lot, on which the house known as the Bacon house now 
stands, in what was called in some of the early deeds " Poverty Row," 
was granted by the town about the year 1700 to Jonathan Barnes, who 
sold it in 1711 to Rev. Ephraim Little, and after that time it has the 
same record as the last down to Cornelius Holmes in 1727. Mr. Holmes 
sold it in 1728 to John Waterman, who sold it in 1730 to Katharine 
White, the owner of the adjoining estate. In 1747 Mrs. White sold it to 
Nathaniel Goodwin, and after the death of Mr. Goodwin, in 1771, it was 
set off to his son George, who held it until 1790, when he sold it to his 
brother, General Goodwin, who sold it in 1781 to William and Thomas 
Nelson, who built the house now standing on the lot. In 1785 William 
Nelson, the grandfather of William II. Nelson, now living, sold the south 
half to Charles Robbins, the father of the late Leavitt T. Robbins, who 
sold it in 1798 to his brother-in-law, George Bacon, whose heirs now 
own and occupy it. The north half remained in the possession of 
Thomas Nelson and his heirs until its sale within a few years to Ephraim 
Finney, its present owner and occupant. 

The next lot, on which theTiouse stands owned and occupied by the 
widow of William Brewster Barnes, was granted by the town, about the 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



207 



year 1700, to Samuel Clark, a grandson of Thomas Clark, whose gravestone 
is the oldest on Burial Hill. In 1711 Mr. Clark sold it to Rev. Ephraini 
Little, his brother-in-law, at which time a negro woman by the name 
of Mingo occupied it. In 1715 Mr. Little sold it to Manasseh Kempton, 
probably son of Ephraim, who married, in 1646, Joanna, daughter of 
Thomas Rawlins. In 1721 Mr. Kempton sold it to Nathaniel Cobb, who 
built a house on the lot and occupied it until 1730, when he sold it to 
Samuel Doty. Samuel Doten, the son of Samuel Doty, mortgaged it in 
1768 to Samuel Jackson, who conveyed it under his mortgage to Samuel 
Doten the third, the son of the last Samuel, in 1779. Mr. Doten occu- 
pied it until 1793, when he sold it to Job Brewster, who lived in it until 
his death, when it passed into the possession of his daughter Jane, the 
wife of Joseph Barnes, who took down the old house and built the one 
now standing. At the death of Mr. Barnes it came into the possession 
of his son, William Brewster Barnes, whose widow now occupies it. 

Readers will notice that the above estate was owned and occupied 
from 1730 to 1793 by three generations of Samuel Dotens. The first 
Samuel was son of Edward Doty, who married, in 1663, Sarah, sister of 
Elder Faunce and grandson of Edward Doty of the Mayflower. He 
spelled his name like his father, but his son adopted the name of Doten, 
which has been from that time retained by that branch of the family. 

The next lot, on which the house stands now owned and occupied by 
James Collins, was laid out with the adjoining Barnes lot, in 1707, to 
Samuel Clark, who sold it in 1711 to Rev. Ephraim Little, and either 
Mr. Little or Mr. Clark built a house on the lot. In 1715 Mr. Little sold 
it to Manasseh Kempton, and in 1721 Mr. Kempton sold it to Nathaniel 
Cobb. Up to this date its record is the same as that of the Barnes lot. 
At a very early date a shop also was built on the southeast corner of the 
lot, which many readers will remember, and which was probably the 
last structure in Plymouth with diamond glass windows set in lead. A 
part of one of these windows is now in Pilgrim Hall. In 1736 Mr. Cobb 
sold it to Jonathan Darling, who lived on the estate until 1758, when he 
sold it to Sylvanus Bramhall. In 1759 Mr. Bramhall mortgaged it to 
Silas Morton, who sold it under his mortgage in 1764 to Thomas Holmes. 
Mercy Holmes, the widow of Thomas Holmes, and administratrix on his 
estate, sold it in 1769 to Samuel Pierce, who sold it in the same year to 
John Fuller. In 1778 Mr. Fuller sold it to James Collins, the father 
of its recent owner and occupant, now deceased. 

The next lot, which comprises the garden north of the house of James 
Collins, was granted by the town in 1709 to Richard Holmes, the son of 
Xathaniel Holmes, who married Patience, the sister of Elder Thomas 
Faunce, and has remained in the family to the present time. In 1711 
Richard Holmes sold it to his mother, Patience Holmes, with the house 
which he had built. In 1714 Mrs. Holmes sold it to her son George, in 



208 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



whose line it has descended. It is not within the knowledge of the 
writer when the old house was taken down, and his only authority for 
stating that a house was built by Richard Holmes is the fact that the 
grant to him by the town in 1709 was made with the condition annexed 
that he should build within two years. 

The land next north of the above lot, as far as the northerly side of 
the house occupied by John T. Stoddard, was granted by the town in 
1703 to Patience Holmes, widow of Nathaniel Holmes, and sister of Elder 
Thomas Faunce. The records indicate that she built the house owned 
by the widow of Epliraim Bartlett Holmes, and that occupied by Ben- 
jamin O. Strong. In 1714 she sold to her son George these two houses 
and the land on which they stand. The southerly one he occupied until 
his death, when it passed, like the previous lot, to his son Richard, and 
finally to his grandson Richard, the father of Ephraim Bartlett Holmes. 
The northerly one, occupied by B. O. Strong, passed, at the death of 
George, to his son George, who sold it in 1782 to Barnabas Hedge, by 
whom it was sold in 1792 to Ellis Brewster. Before the sale to Mr. 
Hedge Mr. Holmes sold in 1778 a strip of land on the northerly side of 
the house with a barn to William Holland, who sold it in 1797 to Mr. 
Brewster, giving him possession of the whole of the original lot. After 
the death of Mr. Brewster it came into the possession of Charles Bram- 
hall, who married, in 1819, his daughter, Nancy E. Brewster, from whose 
heirs the present owner obtained possession. 

The next lot, on which the house stands occupied by John T. Stoddard, 
was granted, as above mentioned, to Patience Holmes, in 1703, who 
sold it in 1711 to her son, Richard Holmes, who built a house on the land 
farther back from the street than the present one, which he occupied 
until his death, after which, in 1737, his three children, Gershom, 
Sylvanus, and Mary, the wife of Thomas Kempton, sold it to Rodolphus 
Hatch, who had married their mother, Widow Hester Holmes. Mr. 
Hatch occupied it until his death, when it was sold in 1770 by his son, 
John Hatch, to Ruth Robinson, who appears to have occupied it until 
1801, when she sold it to Robert Dunham, who married her daughter 
Ruth. Mr. Dunham made it his residence, and in 1804, for the purpose 
of transferring it to his wife, sold it to his son Robert, who in the same 
year conveyed it to Mrs. Dunham. In 1817, for default of payment of 
the United States tax of the previous year, it was sold by John W. Davis, 
clerk of the United States District Court, to Robert Dunham, Jr. In 
1829 Mr. Dunham sold it to William T. Drew, who took down the old 
house and built that now standing, which he sold in 1833 to Ezra Finney, 
during whose ownership it was occupie 1 bv William Sampson Bartlett, 
who married his daughter Betsey. In 1835 Mr. Finney conveyed it to 
Mr. Bartlett, who in the same year sold it to Rev. George W. Briggs, 
who occupied it during his connection as pastor with the First Church, 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



209 



and sold it in 1855 to Elizabeth B. Andrews, the wife of Henry G. 
Andrews, and daughter of Nathaniel M. Davis, who sold it in 1856 to 
William W. Baker, who made it his residence. In 1868 Mr. Baker sold 
it to Jeremiah Farris, the father of the wife of John T. Stoddard, who 
now occupies it. The strip of land on the north side of the house, now 
belonging to the lot, was a part of the lot adjoining, and purchased 
within a few years. 

All the remaining land on Court Street as far as Samoset Street was 
granted by the town, in 1685, to Nathaniel Wood, son of John Wood, 
who appeared in Plymouth iu 1643. It was provided in the grant that 
"a cartway leading to the woods" should be left between the land 
granted and the land on the north on which the Samoset House now 
stands, then belonging to John Rickard. There is a good reason, there- 
fore, for believing that this cartway, which in time became a lane called 
'* Woods Lane," derived its name from the fact that it led to the woods, 
and not from the owner of land on its border It is true that, in some 
old deeds, it is called Deacon Atwood's Lane, but its more modern name 
of "Woods Lane" seems to have been a revival of the name it bore 
before Deacon Atwood's ownership, when it was called the lane to the 
woods. There are no indications in the records that any building was 
erected on the land granted to Mr. Wood during his life. After his 
death it came into the possession of his son John, who assumed the 
name of Atwood, and with him the confusion of the names of Wood and 
Atwood began. He was chosen a deacon of the Plymouth church in 
1716, and appears, when referred to on the records, sometimes as John 
Wood and sometimes as John Atwood. The writer has found one 
instance where he took a deed of a lot of land in the name of John 
Wood, and conveyed it as John Atwood. A description of the adjoining 
land of John Rickard in 1701 fixes its southeasterly corner, now the 
corner of the Samoset House lot, six rods northeasterly of Deacon 
Wood's barn, showing that before that time Deacon Atwood had built a 
barn nearly on the site of the house now occupied by Lysander Dunham, 
on Samoset Street. As it is certain that he was the builder and occu- 
pant of what is now known as the Shaw house, it is probable that that 
house also was built before that date. That part of the lot granted to 
Nathaniel Wood, on which the Catholic church now stands, was sold 
with a barn in 1780 by Elizabeth Peirce, the wife of Samuel Pierce, and 
daughter of Deacon John Atwood, to whom it was set off in the division 
of her father's estate, to John Rowe of Gloucester. In 1802 Joseph 
Rowe of Boston, attorney of John Rowe, sold it to Richard Holmes, 
whose heirs sold it, within a few years, to Charles E. Barnes, the 
grantor to its present owner. 

The house known as the Shaw house was built as above stated by 
Deacon John Atwood, probably before 1701. After his death it came 



210 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



into the possession of his daughter Margaret, who sold it, in 17G4, to 
Ichabod Shaw, who married her sister Priseilla, another daughter of 
Deacon Atwood. After the late Southworth Shaw, son of Ichabod, was 
married, the northerly end, the outline of which may be seen in the 
rear, was added to the old house, and occupied by him, while the 
remainder was occupied by his father. After the death of Ichabod 
Shaw, in 1822, the house was occupied by Southworth Shaw and his 
sister Experience, the wife of Beza Hayward. After the death of South- 
worth Shaw the estate came into the possession of the late Ichabod 
Shaw, and is now owned by his daughter, Lucia J. Shaw. It will be 
noticed that this estate has been in one family since 1685, and occupied 
by them as a residence during a period of at least one hundred and 
seventy-eight years. 

The lot of land on the north of the house also came into possession of 
Margaret Atwood at the death of her father, and was conveyed, with 
the house, in 1764, to Ichabod Shaw. After the death of Southworth 
Shaw, who had inherited it from his father, it was sold by his heirs, in 
1857, to Moses Bates. After Vernon Street was laid out through it, a 
strip thirty-one feet wide, not wanted for the street, was sold by Mr. 
Bates in the same year to William Thomas, the owner of the adjoining 
estate. The next lot, on which the house owned by Mr. Thomas stands, 
was set off, with the remainder of the land as far as Samoset Street, to 
Priseilla, the wife of Ichabod Shaw, in the division of the estate of her 
father. Deacon John Atwood, and remained vacant until 1834, when 
Southworth Shaw sold it to William T. Drew, who built the house now 
standing on the lot. In 1851 Mr. Drew, after some years' occupancy, 
sold it to William Thomas, when it was occupied for several years by 
William H. Whitman, who married Ann, the daughter of Mr. Thomas. 
The remaining land was conveyed, in 1835, by Southworth Shaw to 
Phineas Leach, who sold it the next year to Albert G. Goodwin. In 
1856 Mr. Goodwin sold the corner lot to Lysander Dunham, who built 
the house he now owns and occupies. More recently he sold the adjoin- 
ing lot on the south to William Brewster Barnes, by whom it was sold 
to William B. Tribble, who built, in 1878, the two houses now standing 
on the lot. 

It can hardly have escaped the notice of readers that the lots on the 
westerly side of Court Street as far as Samoset. Street were held by the 
town until about the year 1700, before they were granted to individuals. 
It is probable that the range of hills in their rear rendered them unavail- 
able until other lands in the centre of the town were taken up. A new 
interest attaches to the lots north of Samoset Street, as the writer is able 
to give a clear record of some of them back to the division of lands in 
1623. The lots comprising the grounds of the Samoset House, and the 
house lots on both sides of Cushman Street, were assigned, in the divis- 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



211 



ion of lands in 1623 to Robert Hicks, Thomas Prcnce, Stephen Dean, 
Moses Simonson, Philip Delano, Edward Bom pass, Clement Brings, and 
James Steward, all of whom came in the Fortune in that year. 

These lots contained each one acre, and were probably assigned in 
the order of the list of names given above, running northerly from Sam- 
oset Street. As early as 1G30 Robert Hicks had come into the possession 
of all these lots by purchase. One of the deeds, that from Stephen 
Dean, is so concise and comprehensive as to contrast favorably with the 
absurd preambles and conclusions which obtained at a later day, anil 
which characterize, to some extent, the conveyances of the present 
time : — 

" Stephen Dean soulil to Robert IIi\e 2 acei-9 of land lying on the north side of the 
towne between the first and second brook, the one beinjj his ownc inheritance, ye other 
was that he bought of Philip De le noy, the which 2 acers he sould as aforesaid to the 
said Robert Ilixe for the some of 4 pounds sterling, which payment he hath received, 
and in wittness hearof hath put his hand this 3d of July, 1630 

Stephen Dean. 

The "first brook" mentioned in the deed is that which, in recent 
years, has been known as Shaw's Brook, over which the brick block 
owned by Charles G. Davis was a few years since built. The "second 
brook" is that which runs through the land of Benjamin A. Hathaway, 
and finds its way into the harbor north of the railroad station. 

In 1639 Robert Hicks sold the above lot to his son, Samuel Hicks, and 
when Samuel removed to the Cape it passed into the hands of Edward 
Gray. In 1673 Mr. Gray sold it to John Rickard, already referred to, 
and it remained the property of Mr. Rickard anil his son John until 1738, 
when it was sold by the latter to the second James Warren. In the 
same year Mr. Warren sold it to Lazarus LeBaron, who held it as a 
vacant lot until his death in 1775, when, in the division of his estate, that 
part which belongs to the Samoset House was set off to his son William, 
and the remainder, including Cushman Street and all the lots on both 
sides of it, to his son Isaac. The Samoset House lot was sold in 1806 by 
William LeBaron to James Thacher, who sold it in the same year to 
Daniel R. Elliot, the husband of his daughter Betsey. After the death 
of Mr. Elliot, his executor, John Elliot of Georgia, sold it in 1813 to 
Betsey H. Elliot, his widow. During its ownership by her, after the 
death of her second husband, Michael Hodge, of Newburyport, she 
built the house now standing called "the old part" of the Samoset 
House, and occupied it, with her father, Dr. Thacher. In 1827 Mrs. 
Hodge sold it to her son-in-law, Charles Sever, the husband of her 
daughter Jane, who occupied it until 1833, when he sold it to John 
Thomas, who also made it his residence. Mr. Thomas sold it, in 1837, 
to Jason Hart, who after some years' occupation sold it to the Old Colony 
Railroad in 1844, and the Samoset House was built by them. In 1850 



212 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



it was sold by the corporation to the Samoset House Association, who 
owned it until its recent sale, in 1875, to Peleg C. Chandler, whose widow 
sold it in the present year to Thomas F. Frobisher, its present proprietor. 

So much has been said concerning the Samoset House estate that 
little though perhaps enough space remains for the consideration of the 
adjoining lot, which was set off to Isaac LeBaron in the division of his 
father's estate. This lot, as has before been stated, includes Cushman 
Street and the lots on both of its sides. The whole lot remained vacant 
until Cushman Street was laid out a few years since, except the south- 
east corner, on which the Rider house, so called, stands. This corner 
was sold, in 178G, by Isaac LeBaron to Lemuel Bobbins, brother of 
Samuel Robbins, who built the house now standing and occupied it until 
1796, when he sold it to Daniel and Charles Jackson. In 1803 the 
Messrs. Jackson sold it to Rufus Robbins, the son of Lemuel, who occu- 
pied it until 182,3. when he sold it to Merrick Rider, who occupied it 
many years, and whose heirs sold it a few years since to Dwight Faulk- 
ner, who sold it, in 1880, to Jason W. Mixter. The remainder of the 
lot was held by Isaac LeBaron until 1815. when he sold it to Nathaniel 
Russell, Ids son-in-law, who sold it, in 182.3, to William Davis. In the 
division of the estate of Mr. Davis, who died in 1826, it was set off to 
Ids son, Nathaniel Morton Davis, who sold it, in 1845, to Joseph Cush- 
man and Nathaniel L. Hedge, who laid out Cushman Street and sold the 
lots on its borders. 

Cushman Street. — Before proceeding further with Court Sti-eet it may 
be well to present in detail a record of Cushman Street, for, though it may 
be a familiar one to the present generation, it will be of value and interest 
to future inquirers. After the purchase by Joseph Cushman and Na- 
thaniel L. Hedge, in 1845, of the Isaac LeBaron lot, or the buttonwood 
lot, as it was for many years called, on account of the stately buttonwood 
trees along its front, they laid out Cushman Street, and named it after 
Elder Cushman, the ancestor of one of the parties engaged in the enter- 
prise. In 1849 the lot on which the house stands now owned and 
recently occupied by Dwight Faulkner, was sold to Asa H. Moore, an 
active and enterprising conductor on the Old Colony Railroad, who 
settled in Plymouth, and married Hannah, a daughter of the late John 
Washburn. Mr. Moore is now a resident in Bloomington, Illinois, 
where, in a wider field of action, he has become a prominent and 
wealthy man. He built the house now standing on the lot, and sold it, in 
1850, to Elizabeth B. Andrews, the wife of Henry G. Andrews, and who 
occupied it with her husband until 1855, when she sold it to Isabella 
Davie, the wife of Samuel Harmon Davie, and daughter of George 
Simmons. Mrs. Davie, with her husband, also occupied it until 1861, 
when she sold it to the writer, who sold it, in the same year, to Mrs. 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



213 



Andrews, its former owner. In 1803 Mrs. Andrews sold it to Anna M. 
Faulkner, the wife of the present owner, who sold it, in 1880, to Jason 
W. Mixter. 

The next lot was sold in 1849 to Charles T. May, who sold it in 1856 
to Gamaliel Thomas, who built the house now standing, which is still 
owned and occupied by him. 

The third lot was sold in 1851 to Coomer Weston, Jr., who sold it the 
next year to his brother, Francis H. Weston, by whom it was sold in 1855 
to Charles S. Peterson. Mr. Peterson built a house on the lot, and in 
1858 mortgaged it to the Plymouth Savings Bank, by whom it was sold 
in 1865 to Mary R. Hodge, its present owner. 

The fourth lot was sold in 1851 to Eleazer S. Turner, who sold it in 

1853 to Richard B. Dunham, the builder of the house which he now owns 
and occupies. 

The fifth lot was sold in 1851 to Benjamin Hathaway, who sold it in 
1855 to James B. Collingwood, who built the house he still owns and 
occupies. 

The sixth and seventh lots were sold in 1851 and 1853 to Maiy 1). 
Robbins, the wife of Frederick W. Robbins, who built the houses now 
standing, and with her husband now occupies one of them. 

The eighth and ninth lots, at the westerly end of the street, on the 
north side, were sold to Allen Danforth in 1851, and in 1874 were sold 
by his heirs to Augustus H. Lucas, who built the house on the lot, and 
whose widow sold it in 1881 to Rose Standish Whiting. 

The tenth lot was sold in 1852 to Caleb C. Bradford, who still owns it, 
and occupies the house which he built on the lot. 

The eleventh lot was sold in 1851 to William J. Dunham, who in 

1854 sold the upper half to Caleb C. Bradford, to be added to his lot, 
and in the same year the lower half to Elisl a J. Merriam who had 
bought in 1853 the twelfth lot of Richard B. Dunham, brother of William, 
who bought the lot in 1851, and built the house now standing. 

The thirteenth lot was sold in 1851 to Gideon Perkins, who, in the 
same year, bought of Isaac Lewis Davie the fourteenth lot, which Mr. 
Davie had bought of Cushman and Hedge immediately before. In 1854 
Mr. Perkins sold both lots to William W. Baker, who in 1856 sold the 
thirteenth to Winslow Bradford, and the fourteenth to Ezra Thomas. 
In 1856 Mr. Bradford sold his lot to Elisha J. Merriam, to be added to 
his lot, and in 1858 Mr. Thomas sold his to Nathaniel Spooner, who had 
built and was occupying a house on the fifteenth lot at the corner of 
Court Street, which he had bought of Cushman and Hedge in 1849. Mr. 
Spooner occupied the house built by him until 1872, when l.e sold it to 
Colonel Henry G. Parker, who after making it for a few years his 
summer residence sold it in the present year to Isaac N. Stoddard. 

The next lot, including the lot on which the house of Isaac N. Stod- 



214 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



(lard stands, and that portion of the adjoining lot in line with the second 
brook, was a part of land which at an earl}' date belonged to Ephraim 
Cole, son of James Cole, and remained in the Cole family until the 
death of Samuel Cole, in 1812, when in the division of his estate it was 
set off to his kinsman, William Davis. In the division of the estate of 
Mr. Davis, who died in 182G, it was set off to the children of his son 
William, and three-quarters of the lot finally came into the possession 
of Hannah White, wife of Andrew L. Russell, and one of the children 
of William Davis, to whom the other children released their interest in 
1853. Mr. Russell built the house now standing, and occupied it until 
his death, in 18G4, after which, in 18G5, it was sold to Martha L. B. Stod- 
dard, the wife of the present occupant. The other quarter was released 
to the writer, one of the children of William Davis, who added it to the 
adjoining lot owned by him. 

All the land between the second and third brooks (the latter now called 
Cold Spring Brook), was granted by the town in 1G92 to Rev. John Cotton. 
That portion of it bounded by what is now Faunce Street he sold the 
next year to John Nelson, son of William Nelson, the progenitor of the 
Nelson family in Plymouth. Mr. Nelson gave it to John Doty, who 
probably married his daughter Mehitabel, and in 170G Mr. Doty sold 
it to Samuel Nelson, who is called in the deed "his brother." John 
Nelson, son of Samuel, sold it in 1784 to Thaddeus Faunce. 

The land extending from the second brook to the land of George G. 
Dyer was taken in execution against Mr. Faunce, in 1798, by Benjamin 
Cooper, who sold it in 1801 to Samuel Jackson. In 1819, after the death 
of Mr. Jackson, it was sold by his daughter Naomi, the wife of Calvin 
Crombie, to Sylvanus Lazell of Bridgewater, who sold it the next year 
to John Blaney Bates. In 1833 it passed from Mr. Bates through the 
hands of Nathaniel M. Davis, administrator on the estate of his father, 
William Davis, who had a mortgage on the land, to Jacob and Abner 
S. Taylor, who again mortgaged it to Benjamin Hathaway in 1848, by 
whom it was sold in 1849 to George W. Virgin. In 1851 Mr. Virgin 
sold the southerly half of the lot to the writer, who added the strip of 
land above referred to on its southerly side, belonging to the old Davis 
lot, and in 1854 built the house which he occupied for many years and 
sold in 1881 to Frances J. Douglass. The remaining half of the lot was 
sold in 1852 by Mr. Virgin to Benjamin Hathaway, who sold it in 18G9 
to George F. Andrews, who sold, in 1873, the front half to John Morissey, 
and the rear to the writer, who added it to his homestead. In 1875 Mr. 
Morissey sold to his son, William S. Morissey, a lot next to the estate of 
the writer, on which he built a house in which he lives, and afterwards 
built a house on the remainder. 

The next lot, on which the house stands occupied by George G. Dyer, 
was also sold by John Nelson to Thaddeus Faunce in 1784, whose widow, 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



215 



Elizabeth Faunce, sold it in 1821 to Daniel Goddard. In 1844 Mr. 
Goddard sold it to William Morey, Jr., who sold it in the same year to 
John Battles. In 1853 Mr. Battles sold it to Samuel Newell Diman, who 
sold it in the same year to Lemuel Bradford, who built the house now 
standing on the lot. In 1862 Mr. Bradford sold it to Frances E. Gray 
and Ellen C, the wife of AVilliam II. Brooks, who occupied it until 1865, 
when they sold it to Albert Mason, who also occupied the house and sold 
it in 1869 to Mary Ann B. Dyer, the wife of the present occupant. 

The next lot of land as far as Faunce Street was sold by Elizabeth 
Faunce to Daniel Goddard, and by him to William Morey, Jr., who sold 
it in 1844 to Bradford L. Battles. In 1853 and 1856 Mr. Battles sold it 
to Henry L. Chubbuck, who in 1857 sold the northerly half to Charles G. 
Davis, agent of the Pilgrim Society, and in 1859 the southerly half to 
Rev. Robert B. Hall. In 1875 Abby B., the widow of Mr. Hall, sold the 
southerly lot to James D. Thurber, who built the house which he now 
occupies, and in 1878 the Pilgrim Society gave the larger part of their 
lot to the town for a new street, and sold the remainder to Mr. Thurber 
to be added to his homestead. On this lot the house stood which was 
built and occupied by John Nelson about the year 1700, and was more 
recently occupied by Thaddeus Faunce and his widow until what was 
known by the last generation as the Faunce house was built on the oppo- 
site side of the street. 

Mr. Nelson included in his sale to Mr. Faunce, in 1784, all the land 
between Faunce Street and the northerly line of the land now owned and 
occupied by William Gooding. The remainder of the tract as far as 
Cold Spring Brook, except the pasture with a small frontage on the 
street immediately south of the entrance to land of John Clark, was 
inherited by his brother Ebenezer, and was then in his possession. Mr. 
Faunce retained possession of this part of his purchase during his life, 
and his widow, Elizabeth, held it after his death until 1836, when she sold 
it to Merrick Rider, guardian of Mary D. Knowles, his great-grand- 
daughter. In 1840 Mr. Rider sold it to James Baxter, the father of the 
late Josiah D. Baxter, who sold that part of it now owned by Sarah W. 
Sherman, wife of Everett F. Sherman, in the same year to Coomer 
Weston, and mortgaged the remainder to the Plymouth Savings 1 Bank. 
Mr. Weston built a house on the lot which he occupied until his death, 
in 1870, and in 1873 Francis II. Weston and other of his heirs sold it to 
its present owner. In 1844 the Plymouth Savings' Bank took possession 
under their mortgage of the remainder of the land purchased by Mr. 
Baxter of Merrick Rider, guardian, and sold it to Jacob H. Loud, who 
sold it in the same year to Rowland E. Cotton. In 1850 Mr. Cotton sold 
that portion of it now owned and occupied by Friend W. Howland to 
Charles G. Davis, and the remainder to William Gooding. Mr. Davis 
and Mr. Gooding built houses on their lots, and Mr. Gooding is still an 



216 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



occupant In 1858 Mr. Davis sold his house and lot to Henry G. 
Andrews, trustee, who occupied it for a short time, and sold it in 1859 to 
Ebenezer Pierce. In 1870, after the death of Mr. Pierce, his widow, 
Sally S. Pierce, sold it to George F. Andrews, who, after an occupancy 
of five years, sold it in 1875 to Mr. Howland, its present owner and 
occupant. 

The next lot of land, on which the house stands recently owned and 
occupied by Miss Ann M. Weston, was a part of the original Cotton lot 
purchased by John Nelson in 1693, and was inherited from him by his 
son Samuel, and grandson Ebenezer Nelson. At the death of Ebenezer 
Nelson it was set off to his granddaugbter Abigail, wife of David 
Diman, Jr., who sold it in 1826 to Lemuel Bradford, the father of Lemuel 
Bradford now living, who built the house now standing. In 1871 Mr. 
Bradford's son Lemuel sold it to James Sears, who sold it in 1876 to Miss 
Weston. The land in the rear, on which the ropewalk stands, was once 
owned by James Baxter above mentioned, who built the walk and 
carried on the business of manufacturing line and twine. 

The lot of vacant land next north of the house owned by Miss Weston 
was inherited by Polly Cobb, the second wife of John K. Cobb, and 
daughter of Samuel Nelson, from her father as a part of the old Cotton 
and John Nelson land, and was sold in 1879 by the heirs of Mr. Cobb 
to James D. Thurber and others, who sold it in 1880 to the town for a 
school-house lot. 

The next estate, including the house which was probably built by 
Lemuel Nelson, son of Ebenezer Nelson, also a part of the Cotton land, 
was sold partly in 1877 by William Cobb, and partly in 1879 by heirs of 
John K. Cobb, all heirs of Lemuel Nelson, to Anthony McNemara, 
who now occupies it. 

The next small lot of land, on which the house stands owned and occu- 
pied by George Lyle, was inherited by Hezekiah Nelson from his father 
Ebenezer, and sold by him in 1803 to Nathan Holmes, who built the 
house now standing. In 1815 Mr. Holmes sold it to William Nelson, the 
grandfather of William H. Nelson, whose son, the late William Nelson, 
and daughter, Mary Harlow, sold it in 1822 to Samuel Nelson. In 1870 
Samuel Nelson, the son of the Samuel above named, sold it to its present 
owner and occupant. 

The pasture next north of the house of Mr. Lyle was a part of the 
inheritance of John Nelson, from his father Samuel and grandfather 
John, and was sold by him in 1777 to Richard Holmes. In 1797 William 
Holmes, son of Richard, sold it to his brother Richard, who sold it back 
to William in 1806. In 1814 William Holmes sold it to William Nelson, 
and in 1868 William H. Nelson and Mary L. Harlow, grandchildren of 
William Nelson, sold it to James Collins, who again sold it in 1872 to 
John Murray, its present owner. 



TITLES OF ESTATES 



217 



As the boundary of the " inile-and-a-half " granted to the town in 
1701 lias been reached, the writer proposes to retrace his steps and give 
sketches of the land on the easterly side of Court Street. 

Cold Spring, well known as an interesting feature in the neighbor- 
hood, was in ancient times called Tinker's Rock Spring. Its water is so 
abundant and pure that it would be well for the town to utilize it by the 
construction of a handsome and durable drinking fountain, which would 
be an ornament to the street along which it now finds its way through 
ragged channels to the sea. It formerly flowed on the easterly side 
of the street, and ran into the meadow by a route south of the house 
recently occupied by the late Peter Holmes. There is a tradition that it 
was moved from one side of the street to the other by the earthquake of 
1755, but a more reliable one is that John Nelson, who owned lands in 
its vicinity, changed its course for the purpose of introducing water to 
his pasture, now owned by John Murray. 

Beginning at the brook and returning now towards the town, on the 
easterly side of the street, all the land as far south as the second brook, 
which flows through the land of Benjamin Hathaway, was granted in the 
division of lands in 1623 to Widow Ford, Austin Nicholas, Thomas Cush- 
man, William Beale, and Hugh Statie, all of whom came in the Fortune 
in that year. Four acres doubtless next to the Spring Brook were as- 
signed to Mrs. Ford, and afterwards came into the possession of William 
Nelson, who married her daughter Martha. These four acres were the 
nucleus of the great Nelson farm, which at a later day, included all the 
above grants, and extended from the second brook to the estate of Mr. 
Knapp. and was still further enlarged in 1693 by the purchase by John 
Nelson from John Cotton of lands on the westerly side of the street 
referred to in previous abstracts. These early lands of William Nelson 
were described in ancient records as lying near Reed Pond and Straw- 
berry Hill, the pond being their northerly boundary. After a somewhat 
careful investigation, the writer has become satisfied that Reed Pond, 
the location of which has heretofore defied the researches of antiquarians, 
was what is now the low meadow above the railroad in the northeast 
corner of the land of Charles G. Davis. Strawberry Hill, mentioned in 
connection with Reed Pond, could have been no other than the hill on 
Ihe land of Mr. Davis near his house a little east of the street. In 1766 
John Nelson, great-grandson of the progenitor William Nelson, sold to 
Thaddeus Faunce fifteen acres, which included all the land betweenCold 
Spring Brook and Lothrop Place, except a few acres of back land near 
the shore which had come into the possession of Isaac Lothrop, and three 
acres and a half above the railroad, which he afterwards sold to Barnabas 
Hedge, who inherited the Lothrop land. In 1798 Thaddeus Faunce sold 
to Seth Robbms, brother of Samuel Robbins, and Abraham Whitten, the 
father of Charles Whitten, the lot next to the brook, and the double 



218 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



house now standing was built and occupied by them, the north half by 
Mr. Robbins, and the south half by Mr. Whitten. In 1808 Seth Robbins 
sold his part to Peter Holmes, who occupied it until his death, in 1869, 
after which, in 1871, it was sold by his heirs to Hannah S. Uavis, wife 
of Charles G. Davis, who is its present owner. In 1814 Benjamin 
Delano, administrator on the estate of Mr. Whitten, sold his part to 
William Nelson, who sold it in 1815 to Nathan Holmes, whose heirs sold 
it in 1852 to Oliver Vaughn. In 1858 it was conveyed by Sylvanus Harvey, 
administrator on the estate of Capt. Vaughn, to his widow, Sarah Vaughn, 
who sold it 1867 to Charles G. Davis, its present owner. In 1804 Thaddeus 
Faunce sold the remainder of his land to William Davis, who sold it in 
1812 to Peter Holmes, except one acre hereafter mentioned, which he had 
previously sold to Elizabeth Faunce. Mr. Holmes built a shop on the land 
south of the house occupied by him, which was afterwards converted into a 
dvvelling-house, and sold by his heirs in 1871 to George Barlow, its 
■present owner and occupant. By two deeds, in 1850 and 1853, Mr. 
Holmes sold the land purchased of William Davis to Charles G. Davis, 
except the lot on which Mr. Barlow's house stands, and a small tract 
sold to William S. Holmes, and Mr. Davis built the house which has 
since been his residence. Mr. Davis enlarged his homestead lands, 
extending them to the shore by a purchase in 1850 from James G. Hedge 
of the land set off to him in the division of the estate of his grandfather, 
Barnabas Hedge, and by purchases from Samuel Newell Diman in 1851, 
and William S. Holmes in 1853. The dwelling-house next south of that 
of Mr. Barlow was once the farm-house standing on the farm of John 
Clark on the hill, in rear of the Catholic Church, and was bought by Mr. 
Davis in 1850, and moved to the spot where it now stands. 

The lot on which the house stands, owned and occupied by Mrs. 
Robert B. Hall, was a part of an acre of land sold by William Davis out 
of his purchase from Thaddevts Faunce to Elizabeth Faunce, the 
widow of Thaddeus. Mrs. Faunce built a house on the lot, and after her 
dentil the lot was sold in 1851 to Robert B. Hall, and the house was also 
sold and moved to the north part of the town, where it now stands on the 
westerly side of the road opposite the house recently occupied by Widow 
Green. Mr. Hall built the house now occupied by his widow, who in 
1874 enlarged her lot by a purchase from Charles G. Davis of a lot on 
Lothrop Street which Mr. Davis bought in 1851 of Samuel N. Diman, 
who boucrht it in 1840 of Ezra S. and Benjamin Diman, grantees in the 
same year from Merrick Rider, the husband of a daughter of Elizabeth 
Faunce. In 1841 William S. Holmes bought of the Messrs. Diman the 
other part of the lot which they had bought of Merrick Rider, and built 
the house which he now owns and occupies. The two Diman lots com- 
pleted the acre which William Davis sold to Elizabeth Faunce. 

The field known in later times as the Davie lot, extending from 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



219 



Lothrop Street to the second brook, wns a part of the original Nelson 
farm, as above stated, and was sold, in 1766, by John Nelson, the great- 
grandson of William Nelson, who bought it of the original grantees, to 
Rev. Jacob Bacon. Mr. Bacon sold it, in 1777, to Samuel Jackson, 
whose heir, Henry Jackson, sold it, in 1810, to Solomon Davie, the 
father of Johnson Davie, now living in Plymouth. In 1838 Mr. Davie 
sold it to Abner S. Taylor, who mortgaged it, in 1848, to Benjamin 
Hathaway. Mr. Hathaway obtained possession under his mortgage, 
and in 1875 sold a strip along Lothrop Street, one hundred feet wide on 
Court Street, to Nancy Sprague Parks, wife of John Parks, and a lot 
adjoining, seventy feet wide, to Henry W. Loring. 

The tract of land between Court Street and the shore, extending 
from the second, or Faunce's Brook, as it has been more recently called, 
to the south line of the lot owned by Thomas B. Bartlett, opposite the 
foot of Cushman Street, containing about twelve acres, was for many 
years the property of Governor William Bradford, and was inherited, at 
his death, by his sons. William and Joseph. In 1698 they conveyed it to 
Nathaniel Howland, grandson of John Howland, who conveyed it in the 
same year to Ephraim Cole, son of James Cole. At the death of 
Ephraim it passed into the hands of his son Samuel, whose widow, 
Mercy (Barnes) Cole, married Barnabas Hedge. At the death of Mrs. 
Hedge and her husband it passed into the possession of Thomas Davis, 
who married their daughter, Mercv Hedge. At the death of Mr. Davis, 
it was set off to his son. William Davis, who owned it at the time of his 
death, in 1826, and in the division of his estate it was set off, partly to 
his son Thomas and partly to his daughter Betsey, the wife of Alexander 
Bliss. Mrs. Bliss afterwards sold her part to her brother, and in 1839 
he sold a part to Abner S. Taylor, and in 1842 the remainder to Joseph 
Cushman. In 1845 Mr. Taylor and Mr. Cushman sold a portion of the 
front land to Ezra S. and Benjamin Diman, and in 1849 Mr. Cushman 
sold the remainder of his purchase to his brother-in-law, Nathaniel L. 
Hedge. In 1856 Mr. Hedge sold it to Andrew L. Russell, and in the 
same year Messrs. Diman sold to Mr. Russell the land purchased by 
them, except the lot on which the house stands owned and occupied by 
the widow of the late Job B. Oldham, which they had previously sold to 
Levi Barnes. In the same year Martha W. Barnes, widow of Levi 
Barnes, sold his lot to Mr. Russell, thus giving to him the possession of 
all the land between the brook and Phcenix Court, so called. In 1865, 
after the death of Mr. Russell, his widow, Hannah W. Russell, admin- 
istratrix on his estate, sold it to Benjamin Hathaway, who, in 1874, 
sold two lots to Mr. Oldham and Lyndon P. Hubbard, who built the 
houses now standing, and in 1876 a third to Miss Martha A. Verry, on 
which she built the house which she sold, in 1881, to Emma C. Crosby, 
its present owner. In 1845 Mr. Taylor, having laid out Phcenix Court, 



220 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



now the street running to the woollen mill, sold the lot on its south side 
to Willard Wood, who sold it, in 1865, to Benjamin Hathaway. In 1873 
Mr. Hathaway sold it to Joseph L. Weston, who built the house which 
he now owns and occupies. The next lot south of the house of Mr. 
Weston was sold by Mr. Taylor, in 1845, to Mr. Hathaway, who sold it, 
in 1850, to David B. Bartlett Mr. Bartlett was employed as a carpenter 
to detach a portion of the house now occupied by William H. Whitman, 
then owned by William Davis, and the detached part was bought by 
him, and moved to the lot bought of Mr. Hathaway, where it now 
stands. Mr. Bartlett sold it, in 1851, to John Washburn, who sold it, in 
18G3, to Thomas B. Bartlett, who now owns it as a rented house. 

The next tract of land, extending from the lot of Thomas B. Bartlett 
as far south as the northerly fence of the railroad enclosure, was set off 
in five lots of one acre each, in 1623, to John Cannon, William Tench, 
John Adams, William Connor, and William Hilton, all of whom came 
in the Fortune in that year. The two acres on the north, next to the land 
of Governor Bradford, fell to Tench and Connor, and were bequeathed 
by them to John Billington, whose widow, Eleanor, in 1638, sold 
them to Thomas Prince, who was then governor of the colony. Gov- 
ernor Prince afterwards came into possession of the other three acres, 
and in 1645 sold the whole to Eiimond Freeman, acting on behalf of 
John Beauchamp, a London merchant, to whom Mr. Prince, with Wil- 
liam Bradford, Edward Winslow, Miles Standish, John Alden, John 
Howland, Isaac Allerton, and the heirs of William Brewster was 
indebted. Of William Tench and John Cannon little is known except 
that they came in the Fortune, and had lands given to them in 1623 
As it is stated in the deed from Eleanor Billington to Governor Prince 
that the lands were bequeathed to her husband by the original grantees, 
whose names are not to be found in the division of cattle in 1627, it is 
presumed that they died before that time. 

These lands were probably afterwards surrendered or passed by con- 
veyances not on record, as they are next found partly in the possession 
of Deacon John Atwood, and partly in possession of James Kickard, 
who sold his share to Mr. Atwood in 1723. While in the possession of 
Mr. Atwood, the house known as tha Chandler house was built and 
occupied by his son John. After various conveyances, which it is useless 
to enumerate, the vacant lot next to the house of Thomas B. Bartlett 
came into the possession of Lemuel Drew in 1782, and the Chandler 
house and lot into the hands of Elkanah Bartlett in 1783 and 1789, by 
deeds from the administrator of John Atwood, and from Samuel Jack- 
son. In 1803 Mr. Bartlett, who had occupied the house, sold it to Amos 
Whitten and Thaddeus Churchill, whose representatives sold it, in 1820 
and 1826, to John B. Chandler. The vacant lot was sold, in 1828, to 
Philip Taylor by George Drew, who had obtained possession under an 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



221 



execution against Lemuel Drew, anil in 1831 Mr. Taylor sold it to Jacob 
and Abner S. Taylor, who built a house on the lot, which was secured 
and fitted up for a cholera hospital during the summer of that year. 
There was, however, little or no occasion for its use, and it was 
soon after sold and removed to the shore in the north part of the 
town, where it was used as a fish-house for some years, and finally 
taken down. In 1840 the Messrs. Taylor sold the lot to John Bartlett, 
who sold it, in 1852, to Phineas Wells, of whom it was purchased, in 
1853, by Benjamin Hathaway and others, and finally sold, in 1878, to 
Lucy Barnes. The old Atwood house and lot were occupied by Mr. 
Chandler, above-mentioned, until his death, and since that time the 
house has been known as the Chandler house. In 18-46 it was sold by 
Anthony Morse, administrator of Mr. Chandler, to Leander Lovell, who 
sold it, in 1864, to the Plymouth Woollen Mills. In 1871 it was sold by 
the directors of the Woollen Mills, Charles G. Davis and others, to 
Dwight F. Faulkner, and was by him sold, in 1878, to Frances A. Saw- 
yer, who now owns the lot, having removed the old house and erected 
two others. 

The remainder of the five acres once belonging to Governor Prince, 
extending to the railroad enclosure, passed from John Atwood, at his 
death, to his daughter Lydia, wife of James Hovey, who sold it to 
Thomas Davis. At the death of Mr. Davis, in 1785, it was set off to his 
son Thomas, who owned it until his death, when it wat set off, in the 
division of his estate, to his brother, Samuel Davis. In 1829 the heirs 
of Mr. Davis sold it to Nathaniel C. Lanman, who sold it, in 1844, to the 
Old Colony Railroad Corporation. The railroad opened an avenue over 
the southerly portion of the lot to the station erected at its easterly end, 
a little north of the present station, and the remainder of the field was 
enclosed and held as a vacant lot until 1855, when the house-lot on its 
southwest corner was sold to Chauncy M. Howard, who built the house 
and store now owned and occupied by William Burns. In 1865 Mr. 
Howard sold it to Cornelius Dunham of North Bridgewater (now 
Brockton), who sold it, in 1869, to William Burns. 

Beginning on Court Street, at the north line of the railroad enclosure, 
which was the point above referred to, there were three lots of one 
acre each in the division of lands in 1623, between that point and 
the first, or Shaw's Brook. The first was granted to John Winslow, 
and the other two to Edward Winslow. South of the brook, the 
first acre was allotted to Henry Sampson of the Mayflower, and the 
four next to Francis Eaton, also of the Mayflower, and the two next to 
Miles Standish. These ten lots extended to the southerly line of the 
land of William H. Nelson, and had a width of about sixty feet each. 
In 1637 John Winslow sold his lot to his brother Josiah, who, in the 
same year, sold it to his brother, Edward Winslow. Henry Sampson 



222 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



also sold his lot to Edward Winslow, as is shown, not by any recorded 
deed, but by a reference made by Mr. Winslow in a subsequent deed 
from him to George Bower. In 1G31 Francis Eaton conveyed also his 
four acres to Edward Winslow by the following deed: — 

"Francis Eaton, of Plymouth, hath sold unto Edward Winslow of the same, four 
acres of land lying in the north field, between the lands of Capt. Myles Standish on 
the south side, aud one acre due unto Henry Sampson on the north, for and in consid- 
eration of the second cow calf, shall fall unto the said Edward after the date of this 
date, viz; the 2oth of June, 1631. The said Edward to deliver the same at the age 
of six months, and if it miscarry before then a third etc till payment be made accord- 
ing to the tenure of this present. The said Francis binding hiinsclfe and hcires to 
confirm the said moiety of land to the said Edward Winslow and his heires forever." 

In the same year Captain Standish sold, for the sum of seven pounds, 
his adjoining two acres to Edward Winslow, making Mr. Winslow, after 
his purchase of John Winslow's lot in 1G37, the owner of all the land 
between the south line of the land of William II. Nelson and the north 

m 

line of the railroad enclosure. It will be seen by the above sales that 
four acres of land were worth fourteen pounds, and were also the fair 
measure of value of a heifer calf six months old. In 1637 Edward 
Winslow sold to his brother Josiah the most southerly of the two lots 
purchased of Miles Standish, and in 1G39 sold to George Bower his 
remaining nine acres, lying as described in his deed dated the 24th of 
January : — 

" On the north side of the said Towne of Plymouth on eich side the first biooke, 
vis the most northerly of the two acres which the said Edward Winslow purchased of 
Captaine Standish, and foure acres purchased of Francis Eaton adjoyneing thereunto, 
and one acre adjoyneing purchased of Henry Sampson, all these lying on the south 
side of the said first brook which fell to the said Edward Winslow in his first division, 
and oue acre which was exchanged with Josiah Winslow for the other southerly acre 
purchased of Captaine Standish as aforesaid." 

The deed closes with the following provision : — 

"That if the said Edward Winslow shall come and build upon the two furthermost 
of the nine acres and dwell upon them himself, that then the said Edward shall have 
them at the same rate that the said George Bower now payetb for them, allowing him 
such further charge as the said George shall have then layd forth upon them." 

This land was sold by Mr. Winslow two years after his removal to 
Marshfield, and as other parcels of land are included in the deed it is 
fair to presume, in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, that he 
was no longer a holder of real estate in Plymouth. At the time of his 
removal, in 1G37, he sold his homestead to Thomas Wallis, but the closing 
provision in his deed to George Bower indicates the possibility of his 
return. It is probable that when he was chosen governor, in 1644, he 
built and occupied a house on the land in question, as in the next year 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



223 



before his final departure from the colony for England, he sold to Edmond 
Freeman, agent of John Beauchamp of London, " his house scittuate in 
Plymouth with the garden, backhouse, doores, locks, bolts, wainscote 
glasse and wainscote bedstead in the parlor, with the truckle bed, a 
chair in the studdy, and all the shelves as now they are in eich roorac, 
with the yeard roomth and fences about the same, and all and every 
•heir appurtenances with all his right and title and interest of and unto 
the said premises and every part and parcel thereof." 

The exacu lot where he built his house, if the supposition of the 
writer be correct, is that bounded by the northerly railroad avenue 
on one side and the brick block on the other, extending to the shore. 
On the 28th of October, 1633, the following act was passed by the 
General Court : — 

" It was by full consent agreed upon and enacted that the chiefe government be 
tyed to the towne of Plymouth and that the Governor for the time being be tyed there 
to keepe his residence and dwelling; and there also to hold such Courts as concerne 
the whole." 

As Mr. Winslow was chosen governor in 1643, it is certain that he 
must have lived in Plymouth during that year, and there can be no more 
probable place for his dwelling than that which he reserved the right to 
occupy when he sold his real estate in 1639. 

After the conveyance of the above land the records are silent as to 
any transfers of ownership until the northerly part as far as a point forty- 
nine feet south of the northerly end of the brick block is found in the 
possession of John Atwood, and the remainder in the hands of Thomas 
Southworth, the son of Alice Bradford, the wife of Governor Bradford, 
by her first husband, Edward Southworth. The part belonging to Mr. 
Atwood passed at his death to his daughter Lydia, the wife of James 
Hovey, and after the death of Mr. Hovey and his wife was sold to Joshua 
Thomas. At the death of Judge Thomas, in 1821, it came into the 
possession of his son, the late John B. Thomas, who sold it in 1844 to the 
Old Colony Railroad. It remained a vacant lot until the erection of the 
new station in 1869, when a part was used in laying out the southerly 
railroad avenue and Samoset Square, and the remaining strip of forty- 
nine feet was sold to Charles G. Davis. How the remainder of the 
Winslow land came into the possession of Thomas Southworth is not 
apparent, but his acquirement of lands south of these from Governor 
Bradford by recorded conveyances, leads to the supposition that they 
were surrendered by the original owners in accordance with the pro- 
visions of an act passed in 1633, and regranted to Governor Bradford 
and conveyed by him to Mr. Southworth, 

The lot of land extending southerly from a point forty-nine feet south 
of the north end of the brick block to the north line of the land owned by 



224 



PLYMOUTH COLOXY. 



Mrs. Thomas Hedge, after it came into possession of Thomas Southworth, 
•was inherited at his death by his daughter Elizabeth, the wife of Joseph 
Howland, who conveyed it in 1705 to her son, Thomas Rowland. At 
the death of Mr. Howland it was devised by his will to his son, Consider 
Howland, who sold it in 1760 to George Watson. After the death of 
Mr. Watson it was sold by his heirs in 1816 to Thomas Jackson, Jr., 
who sold it in 1835 to Richard Holmes. Mr. Holmes built the double 
house standing on the lot, and in 1841 sold the northerly part to his son, 
Richard W. Holmes, whose widow still owns and occupies it. The 
southerly part was occupied by Richard Holmes and his widow until the 
death of the latter, after which it was sold in 18G7 to William Morey, Jr. 
The remainder of the Holmes lot bounded by Court Street, except a way 
twelve feet wide leading to a field in the rear, sold to Benjamin Hatha- 
way in 1865, the heirs of Mr. Holmes sold in 18G7 to Charles G. Davis, 
who in 1871 built the brick block covering his Holmes land and a strip 
of forty-nine feet wide which he purchased of the Old Colony Railroad 
in 1869. 

The remainder of the Edward Winslow land, including the southerly 
Standish lot, which can be traced by deeds to Thomas Soathworth, 
passed like the last lot into the hands of Consider Howland, who sold it 
in 1755 to John Murdock, whose grandchildren, James and Bartlett, 
inherited and sold it in 1764 to Thomas Crandon, reserving a house lot 
sixty feet square where Mr. Nelson's house now stands, which they sold 
in the same year to Nathaniel Goodwin. In 1764 Mr. Crandon sold it to 
Thomas Davis, to whom it belonged at the time of his death, in 1785. In 
the division of the estate of Mr. Davis in 1786 the lot on which the house 
now owned and occupied by Mrs. Thomas Hedge stands, was set off to 
his son, Isaac P. Davis, who sold it in 1793 to Samuel Lanman. In 1799 it 
was sold by the heirs of Mr. Lanman to Peter Lanman, who sold it in 1809 to 
William Hammett, who built the house now standing. In 1813 it passed 
from Mr. Hammett to William R. Gray of Boston, though Mr. Hammett 
continued to occupy it, and in 1819 Mr. Gray sold it to Joseph Avery. 
After the death of Mr. Avery it was sold in 1822 by his father, Rev. 
Joseph Avery of Holden, who had inherited it, to Thomas Jackson, Jr., 
who sold it in 1830 to Thomas Hedge, by whose family it has since been 
occupied. During its ownership by Mr. Avery it was occupied for a 
short time by Rev. Stephen S. Nelson, the pastor of the Baptist Society. 

The next lot, on which the house of Dr. Alexander Jackson stands, 
was set off in the division of the estate of Thomas Davis to his son, 
Wendell Davis, who sold in 1805 a narrow strip at the lower end to 
Thomas Holmes and Samuel Robbins for a ropewalk, and in 1806 the 
remainder to Rachael Cotton, the wife of Josiah Cotton and mother of 
Mary Ann, the wife of Isaac L. Hedge. In 1831 Mr. Hedge built the 
house now standing on the lot, which was occupied by him and his family 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



225 



until 1871, when it was sold by his widow to Mr. Loud, whose heirs sold 
it in 1881 to Dr. Jackson. 

The next lot, on which the house of William H. Nelson stands, was 
purchased, as above stated, hy Nathaniel Goodwin in 1764, who built the 
old house which many readers will remember as standing on the lot 
In the division of the estate of Mr. Goodwin it was set off to his son, 
Thomas Goodwin, who sold in 1805 ten feet on the street to William 
Drew, the owner of the estate adjoining, on the south, and the remainder 
with the house in 181 1 to his brother, General Nathaniel Goodwin. In 1821 
it was sold by the late Nathaniel Goodwin, administrator cn the estate 
of his father, the General, to Barnabas Hedge, who sold it in 1830 to 
Lewis and Thomas Goodwin, who occupied it for some years. Previous, 
however, to the last transfer, the lot had been enlarged by the addition in 
its rear of a portion of the Cotton lot. In 1856 the heirs of Lewis and 
Thomas Goodwin sold it to Southworth Barnes, who built the house now 
standing. In 1865 the widow and heirs of Mr. Barnes sold it to Elizabeth 
C. Robbins, the wife of Daniel J. Bobbins, who after some years' occu- 
pancy sold it in 1876 to Mr. Nelson, the present owner and occupant. 

The three next lots of one acre each, extending as far as the south line 
of the house-lot on the corner of Drew Place, now owned and occupied 
by Mrs. E. S. Turner, were the property of John Winslow, and were sold 
by him to his brother Edward, who by deed dated November 13, 1637, re- 
conveyed them to his brother. John Winslow joined in the same deed and 
sold them to Josiah Winslow, who thus came into possession of the four 
lots. In 1640 Josiah Winslow sold them to John Barnes, who in the 
same year sold them to Thomas Wallis. In 1641 Mr. Wallis sold them 
to Governor Bradford, who afterwards conveyed them to his step-son, 
Thomas Southworth. It is probable that Governor Bradford owned most 
of the lands between this point and North Street before his death in 1657, 
as it is known that they were soon after in the possession of Mr. South- 
worth In 1744 Elder Faunce, then ninety-eight years of age, gave a 
deposition, which is on recoi'd, that between the ages of five and twenty- 
one, he lived with Thomas Southworth, and that Mr. Southworth owned 
at that time all the land bounded by North Street, Court Street, the first 
brook and the shore, except a lot on the corner of the above streets. 
Elder Faunce was born in 1646 or 1617, and as the age of ten would have 
been about as far back as his memory could reach, the occurrence of the 
death of Governor Bradford in 1657, reinforces the suggestion that Mr. 
Southworth's title came from him. George Bonum also deposed that Mr. 
Southworth owned the above land, and further that he lived at the foot 
of North Street, on the north side. It is a matter of record that Thomas 
Prince sold that identical spot in 1637 to John Atwood, and that in 1649, 
Ann Atwood, the daughter of John, sold it to Benjamin Vermayes, the 
husband of Mercy, daughter of Governor Bradford. At this point there is 



226 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



a gap in the record of sales until the land is found in the hands of Thomas 
Rowland, back to whom its present title is traced. As Mr. Vermayes 
moved soon after his purchase to Boston, it is probable that through 
Governor Bradford it passed to Mr. Southworth, and so passed as has 
been seen was the case with other lands to Mr. Southworth's daughter 
Elizabeth, the wife of Joseph Howland, and from her to her son 
Thomas. 

In. 1775 Thomas Southworth Howland sold the lot on Court Street, 
extending from the south line of the land of William II. Kelson to the 
house now owned and occupied by E. B. Atwood and others, to James 
Otis. Mr. Howland inherited the land from his father, Consider How- 
land, the heir of his father Thomas, who had obtained a title in 1704, 
under a deed from his mother, Elizabeth, the wife of Joseph Howland, 
and daughter of Thomas Southworth. In 1778 Mr. Otis died, and his 
sons, Joseph and Samuel Allyne Otis, sold it to James Warren, their 
hrother-in-law, who sold it in 1782 to Thomas Davis. In the division of 
the estate of Mr. Davis, in 178G, the northerly half, as far as the middle 
of Drew Place, was set off to his son, Samuel Davis, and the remainder 
to his daughter Sarah, the wife of LeBaron Bradford. 

In 1801 Samuel Davis sold to William Drew and Nathaniel Holmes, 
the brother-in-law of Mr. Drew, the lot north of Pilgrim Hall, and the 
house now standing was built by them. In 1807 Mr. Drew sold the 
northerly half to his brother-in-law, Thomas Bartlett, and Mr. Bartlett 
occupied it some years, and sold it in 1834 to Samuel Cole Davie, brother 
of Johnson Davie. In 1870 Samuel II., son of Samuel Cole Davie, sold 
it to Isaac N. Stoddard, who sold it in the same year to its present 
owner, Lydia R. Nye, daughter of the late Atwood and Lydia (Rider) 
Drew. The south part was occupied by Mr. Holmes, and afterwards by 
his son, the late Lemuel D. Holmes, who sold it in 1872 to Joseph Barnes, 
by whom it was sold in 1870 to William R. Drew, its present owner. 

In 1824 Samuel Davis sold the next lot to the Pilgrim Society, and in 
the same year Pilgrim Hall was erected. Though in the selection of this 
spot no reference was had to its Pilgrim associations, scarcely a spot in 
Plymouth could have been found whose early ownership was so dis- 
tinguished and can be so distinctly traced. Its pedigree is simple, and a 
few words will cover it. Its owners have been John Win«low, Edward 
Winslow, Josiah Winslow, John Barnes, Thomas Wallis, William Brad- 
ford, Joseph Howland, Thomas Howland, Consider Howland, Thomas 
Southworth Howland, James Otis, James Warren, Thomas Davis, and 
Samuel Davis. 

Though the land of Mr. Davis extended to the middle of Drew Place, 
the Pilgrim Hall lot included only five feet of what is now the street, the 
remainder being reserved by Mr. Davis for a way to land in the rear 
owned by him. There was a way also on the south side of Drew Place 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



227 



leading to rear land owned by Mrs. Bradford, and when William 
Drew, in 1829 and 1830, bought of the heirs of Mr. Davis and Mrs. 
Bradford their back land, he laid out the street and the strip of five feet 
belonging to the Pilgrim Society was surrendered to give it a desirable 
width. 

In 1841, after the death of William Drew, his son and administrator, 
William T. Drew, sold ten lots on Drew Place, five on each side. The 
three first lots on the north side were sold to William Brewster Barnes, 
Samuel Doten, 2d, and William Weston, who in the same year, sold 
them to William T. Drew, who built a house upon the land and occupied 
it until his death, when it was sold in 1864, by Timothy Gordon, adminis- 
trator, to Jacob II. Loud, trustee, who sold it in 1867 to James P. 
Arthur. In 1870 Mr. Arthur sold it to Mrs. Winslow Warren, its present 
owner and occupant. 

The next lot was sold to Coomer Weston, Jr., who built the house now 
standing, which is still owned by his heirs. 

The next lot was sold in 1852 to Nathaniel Brown, who sold it the 
next year to Ansel H. Harlow, of whom it was purchased in the same 
year by William Lewis. Mr. Lewis sold it in 1854 to William Morey, 
who sold it in 1872 to Wallace W. Burgess, who built the house now 
standing, and after a short occupancy sold it to George M. Rice, the 
grantor in 1881 to Benjamin L. Bramhall. 

The first lot on the south side was sold to Winslow Drew, and the 
second to his brother Theodore, who afterwards sold it to Winslow, who 
built the house which he still owns and occupies. The third lot was sold 
to William Weston, who afterwards sold it to Reuben Peterson, the pur- 
chaser of the fourth lot, who built a house which he occupied until his 
death, when it was occupied by his son Lewis, since whose recent death 
it has been owned by his son, William F. Peterson. The last lot on the 
south side was sold to Samuel Doten, 2d, who built the house now 
standing, and whose administrator sold it in 1852 to John Churchill, its 
present owner and occupant. 

In 1804 Sarah Bradford sold to America Brewster the lot on the south 
corner of Drew Place, and Mr. Brewster built and occupied the house 
now standing, which his heirs sold in 1852, to Eleazer Stevens Turner, 
whose widow now owns and occupies it. 

In 1806 Mrs. Bradford sold to William Drew the remainder of the land 
on Court Street as far as the Symmes lot now owned and occupied by E. 
B. Atwood and others, and Mr. Drew built the house on the lot which he 
occupied until his death, in 1839, after which it was occupied by his 
widow, and finally sold by the heirs, in 1866, to Winslow Drew, who sold 
it, in 1867, to Edward W. Drew, his son, who is the present owner. In 
1843 William T. Drew, the administrator of the estate of his father, 
William Drew, sold the lot on which the house stands occupied by 



228 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



John Darling Churchill to Nathaniel Russell, who sold it to Mr. 
Churchill, its present owner, who built the house he occupies. 

The remaining land, as far as the northerly line of the estate of the 
late William G. S. Wells, was also in the possession of Thomas South- 
worth, and passed, like the lands already described, to his daughter Eliz- 
abeth, the wife of Joseph Howland. Elizabeth conveyed it to her son, 
Thomas Howland, who devised it to his son, Consider, the father of 
Thomas Southworth Howland, who finally inherited it. In 1772 Thomas 
Southworth Howland conveyed it to Isaac Symmes, who built the house 
owned and occupied by Edward B. Atwood. In 1794 Joanna Symmes, 
the widow and administrator of Isaac, sold the estate to Ellis Holmes 
and her son, Isaac Symmes, excepting that part which had been set off 
in satisfaction of dower. Isaac Symmes in the same year sold his share 
to Ichabod Holmes, and in 1797 Ichabod and Ellis sold the estate to 
Enoch Randall. In 1830 Ruth Randall sold it to William Drew and 
AVilliam T. Drew, who built the double house now standing on the 
southerly part of the lot, and sold it the next year to John Bartlett and 
James Easdell Leonard. In 1843 Abby Leonard, the widow of James, 
sold the southerly part to John Sylvester, whose family occupied it many 
years, and sold it, in 1859, to F. G. Oehme, of whom it was purchased, 
in 1873, by Martha T. Bartlett, the widow of Ephraim Bartlett, who 
now owns and occupies it. In 181G John Bartlett sold the northerly part 
to Ezra Finney, the father of his wife, who sold it, in 1849, to Eleazer C. 
Sherman. Mr. Sherman occupied it for a short time, and sold it, in 1858, 
to Thomas Loring, who sold it, in 1880, to James II. Farm. 

The Symmes house was held by the Messrs. Drew until 1843, when it 
was sold to Timothy Gordon, who sold it, in 1850, to Theodore Drew. 
In the same year Mr. Drew sold it to Ephraim Spooner, who afterwards 
bought, in 1858, of Zachariah P. Symmes, the reversion of the dower of 
Joanna, the widow of Isaac Symmes, and obtained full title to the estate. 
Mr. Spooner occupied the house for some years, and sold it, in 18G0, to 
Lucius Pratt, who sold it to its present owner. 

The remaining land as far as Howland Street descended, like that last 
described, until it reached Consider Howland, who sold it, in 1755, to 
John Waterman. Mr. Waterman built the house now standing on the 
corner, and it remained in his family and that of his heirs until 1787, 
when it was sold by Samuel Lucas, guardian of John Waterman, son of 
James, and grandson of the first John, to Barnabas Holmes. Mr. 
Holmes occupied it some years, and after his death it was sold by his 
heirs, in 1855, to Johnson Davie, its present owner. 

The lot on which the house stands owned and occupied by William 
G. S. Wells passed, probably by inheritance, from John Waterman to 
Mercy Bramhall, who sold it, in 1785, to Ansel Faunce. Ansel Faunce 
built a house on the lot, and sold it, in 1787, to Thomas Covington, who 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



229 



occupied it until 1797, when he sold it to Benjamin and Rufus Goddard. 
In 1803 Rufus sold his part to Benjamin, who lived in the house until his 
death. After his death the old house was taken down, and the present 
one built by Jason Hart, who married his daughter Emily, In 1863 the 
Plymouth Savings Bank, the owner in possession under a mortgage from 
Jason and Emily W. Hart, sold it to the Plymouth Loan Fund Associa- 
tion, of whom it was purchased, in 18G3, by Mr. Wells. 

Rowland Street, opening next to the lot of Mr. Davie, was laid out 
in 1728 by Thomas Rowland, who, by a deed recorded in the Plymouth 
Registry, dedicated the land to public use. As all the lots from this 
point as far as the lot on the corner of North Street have already been 
traced into the Howland family from Thomas Southworth, the son-in-law 
of Governor Bradford, and father-in-law of Joseph Rowland, a convey- 
ance from either member of the family will be taken as the basis of 
present titles. The lot on the south corner of Rowland Street was con- 
veyed, in 17G8, by Thomas Southworth Rowland, son of Consider, 
grandson of Thomas, and great-grandson of Joseph Rowland, to John 
Stephenson, who built a house on the lot and carried on the business of 
stone-cutting. The house was divided into three tenements, of which the 
middle one, after the death of Mr. Stephenson, became the property of 
his son, Jasper Rail Stephenson, and the other two of Mr. Stephenson's 
widow, Rebecca. In 1789 Jasper sold his part to Elizabeth, the wife of 
Lemuel Savery, and in 1803 Rebecca Stephenson sold her part to Jesse 
Harlow and Josiah Diman. After the death of Mr. Diman the southerly 
end came into the possession of his son, Thomas Diman, now living in 
Plymouth, who also bought the middle tenement of Mrs. Savery in 1827. 
The north end was sold by Messrs. Harlow and Diman, in 1807, to Free- 
man Bartlett, who occupied it many years, and sold it, in 1829, to Daniel 
Diman. In 1832 Mr. Diman sold it to Coomer Weston, Jr., who with 
Thomas Diman, then the owner of the remainder of the estate, built the 
double house now standing. In 1836 Mr. Diman sold the south part to 
Thomas Torrey, whose family occupied it many years, and from whom 
it has come into the possession of Putnam Kimball, who married one of 
his daughters. In 1839 Mr. Weston sold the north part to George 
Churchill, who occupied it until his death, when it was sold, in 1873, by 
his son John, to Lemuel Bradford, 2d. Mr. Bradford also occupied it a 
short time, and sold it, in 1876, to Dr. John J. Shaw, its present owner 
and occupant. 

The next estate, now owned and occupied by William S. Danforth, 
was sold, in 1758, by Consider Rowland to Thomas Crandon, with a 
house, which was standing as early as 1728, as Thomas Howland, in his 
deed of Howland Street in that year, described the street as beginning 
at a point seventy feet northerly from the house occupied by Israel 
Jackson. In 1769 Mr. Crandon sold the lot to Daniel Diman, who built 



230 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



the house now standing. In 1792 Mr. Diman sold it to his son David, 
who, in 1810, sold it to William Goodwin. In 1825 Isaac Goodwin and 
Thomas Russell, executors of the will of Mr. Goodwin, sold it to James 
Spooner, who, in 1827, sold it to Coomer Weston. Mr. Weston remod- 
elled the house, and after a few years' occupation sold it, in 1839, to 
Ephraim Finney, whose heirs sold it, after his death, to Mr. Danforth. 

The next lot was also sold in 1758 by Consider Rowland to Thomas 
Crandon, who sold it in 17C9 to Daniel Diman. Mr. Diman built the 
house now standing, and in 1792 sold the northerly half to his son Josiah. 
The southerly half was devised by will to his daughter Elizabeth, subject 
to its improvement, for life by his widow. Patience Diman. Mrs. Diman 
married for a second husband Benjamin Warren, and after her death her 
daughter Elizabeth devised it to Daniel and David Diman, subject to its 
occupation for life by her mother's second husband. After the death of 
Elizabeth, Thomas Diman bought the estate, and after the death of his 
father Josiah, he purchased also the interest of other heirs in the north 
part, and thus became, as he continues, the owner of the whole estate, 
which he now occupies. 

The next lot was sold by Consider Rowland in 1757 to James Warren, 
who sold it in 1791 to Daniel Diman. In 1803 it was sold by Patience 
Diman, the widow of Daniel, to John Bartlett and Seth Morton, who 
built the double house now standing. The northerly part is still owned 
and occupied by the heirs of Mr. Morton, and the southerly part was sold 
by Mr. Bartlett immediately after its completion to Benjamin Crandon, 
whose daughter Emily still occupies it. 

The next lot was also sold by Consider Rowland to James Warren 
in 1757, who sold it in 1793 to Ichabod Shaw, who built the house now 
standing, and occupied it during his life. After the death of Mr. Shaw 
and his widow it was sold in 1847 to Atwood L. Drew, whose widow 
now owns it. 

The next lot was sold in 178G by Joanna White, the widow of Gideon 
White and daughter of Thomas Rowland, to Nathaniel Harlow. The 
lot at that time had a barn standing upon it which Mr. Harlow converted 
into the house now standing and sold in 1789 to Josiah Cotton. Mr. 
Cotton occupied the house and added the projection on the southerly 
end which he used for an office. After his death it continued to be occu- 
pied by his widow, Priscilla Cotton, until her death, in 1859, when it 
was sold by Isaac L. Hedge, administrator on the estate of her husband, 
to John J. Russell in 18G0. Mr. Russell occupied it some years, and 
sold it in 1871 to Georgianna Hedge, wife of Albert G. Hedge, who 
sold it in 1878 to William S. Robbins, by whom it is held as a tenement- 
house. 

The next lot, on which the house stands occupied by William II. 
Whitman, was sold in 17G1 to William Watson by Thomas Southworth 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



231 



Howland, administrator on the estate of his father, Consider Howland. 
Mr. Watson mortgaged the estate in 1780 to Alexander Champion, 
Thomas Dickerson, and William Barges of London, who, after obtaining 
possession, sold it in 1792 to John Davis, the son-in-law of Mr. Watson, 
who sold it in 1816, after the death of Mr. Watson, to William Davis. 
In the division of the estate of Mr. Davis it was set off to his son, 
Nathaniel M. Davis, who occupied it until his death, in 1849, when it was 
occupied by his son, William Davis, until his death, in 1853, after which 
it became the property of his widow, now the wife of William II. Whit- 
man, who still occupies it. 

The next lot, on which the Bank house, so called, now stands, was 
sold in 1759 by Consider Howland to James Otis. In 1762 Mr. Otis sold 
it to Abraham Ilammett, who gave a mortgage back to Mr Otis. 
Possession having been taken under the mortgage it was sold in 1786 by 
James Bowdoin, into whose hands it had passed, to Jesse Churchill, who 
built the wooden part of the house now standing, without the third story. 
Mr. Churchill, or Apostle Jesse as he was called, occupied it some years. 
Notwithstanding his pious appellation he suffered the ignominy of being 
read out of church by Chandler Robbins, the minister of the First 
Church, who in a severe and denunciatory harangue to his congregation 
consigned him to the buffetings of Satan. In 1796 Mr. Churchill sold 
the estate to Nathaniel Lewis, who sold it in 1802 to Martin Parris, who 
again sold it the next year to the Plymouth Bank, which was established 
in 1803. The brick addition on the southerly end was built for a banking 
house, and so occupied until the bank was moved into its present 
quarters. During its occupancy by the bank the dwelling was occupied 
first by William Goodwin, cashier of the bank, and afterwards by his 
nephew, Nathaniel Goodwin, his successor in that office. In 1846 it was 
sold by the bank to Andrew L. Russell, who added the third story, and 
it is now the property of his heirs. 

The next lot, on which the house stands occupied by Dr. James B. 
Brewster, is a part of the corner lot which, in the earliest records, 
belonged to John Morton, brother of Secretary Nathaniel Morton, and 
was sold by him in 1654 to Joseph Green. From Mr. Green it passed 
into the hands of Thomas Howland, who sold it in 1713 to Ignatius 
dishing. Mr. dishing sold it in the same year to Josiah Cotton, who 
sold it in 1724 to Edmund Tilson. Mr. Tilson sold it to Consider How- 
land, from whom it was inherited by his son, Thomas Southworth 
Howland, who sold it in 1761 to Jonathan Diman. In 1763 Mr. Diman 
sold a strip of land twenty-four feet wide, next to the bank lot, to William 
Thomas, who built a barn on the lot opposite to his dwelling-house, 
now owned by Albert C. Chandler. After the death of Mr. Thomas this 
lot was bought with the dwelling-house by his grandson, the late John 
B. Thomas. In 1812 Mr. Thomas bought of Rowland E. Cotton a piece 



232 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



of land adjoining it on the south, and built the house now standing, 
which was occupied many years by Isaac N. Stoddard, the husband of 
his daughter Martha. After the death of Mr. Thomas the estate was set 
off to Mrs. Stoddard, who sold it in 1865 to Hannah W. Russell, the 
widow of Andrew L. Russell. Mrs. Russell occupied it until 1870, when 
she sold it to its present owners. 

Market Street. — Proceeding now in regular order, the next street 
to be considered is Market Street. Prior to 1687, after the probable sur- 
render by original owners, or as the result of conveyances not on record, 
James Cole, as has been previously stated, owned all the land bounded 
by Leyden Street on the north, the land of Major William Bradford, now 
owned by Frederic L. Holmes, George Henry Drew and others on the 
east, the Town Brook on the south, and Market Street on the west, 
except a small lot on Market Street owned by Nathaniel Morton, which 
will be described hereafter. In 1688 he conveyed to his son, John Cole, 
all that part of the above land lying between Market Street and a point 
on Leyden Street fourteen feet westerly of the house in which he lived, 
excepting the lot above mentioned, on which Abraham Jackson, the son- 
in-law of Nathaniel Morton, had recently built a house, and one other 
lot on Market Street, which he had sold, in 1687, to William Shurtlefl'. 
The land sold to John Cole included at its easteily boundary the lot on 
which the Baptist church now stands, and the house in which James 
Cole lived stood where the house now stands owned by Ephraim T. Paty. 
In 1688 John Cole sold all the land which he bought of his father to 
William Shurtleff, who had, as above stated, already become the owner 
of a small portion of it bounded by Market Street. The history of that 
part of it on which the corner house stands has been already given under 
the head of Leyden Street. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned by William R. Drew, 
and occupied by Benjamin Churchill, was a part of the corner lot, and 
was sold by Mr. Shurtleff, in 1698, to Isaac Little, who sold it, in 1699, 
to James Warren. Mr. Warren sold the lot, in 1713, to Job Cushman, 
who sold it, in 1728, to Addington Davenport. Mr. Davenport sold it, in 
1732, to Consider Howland, who sold it, in 1738, to Thomas Murdock, 
whose widow married a Thompson for a second husband. Mrs. Thomp- 
son was a sister of Mercy, the wife of Sylvanus Bramhall, and at her 
death gave the estate to her nephew, Benjamin Bramhall, son of Syl- 
vanus. Mr. Bramhall built the store in question, and the whole property 
remained in his family until it was sold by his sons, William and Cor- 
nelius, in 1848, to Mr. Drew, its present owner. 

The next lot, on which the store stands owned by Sarah S. Sherman, 
and occupied by Benjamin C. Finney, is a part of the land sold to Wil- 
liam Shurtleff by John Cole in 1688, and the house now standing was 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



233 



built by him and sold, in 1729, to his son Nathaniel, who made it his 
residence. In 1749 Mr. Shurtleff sold it to John Watson, who sold it, in 
1752, to Joseph Fulgham. In 1779 the administrators of Mr. Fulghani 
sold it to Robert Brown, who occupied it until 1797, when he sold it to 
Nathan Reed, who made it his residence until his death, which occurred 
within the memory of many readers. In 1856 his widow, Rebecca 
Reed, sold it to Barnabas II. Holmes, who converted it into a store, and 
conv eyed it, during the present year, to his daughter, Mrs. Sherman. 

The land next south of the lot above mentioned, as far as the north- 
erly line of the shop occupied by Thomas N. Eldridge, is the lot which 
William Shurtleff bought in 1687 of James Cole, the year before he 
bought the larger tract of John Cole. Mr. Shurtleff soon after built the 
house on the lot which many readers will remember, and kept an inn. 
At Mr. Shurtleff 's inn the members of the Plymouth church met during 
their difficulties with Mr. Cotton, their minister, and came to the deter- 
mination to release him from his "office bond" as pastor. In 1715 Mr. 
Shurtleff sold the estate to his son Jabez, who occupied it until he sold 
it, in 1724, to Samuel Bartlett. It was occupied by Mr. Bartlett and his 
heirs until 1795, when it was sold to Thomas Wilherell, who sold it, in 
1803, to Elkanah Watson, whose heirs sold it, in 1812, to Robert Dun- 
ham. Mr. Dunham occupied the house many years, and kept a stable 
within the memory of the writer on that part of the lot now occupied by 
the bake-house and its yard. During the occupancy of the house by 
Mr. Dunham, there were two stores in the lower part, of which the 
southerly one was occupied at one time by Nathan Reed, and afterwards 
by Lazarus Symmes ; and the northerly one by Sylvanus Bramhall, Sr., 
Stephen Rogers, and lastly, " Nancy and Eliza," as they were called, 
about whom sweet memories cluster with those who were children at 
the time, and received from them a liberal equivalent in candies for 
their cents and four-pence-half-pennies. After the death of Mr. Dunham 
the southerly half of this estate was set off to his daughter Caroline, the 
wife of John D. Gardner of Boston, and the northerly half to his daugh- 
ter, Sally Barnes, the wife of Phineas Leach. In 1845, after the death 
of Mrs. Leach, Allen Danforth, the guardian of her children, sold the 
north half to Mr. Leach, who took down the old house and built that 
now standing, owned by the widow of Zaben Olney. Mr. Leach occu- 
pied it some years, and sold it, in 1855, to Jacob H. Loud, who sold it, in 
1861, to the late Zaben Olney. 

The southerly half of the lot was sold, in 1852, by John D. Gardner, 
trustee, to Samuel Talbot and George Churchill, who built the bake- 
house now standing. In 1853 Messrs. Talbot and Churchill sold the 
estate to Everett F. Sherman and Asa A. Whiting, and retired from 
business. In 1856 Messrs. Sherman and Whiting sold an undivided 
third to Foster Perkins, whose heirs resold it to them in 1857. In 1858 



234 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Mr. Sherman sold his interest to Mr. Whiting, who carried on the busi- 
ness until 1863, when lie sold it to Isaac B. Holmes. After three years 1 
occupation Mr. Holmes sold it, in 1866, to George A. Whiting and 
Leavitt Finney, and in 1870 Mr. Finney sold his part to Mr. Whiting. 
In 1871 Mr. Whiting sold an undivided half to his brother, John H. 
Whiting, who resold it to him in 1875, leaving George A. Whiting, as 
he continues, the owner of the whole estate. 

The land next south of the above, as far as the northerly line of the 
estate of the late John B. Atwood, is the lot excepted in the deed from 
James to John Cole in 1688. It had been owned and occupied by 
Nathaniel Morton, who doubtless found in the latter part of his life his 
old residence at Hobbs' Hole Brook too far from the field of his duties as 
Secretary of the Colony. After his death, in 1685, the lot came into the 
possession of his son-in-law, Abraham Jackson, who built a house in 
1687 and occupied it as his residence. The estate passed after the death 
of Abraham Jackson, in 1705, to his son Nathaniel, who gave it to his son 
Joseph, from whom it was inherited by his daughter Remembrance, wife 
of Thomas Dillingham, who sold it in 1765 to Abiel Shurtleff, son of 
William Shurtleff above mentioned. Mr. Shurtleff took down the old 
Jackson house and built and occupied the dwelling-house now standing 
on the middle of the lot. In 1770 Mr. Shurtleff sold the estate to Andrew 
Croswell, who occupied the dwelling-house, and built on its south side 
the shop, which, until within a few years, stood on the site of the 
store now occupied by Christopher T. Harris. In 1782 Mr. Croswell 
sold the northerly part of the lot to Robert Brown, who built the store, 
which was occupied by the late Ephraim Bartlett, and which after being 
partially burned a few years since was taken down and replaced by the 
present building, which was moved from the old Withercll lot on Main 
Street, on which Odd Fellows' Hall now stands. In 1851 William Brown, 
son of Robert, who hail occupied the store, sold it to Antipas Brigliam, 
who also occupied it some years, and whose widow, Mercy Brigham, sold 
it in 1875 to George A. Whiting, its present owner. Besides Mr. Brown 
and Mr. Brigham the shop was at various times occupied by Stephen 
Lucas, Harvey Shaw, and William Barnes. The remainder of the lot, 
with the dwelling-house and shop on its south side, was sold, in 1797, by 
Mr. Croswell to William Leonard, who occupied it many years, and sold 
it, in 1825, to John Macomber, who also lived many years on the estate. 
In 1847 Mr. Macomber mortgaged it to Jacob Hahn of Boston, who look 
possession in 1851, and whose heirs sold it, in 1874, to Josiah A. Bobbins, 
its present owner. 

The lot on which the house of the late John B. Atwood stands was 
owned in the early days of the colony by Experience Mitchell, who came 
in the Ann in 1623. His dwelling-house was there, and in 1631 he sold 
it for twelve pounds to Samuel Eddy, who came in the Handmaid to 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



235 



Plymouth in 1G30. In 1645 Samuel Eddy sold it to John Thompson, and 
the land is next found in the hands of James Cole as above mentioned, 
by whose son John it was sold to William Shurtleff in 1688. Mr. Shurt- 
leff sold it, in 1708, to Eleazer Dunham, who built a house on the lot and 
sold it, in 1713, to Jonathan Waldo, by whom it was sold, in 1725, to 
Thomas Delano, grandson of Philip Delano and husband of Mary, 
daughter of John Alden. In 1729 Mr. Delano sold it to Thomas Barker 
of Pembroke, who sold it, in 1739, to Timothy Burbank. In 1771 Mr. 
Burbank, after a long occupation, sold it to Ezra Burbank, from whom 
it passed to El kanah Watson, who sold it, in 1804, to Benjamin Bramhall 
and others, and moved to the house farther up the street which he had 
recently bought of Thomas Witherell. In 1832 Mr. Bramhall, with the 
other owners, sold it to Isaac Bartlett, who took down the old house and 
built the present one, which he occupied until his death, and which was 
afterwards sold, in 1855, by Charles Bartlett, who had come into pos- 
session under a mortgage, to John B. Atwood. 

The land next south of the Atwood house as far as the brook was sold 
by William Shurtleff, in 1716, to Joshua Bramhall, from whom it passed 
into the hands of his son, Sylvanus Bramhall. Either Joshua or Sylvanus 
built the house now owned by the estate of Barnabas II. Holmes and John 
D. Churchill, and it remained in the hands of the Bramhall family until 
1798, when the heirs of Sylvanus Bramhall sold a part of the house to 
Ezra Burbank, from whom it passed under an execution, in 1830, to David 
Burbank, by whom and by Olive Burbank it was sold, in 1849, to Robert 
Cowen. The remainder of the land as far as the brook and the other 
part of the dwelling-house continued in the Bramhall family, and the 
building owned by the estate of William Morey, Jr., was built by 
Sylvanus Bramhall, son of Sylvanus above mentioned, and grandfather 
of the late Sylvanus. In 1859 it was sold by Ruth M. Bramhall to 
William Morey, Jr., who sold to Robert Cowen in the same year that 
part of the dwelling-house of which he was not already the owner. In 
1867 the heirs of Robert Cowen sold to William Morey the whole 
dwelling-house, and Mr. Morey sold the same, in 1872, to Messrs. 
Holmes & Churchill, the present owners. Mr. Morey also sold to 
Josiah C. Fuller, in 1873, the lot on which the shop built and occupied 
by Mr. Fuller now stands, leaving himself the owner of the remainder 
of the estate. 

The lot on which the town-house stands has never been granted to 
any individual. One of the houses erected during the first winter occu- 
pied it, but it was never the subject of any grant, and continued in the 
possession of the colony. Here what was called in early deeds the 
country-house stood, the house in which the business of the colony was 
transacted. The General Court, the law courts, and the meetings of the 
town were held in the building, though at what date the structure was 



236 



PLYMOUTH COLOXY. 



erected, and when the town meetings ceased to be held in the church, is 
not known. The old building continued to be used for the purposes 
above indicated until 1749, when the present structure was erected, 
towards the building of which the towu paid one thousand pounds in old 
tenor money, or about five hundred dollars, in excess of its share, in con- 
sideration of the privilege of its use for the transaction of town business. 
At that time the jail and jail house stood on the land in Summer Street 
now occupied by the house recently purchased by Everett F. Sherman of 
Peter W. Smith and others. Originally the entrance to what is now the 
town-house was by a flight of steps on the easterly end, but in 1786 it 
was changed to the north side and a market established at the Market 
Street end. At first the market was located in a one-story wooden 
projection, but at a later day the addition was removed and the market 
transferred to the basement, where stalls were leased to different persons 
as in the Quincy and Boylston and other markets in Boston. Among the 
various occupants of the markets before its abandonment were Richard 
and Barnabas Holmes, Charles Whiting, Brackley Cushing, Joseph 
White, Elisha Nelson, and Amasa Holmes. 

In 1821, after the erection of the present court-house, the building 
was purchased by the town for a town-house at the cost of two thousand 
dollars, and for many years the hall remained as it was left by the 
county, with the judges' bench, criminal, sheriff, and crier's boxes, and 
jury seats, as originally constructed. In 1839 the hall was remodelled, 
and a longer flight of stairs built to suit the new design. In 1858 the 
room now occupied by the selectmen, which had previously been used 
as a fire-engine room, was finished off, and the engine moved into the 
basement. It is already a matter of interest that this spot has been so long 
associated with the business house of the colony and county and town, 
and it is to be hoped that whenever it may be thought expedient to erect 
a new building for town purposes it may be retained as its perpetual 
site. In 1881 the use of the hall in the upper story was granted to the 
public library. 

The lot on Market Street, next south of the town-house, at the earliest 
recorded date, was in the possession of John Murdock. In 1095 he con- 
veyed it to Nathaniel Thomas, and it remained in the Thomas family 
until 1779, when John Thomas, the grandson of Nathaniel, sold it to 
LeBaron Bradford and Thomas Davis, Jr. In 1818 Mrs. Bradford, who 
had come into possession of the whole estate after the death of her 
husband and-brother, sold it to John Blanoy Bates, who sold it in the 
same year to Nabby Brown, the wife of William Brown. The present 
building, including in the rear the hall which was known as Old Colony 
Hall, was built while the property was in the possession of the Thomas 
family. The hall referred to, about twenty feet wide and thirty-five feet 
long, now removed, was in many respects for many years the most 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



237 



commodious one in town, and was used for lectures, exhibitions, dancing- 
schools, and kindred purposes, and in the early days of the Universalist 
Society, before their church was built, was occupied by them for Sunday 
worship. It may surprise young readers to learn that in the early part 
of this century hall accommodations were so deficient that anniversary 
balls were held at Burbank's Hall, in the rear of the Samuel Burbank 
house in Middle Street, and on more than one occasion in Turner's Hall, 
at the foot of Leyden Street, where Mr. Turner's blockmaker's shop on 
the lower floor was used as a supper-room to which access was had from 
the ball-room by a temporary stairway leading through a trap-door in the 
floor. To older readers the recollection of these halls will recall visions 
of Peg and Pero, the colored musicians who shared with Dauphin the 
patronage of the dancing public. It was a new era when the new court- 
house, then approaching completion, was used for the anniversary ball in 
1820. In 1824 Pilgrim Hall was built, and for many years, until Davis 
Hall was erected, fully met, together with the hall in the hotel at the 
corner of Middle Street, the requirements of the town. In Brown's 
building George Drew at one time kept a store, and Judge Thomas his 
office, and in later times its front rooms were occupied by the post-office 
under the management of William Brown, and the cellar by Henry 
Flanders, as an eating-room and oyster-shop. In 1859 the estate was 
sold by Robert Brown, son of William, in his capacity as trustee, to 
Amasa and Charles T. Holmes, who fitted up the market now occupied 
by the latter, and in 1861 Amasa sold his share to Charles, who is now 
its sole owner. 

In Old Colony Hall the Old Colony Club was instituted, and the Con- 
stitution of the Club is "dated at our Hall in Plymouth, January 16, 
1769." The original members who signed the constitution at that date 
were Isaac Lothrop, Pelham Winslow, Thomas Lothrop, Elkanah Cush- 
man, John Thomas, Edward Winslow, Jr., and Johr: Watson. The first 
celebration of the anniversary of the landing was held in that hall in the 
following December, and there in 1770 the first anniversary address was 
delivered by Edward Winslow, Jr. John Thomas, one of the members 
of the club, was the owner of the hall, and it is not unlikely that it was 
built for its use and occupation. 

The land between the above lot and High Street, as far back as the 
records reach, was owned by Abraham Jackson, to whom it was prob- 
ably granted either by the colony or town, though no record of the- grant 
exists. 

In 1693 it was sold by Nathaniel Jackson, a son of Abraham, to 
Nathaniel Thomas, who was living in a house standing on the lot as 
early as 1695. In 1780 John Thomas, the grandson of Nathaniel, who 
probably built the present house, sold the northerly half to Benjamin 
Rider, who in 1784 sold it to Mary Mayhew. In 1803 Mrs. Mayhew sold 



238 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



it to Samuel Robbias, who in 1832 sold it to his son Samuel, who occu- 
pied it as a residence until his death. It afterwards passed into the hands 
of Robert Cowen, son-in-law of Mr. Robbins, who occupied it also until 
his death, and was sold by his heirs in 1880 to Charles T. Holmes The 
southerly half vvas sold in 1792 by Hannah Thomas, the widow of Nathaniel, 
the brother of John Thomas, to Irene Thompson, who sold it in 1799 to 
Ichabod Davie, who held it as a tenement-house until his death. It was 
sold in 1868 by the heirs of Mr. Davie to the town of Plymouth for the 
purpose of widening High Street, and that part of the estate not required 
by the town was sold in 1870 to the heirs of Robert Cowen, who sold it 
with the other half to Mr. Holmes. 

The land between the above estate and Summer Street was also 
owned by Abraham Jackson, whose son Nathaniel sold that part of it 
now covered by the house of Samuel Talbot and the store occupied by 
John E. Luscomb, in 1711, to Samuel Kempton, who built the house now 
occupied by Samuel Talbot, and occupied it for a time as his residence. 
In 1795 his son, John Kempton, who had also occupied the above house, 
sold the northerly half to his daughters, Deborah and Joanna Kempton. 
who occupied it as a dwelling-house and store many years. During its 
ownership by John Kempton, in 1797, a part of the land was thrown out 
for the purpose of opening High Street, which, until 1823, was called 
Thacher Street. Joanna, at her death, devised her share to her sister, 
and Deborah conveyed the whole in 1823 to her nephew, John Kemp- 
ton, who soon after abandoned his business as caulker and graver and 
carried on the store. In 1844 William Morton Jackson, his assignee, 
sold it to Samuel Talbot, who already owned the southerly half. The 
southerly half was sold in 1785 by John Kempton to Joseph Trask, whose 
grandson, Joseph Trask Bartlett, sold it in 1822 to Ichabod Davie. It 
was sold by Mr. Davie in 1825 to Jacob and Abner S. Taylor, who sold 
it the next year to Mr. Talbot, who now owns and occupies the whole 
estate. 

The next lot, on which the store occupied by Mr. Luscomb stands, 
was a part of the land purchased in 1711 by Samuel Kempton of 
Nathaniel Jackson. In 1750 Mr. Kempton sold it to Daniel Diman, who 
built a house, and sold it in 1770 to Jonathan King. Mr. King occupied 
the house as a place of residence until 1774, when he sold it to Jeremiah 
Howes, who lived on the estate until his death, when it was sold in 1793 
by his son Sylvanus Howes to Lois Doten, who afterwards married 
Benjamin Warren. Mrs. Warren died a few years after, and her Nusband 
married for a second wife Patience Diman, the widovv of Daniel Diman. 
After her death Mr. Warren, as her administrator, sold it in 1803 to 
Samuel Spear, who owned it until 1818, when he sold it to William 
Davis. During its ownership by Mr. Spear the old house was taken 
down and the lot remained vacant until the present structure, which was 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



239 



the old jail-house in Court Square, was bought and placed on the lot soon 
after its purchase by Mr. Davis. After the death of Mr. Davis it was 
set off in the division of his estate to the heirs of his son William, and 
sold by them in 1830 to William Morey, who occupied it many years. 
After a long occupancy by him and tenants under him Mr. Morey sold it 
in 1867 to Everett F. Sherman, who is its present owner. 

The lot on the corner of Market and Summer Streets, which was also 
a part of the land of Abraham Jackson, was sold by him in 1690 to 
Richard Cooper, who at the time of its purchase occupied a blacksmith's 
shop on the lot After the death of Mr. Cooper the estate passed to his 
son John, and from John to his son Nathaniel, who sold it with a store 
in 1783 to James Robbins. Mr. Robbins sold it in 1797 to Stephen 
Bartlett, who owned it until 182G, when he sold it to Bridgham Russell, 
who occupied the store until 1830, when he sold it to Isaac Bartlett. 
Mr. Bartlett took down the old building and erected the present brick 
building for the use and occupancy of his son Ephraim. From Isaac 
Bartlett the estate passed under a mortgage into the hands of Charles 
Bartlett, whose heirs sold it in 1852 to Samuel and Thomas Branch 
Sherman, by whom it was occupied many years, and from whom it 
passed into the possession of Everett F. Sherman, son of Samuel, its 
present owner and occupant. 

Summer Street. — The first lot on Summer Street, that on which the 
house stands owned and occupied by Everett F. Sherman, is the lot on 
which the old colonial prison stood, and is so referred to in deeds as 
early as 1690. Thacher states, in his History of Plymouth, that the first 
prison was erected in 1641, near Little Brook, but the writer is inclined 
to the opinion that the prison built on the land in question was the first 
prison in the colony. A deed of adjoining land from George Bonum to 
Richard Cooper, in 1690, fixes it there at that date beyond a question, 
and it is not probable, either that it would have been built on so distant 
a site as that mentioned by Thacher at the early date of 1641, or that it 
would have been so soon moved into the more compactly built settle- 
ment. The date of the erection, as stated by Thacher, is undoubtedly 
correct, as the Old Colony records speak of work on the prison in that 
year. 

The prison land, as described in the records, began at a point thirty- 
one feet easterly of the corner of the house of Richard Cooper, now 
occupied by James Cox, ninety feet easterly of the lot of Nehemiah 
Ripley, now owned by the heirs of Benjamin Hathaway and the heirs of 
George W. Virgin, and nineteen feet westerly of the southwest corner 
of the jail-house. It extended from that point north, eleven degrees 
west a little over fifty feet, thence northeasterly sixty-six feet, and thence 
south twenty and one-half degrees east to a point on Summer Street, 



240 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



eighty feet from the point of starting. In 1778, after a new jail had 
been built in Court Square on land bought by the county, in 1773, of the 
first precinct, the land and old buildings were sold to Charles Henrv, 
who sold the land, in 1783, to Jesse Churchill. In 1789 Mr. Churchill 
sold it to Elnathan Holmes, who built the house now standing on the lot. 
In 1805 and 1810 Elnathan Holmes sold it to Isaac Barnes, who sold it, 
in 1825, to Elnathan S. Holmes. In the same year Mr. Holmes sold it 
to Wflliam P. Ripley, who, in 1835, sold a part to Deborah Holmes, the 
widow of Elnathan, a part to Rebecca Faunce, and the remainder to 
Ephraim Morton. In 1839 Mrs. Holmes sold her part to Mr. Morton, 
who in the same year sold a part of his share to Rebecca H. Faunce, 
the daughter-in-law of Rebecca Faunce, and now the wife of Samuel 
Talbot, and the remainder to Jane (Faunce) Smith, the wife of Peter 
W. Smith, and also the daughter of Rebecca Faunce. Jane Smith, in 
1842, conveyed a part to her sister, Dorcas M. Pierce, and in 1858 Mrs. 
Talbot conveyed her share to Peter W. Smith, making Peter AV. Smith, 
his wife Jane, and her sister Dorcas, after the death of Rebecca Faunce, 
the owners of the whole' estate. In 1877 it was sold by them to Everett 
F. Sherman, the present owner and occupant. 

The next lot, on which the house stands now owned and occupied by 
Peter W. Smith and others, is a part of a tract of land extending as far 
as Spring Lane, which Richard Sparrow conveyed to George Bonum in 
1656. In 1690 Mr. Bonum sold this lot to Richard Cooper, and in 1782 
Richard Cooper, grandson of Richard, sold it to Samuel Jackson. In 
1788 Mr. Jackson sold it to George Sampson, who sold it, in the same 
year, to Thomas Cooper. In 1793 Mr. Cooper sold it to Elnathan 
Holmes, who sold a part, in 1804, to John Bartlctt, and the remainder, 
in 1810, to Marston Sampson. Mr. Bartlett, who was the father of the 
late John Bartlett, who kept a store on Main Street, built the house now 
standing, and in 1809 sold it to Ichabod Davie, who bought in that year 
the part belonging to Marston Sampson, and added it to his homestead 
lot. Mr. Davie lived on the estate until his death, after which it was 
occupied by his widow, who devised it by will to the American Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions. In 1870 it was sold by the Board 
to the late Ichabod S. Holmes, whose heirs sold it, in 1S76, after his 
death, to Everett F. Sherman, of whom it was purchased, in 1877, by 
Peter W. Smith and others, its present owners and occupants. 

The next lot, on which the block of houses stands owned by James 
Cox and Stephen P. Brown, was also sold, in 1690, by George Bonum to 
Richard Cooper, who built the house now standing and occupied it. In 
1782 Richard Cooper, the grandson of Richard, sold the easterly end to 
Samuel Jackson, who sold it, in 1788, to George Sampson. In the same 
year Mr. Sampson sold it to Thomas Cooper, who sold it, in 1793, to 
Elnathaa Holmes. In 1800 Mr. Holmes sold it to Isaac Barnes, who 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



241 



sold it, in 1801, to Zephaniah Holmes, the father of Nancy, the wife 
of James Cox, its present owner and occupant. The westerly part of the 
estate was sold by Richard Cooper, in 1768, to John Cooper, whose 
administrators sold it, in 1795, to Benjamin Cooper. In 1801 Benjamin 
Cooper sold it to Robert Davie, whose widow sold it in the same year to 
Lemuel Brown, who occupied it many years. After the death of Mr. 
Brown it was owned by his sons, Stephen P. and Joseph P. Brown, until 
1870, when Joseph sold his share to Stephen, to whose daughter, Alice 
W. Raymond, it now belongs. 

The next lot, on wtiich the house stands occupied by the widow 
of Benjamin Hathaway in part, and in part recently by the widow of 
George W. Virgin, is a part of the land which was owned, as above 
mentioned, by Richard Sparrow and George Bonum. In 1711 Mr. 
Bonum sold it to Nathaniel Jackson, who sold it, in 1716, to Simon Lovell. 
Mr. Lovell built the house now standing, and sold it, in 1726, to 
Nathaniel Ripley. In 1736 Mr. Ripley sold it to the second James 
AVarren, who made it his residence, and sold it, in 1748, to Nehemiah 
Ripley, the son of Nathaniel, above mentioned, and grandfather of the 
late William P. Ripley. From Nehemiah it passed into the possession 
of his grandson, William P. Ripley, who, in 1833, after moving into the 
new house on North Street which he had bought of Jacob and Abner S. 
Taylor, sold the westerly part of the estate to the heirs of Robert Dun- 
ham, of whom Mary Ann, the widow of Thomas Long, was one, and who 
afterwards came into its possession. In 1837 the property was mortgaged 
by Mrs. Long to her brother-in-law, Phineas Leach, who assigned his 
mortgage, in 1843, to Benjamin Hathaway, by whom possession was 
taken in 1815, and by whom, since that time, it has been owned and 
occupied. In 1837 Mrs. Ripley conveyed the easterly end to Priscilla 
Weston, the mother of George W. Virgin, from whom it was inherited 
by Mr. Virgin, by whom and his widow it was occupied until their deaths, 
and by whose heirs it is now owned. 

The two next lots, on which stand the houses owned by the Methodist 
Episcopal church and the heirs of Jacob Covington, are a part of the 
land above mentioned, sold in 1711 by George Bonum to Nathaniel 
Jackson. In 1720 Mr. Jackson sold this part to Thomas Spooner, the 
great-grand father of the late Bourne Spooner. who built a house on 
the lot, which he occupied until his death. In 1797, it having come 
into the possession of Nathaniel Spooner, he took down all the old 
house, except the easterly end, nnd built the Covington house, which 
he occupied until his death. The easterly end he converted into the 
house now standing, which his widow, Mary Spooner, sold, in 1828, to 
Isaac Tribble. During its ownership by Mrs. Spooner it was occupied 
a part of the time by her son. Bourne Spooner, some of whose children 
were born in the house. In 1830 Mr. Tribble sold it to Schuyler Sampson, 



242 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



who occupied it until his death, after which it was occupied by his heirs, 
and sold, in 1868, to Joseph B. Whiting, who sold it, in 1871, to the 
Methodist Episcopal church, who occupy it as a parsonage. The 
Covington house was sold by Mrs. Spooner, in 1828, to Jacob Covington, 
who occupied it until he built the house on North Street, now occupied 
by Nathaniel Morton, in which lie afterwards lived and died, and by 
whose heirs it is now owned. 

The next lot, a part also of the land of Bonum, was sold, in 1711, by 
him to Nathaniel Jackson, who sold it in the same year to Charles 
Church. In 1713 Mr. Church sold it to Ebenezer Dunham, who sold it, 
in 1721, to Joseph Rider, by whom the house now standing was built. 
The easterly end now owned hy the estate of Stephen P. Brown 
descended to Benjamin Rider, the son of Joseph, and from him to his 
daughter Patience, the wife of George Sampson, who sold it. in 1822, to 
Joseph White. In the same year Mr. White sold it to Daniel Gale, who 
sold it, in 1837, to Jacob and Abner S.Taylor, of whom it was purchased, 
in 1858, by Stephen P. and Joseph P. Brown. In 1847 Joseph sold his 
share to his brother Stephen. The westerly end passed from Joseph 
Rider to his daughter Lydia, wife of Jacob Albertson, who sold it, in 
1798, to Amasiah Harlow. In 1793 Mr. Harlow sold it to William 
Goddard, whose heirs sold it in the same year to Sarah Goddard, one of 
their number, who afterwards married Robert Dunham. In 1813 Mr. 
Dunham sold it to Charles Whiting, who sold it back to Mr. Dunham in 
the same year. It passed from Mr. Dunham into the hands of George 
Drew, who sold it, in 1839, to Lydia Cotton, whose heirs sold it, in 1843* 
to Isaac J. Lucas, its recent owner and occupant. 

The next lot, which forms the garden of the Battles house, was sold 
by George Bonum to Nathaniel Jackson in 1711, who sold it, in 1714, to 
James Barnaby and Haviland Torrey. In 172.3 Mr, Bonum, who by a 
division of land owned in common with Mr. Torrey had come into its 
possession, sold it to Thomas Branch. In 1760 Experience, daughter of 
Mr. Branch, and wife of Samuel Sherman, sold it to Nathaniel Shurtleff, 
who conveyed it, in 1785, to his daughters, Lydia and Thankful, who 
will be remembered by older readers as the occupants of an old house on 
the lot. In 1810 the heirs of Lydia Shurtleff sold it to Lewis Goodwin, 
who sold it, in 1816, to George Drew. In 1818 and 1828 Mr. Drew sold 
it in separate parcels to John Battles, who had previously purchased the 
house adjoining. 

The lot on which the Battles house stands is a part of the land sold in 
1714 by Nathaniel Jackson to James Barnaby and Haviland Torrey, and 
in the division above mentioned was set off to Mr. Torrey. Mr. Torrey 
sold it, in 1743, to Nathaniel Thomas, whose widow, Hannah Thomas, 
sold it, in 1760, to Daniel Diman. In 1762 Mr. Diman sold it to John 
Cotton, who was the owner of the house and land adjoining. In 1808 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



243 



the heirs of Mr. Cotton sold it to Thomas Covington, who sold it, in 1809, 
to Joel Perkins, by whom the Battles house was built, and sold, in 1812, 
to John Battles, who occupied it many years. In 1869 John Battles, Jr., 
and other heirs of John Battles sold it to Isaac Conant. 

The next lot, on which the Leach house, so called, stands, was con- 
veyed, in 1656, by Richard Sparrow to George Bonum, who, in 1679, 
conveyed it to Robert Barrow, the husband of his daughter Ruth, with 
the house now standing. In 1715 Lydia Barrow, the widow of Robert, 
the nephew of the first Robert Barrow, gave it to her son Robert, who 
sold it, in 1725, to his brother Elisha. In 1736 Elisha Barrow sold it to 
Nathaniel Thomas whose widow, Hannah Thomas, sold it, in 1760, to 
Daniel Diman. In 1762 Mr. Diman sold it to John Cotton, who, it is 
known, made it his residence. In 1800 the heirs of Mr. Cotton sold it to 
Levi Lucas, whose widow and executrix, Betsey Lucas, sold it, in 1817, 
to Isaac Barnes. In 1818 Mr. Barnes sold it to Finney Leach, who lived 
and died on the estate, and from whose heirs it passed, in 1876, into the 
hands of Charles G. Davis, its present owner, who holds it as a tenement- 
house. 

The land between Spring and Ring Streets was granted by the 
town to Richard Cooper, who gave it up to the town in 1708 in ex- 
change for other land. In 1713 it was granted to John Wood, whose 
possession will be taken as the basis of titles. 

The lot on the southerly corner of Spring Street was sold, in 1719, by 
Nathaniel Wood, or Atwood, the son of John Wood, to his sons, Na- 
thaniel and Barnabas Atwood, who sold it, in 1726, to Thomas Spooner, 
with a dwelling-house on the lot. In the same year Mr. Spooner sold it 
to John Atwood, who sold it, in 1756, to Caleb Stetson. In 1769 Mr. 
Stetson sold it to Samuel Bartlett and Thomas Spooner, who sold it, in 
1763, to Jabcz Harlow. In 1789 Experience Harlow, the widow of 
Jabez, sold it to John Bishop, who built the house now standing, and 
occupied it as a residence until 1822, when he sold it to Ezra Finney. 
Mr. Finney occupied it until his death, and since that time it has been 
owned by his heirs, some of whom continue to occupy it. 

The next lot, on which the Rider house, so called, stands, was sold, in 
1719, by the heirs of John Wood to John Cooper, whose widow, Sarah 
Cooper, sold it, in 1782, to William Crombie, who built the house now 
standing on the lot. It was occupied by him, and Fanny and Catharine 
Crombie, until 1823, when it was sold by the latter to Caleb Rider. 
After the death of Mr. Rider, who had made it his residence, his widow, 
Rosamond D. Rider, sold the easterly part to Mary M. Whiting, the 
widow of Asa A. Whiting. The westerly part was retained by Mrs. 
Rider, who afterwards married William Allen, and now occupies it. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and occupied by Ellis 
Drew, was sold by the heirs of John Wood, in 1719, to John Cooper, 



244 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



whose widow, Sarah Cooper, sold it, in 1782, to William Crombie. In 
1796 Mr. Crombie sold it to his son, Calvin Crombie, from whose estate 
it passed into the hands of Nathaniel Russell, Samuel Spear, William 
Davis, and Barnabas Hedge, the proprietors of the Iron Works. In 1819 
Mr. Spear sold his share to the other proprietors, and in 1837 Mr. Russell 
bought the shares of Mr. Davis and Mr. Hedge. In 1847 Mr. Russell 
sold the lot to Ellis Drew, who added a strip of land four feet wide, 
bought in the same year of Caleb Rider, and built the house, which he 
still owns and occupies. 

The next lot, on which the Dike house stands, was sold by the heirs 
of John Wood, in 1719, to John Cooper, whose widow, Sarah Cooper, 
sold it, in 1782, to William Crombie. In 1796 William Crombie sold it 
to Calvin Crombie, who sold it, in 1806, to Joel Perkins. In 1809 Mr. 
Perkins sold it to the proprietors of the Iron Works, who sold it, in 
1824, to Simeon Dike, who occupied it many years, and sold it, in 1842, 
to Nathaniel Russell and Nathaniel Russell, Jr., whose heirs sold it, in 
1880, to John Washburn. 

The next lot, on which a double house stands, passed, like the lots 
already described, from the heirs of John Wood, in 1719, to John 
Cooper, and went into the hands of William Crombie in 1782. From 
the Crombie estate it passed into the possession of the proprietors of the 
Iron Works, and was sold, in 1840, to Ephraim Finney. In 1841 Mr. 
Finney sold it to Ezra Finney and Elkanah C. Finney, who built the 
house now standing The westerly part was assigned by a subsequent 
division to Elkanah, whose widow still occupies it, and the easterly to 
Ezra, whose daughter, the wife of Henry Mills, occupied it for several 
years. In 1857 Ezra Finney sold the easterly part to William Holmes, 
who sold it, in 1861, to Eudora Bradford. In the latter year Eudora 
Bradford conveyed it to Mary A. Holmes, the wife of William Holmes, 
who sold it, in 1869, to John Washburn, its present owner and 
occupant. 

The next two lots, on which the Robinson house and the Faunce 
house, so called, stand, passed from the heirs of John Wood to John 
Holmes, who sold them, in 1725, to Thomas Morton. After the death 
of Mr. Morton they were inherited by his two daughters, Bathsheba, 
the wife of John Rickard, and Martha, the wife of Silas Morton. By a 
division made in 1749 the Robinson lot was assigned to Martha, and the 
Faunce lot to Bathsheba. In 1786 Martha sold her part to William 
Crombie, who, in 1796, sold it to his son William. In 1804 Calvin 
Crombie sold it to John D. Dunbar, who was at that time a lawyer in 
Plymouth, and who built the house now standing. In 1808 Mr. Dunbar 
sold it to the proprietors of the Iron Works, and it was occupied many 
years by Nathaniel Russell, and after him by his son Nathaniel. In 
1810 the Messrs. Russell sold it to Micah Richmond, who, in 1841, sold 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



245 



the easterly half to Eleazer Stevens Bartlett, and in 1846 the westerly 
half to Sarah Jones. In 1866 Mr. Bartlett and Mrs. Jones sold the 
estate to the late Anselm D. Robinson, whose family still own it. The 
share assigned to Bathsheba Kickard remained in her possession until 
her death, and the house now standing on the corner of Ring Street was 
probably built by her. In 1799, after her death, it was sold by Barnabas 
Otis, the administrator on her estate, to Andrew Bartlett, who occupied 
the easterly half and sold the westerly half, in 1805, to Stephen Bartlett. 
In 1813 Stephen Bartlett sold the westerly half to Barnabas Faunce, who 
occupied it until his death. After the death of his widow it passed into 
the possession of her sister, the wife of the late Ephraim Harlow, and it 
is now owned by her heirs. In 1821 Andrew Bartlett sold the easterly 
part to Ephraim Finney, who occupied it many years, and sold it, in 
1840, to the Messrs. Russell, by some of whose heirs it is still owned. 

Leaving at this point the north side of Summer Street, and continuing 
on the south side from the arch-bridge and the corner of Market Street, 
the gore of land between Summer Street and Mill Lane was held by the 
town as common land until 1709, when it was granted to Abiel ShurtlefF 
and James Barnaby on the condition that they and their assigns should keep 
Summer, then called in the deeds Mill Street, in good repair, and safe 
for travel. In 1716 Messi's. Shurtleff and Barnaby sold that part of the 
gore which is now occupied by the two houses on the land to Robert 
Bartlett, son of Joseph and grandson of Robert Bartlett, who came in 
the Ann in 1623. From Robert Bartlett it descended to his son John, 
who built the house now standing, and who sold it in 1725 to Thomas 
Spooner. In 1764 the heirs of Mr. Spooner sold it to Samuel Harlow, 
during whose ownership another division of the land took place. In 
1785 George Watson, under an execution against Mr. Harlow, became the 
owner of the easterly end, bounded by Spring Hill, with the dwelling-house 
and store standing thereon, and sold it in 1791 to Ichabod Holmes. In 
1804 John Paty, administrator of Mr. Holmes, sold it to Ellis Holmes, 
the son of Ichabod, who sold it in 1806 to Zephaniah Holmes. In 1807 
Zephaniah Holmes sold it to George Sampson, who sold it in 1826 to his 
son Schuyler. In 1831 Schuyler Sampson sold it to Samuel Talbot and 
George Churchill, and Mr. Talbot is now the owner of an undivided 
half of the estate. In 1841 Mr. Churchill sold his part to Jason Hart, by 
whose assignees, E. B. Towne and Charles G. Davis, it was sold in 1856 
to David C. Francis. In 1859 Mr. Francis sold it to Josiah A. Robbins, 
who sold it in 1869 to Rebecca S. Jackson, the widow of the late William 
II. Jackson, by whom it was sold in 1872 to her daughter Rebecca, who 
is now the owner of an undivided half. 

The other part of the land belonging to Samuel Harlow, on which 
the Hannah Bradford house stands, which was built by Mr. Harlow, was 
set off under an execution in 1784 to Nathaniel Goodwin, who sold it in 



246 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



1791 to Mercy, the wife of Ebenezer Robbins. In 1801 Mrs. Robbins 
soltl it to John Bartlett, who sold it in 180C to Hannah Bradford. In 
1854 the heirs of Hannah Bradford sold it to Leander Lovell. 

The remainder of the gore of land granted to Abiel Shurtleff and 
James Barnaby in 1709, eighty-two and one-half feet in length, was sold 
by them in 1710 to Richard Cooper and Francis Adams, they agreeing 
to fulfil the conditions of the grant by keeping the street in front of the 
land purchased by them in repair. In 1711 a division was made of sixty 
feet of this land, twenty-three feet at the easterly end being assigned to 
Mr. Adams, and thirty-seven feet adjoining, following the narrowing 
gore, being assigned to Mr. Cooper. 

That part assigned to Mr. Adams was sold by him in 1713, with a 
house which he had built, to Eleazer Dunham, and after a subsequent 
ownership by Nathaniel Carver was sold to the owners of the adjoining 
lot, and is now a part of the Lovell estate. That part assigned to Mr. 
Cooper, after passing through the hands of several owners, was sold in 
1859 by the heirs of Zacheus Bartlott to James Cox, and is now owned 
by him. The remainder of the gore of land owned by Francis Adams 
and Richard Cooper has been gradually diminished by the encroachment 
of the streets bounding it, and the fragment now remaining belongs to 
the estate of the late Robert Brown. 

Returning to the arch-bridge, the land from that point, bounded by the 
stream on the south and Mill Lane on the north, to a point four and a 
half feet easterly of the estate now owned and occupied by Lewis Brown, 
was granted to Nathaniel Thomas by the town by two grants, one made 
in 1695 and the other at a later date. At the first date a grant was 
made to him of " the boggy land on the north side of Town Brook, from 
the fulling-mill, to extend down stream so low as no way to prejudice 
the comfortable passing of people through said Town Brook at the usual 
way of going over with carts and horses, as also to set the fulling-mill 
lower down upon the stream, provided the said Nathaniel Thomas doth 
not binder the alewives going up the brook by his said mill at the season 
of their going up." The second grant put Mr. Thomas in possession of 
the westerly end of his estate, bounded in the grant by the estate of 
Francis Adams, now occupied by Lewis Brown, above mentioned. The 
fulling-mill referred to stood on the brook in the rear of the house now 
owned by Harriet W. Dunham, next east of the estate of Lewis Brown, 
as is proved by a conveyance in 1714 from Francis Adams to Joshua 
Bramhall, who had come into possession of the Thomas land, of a strip 
of land along his easterly line for a way from the street to the mill. 
The mill was erected by George Bonum before 1C94, as in that year a 
grant was made to him by the town of an acre of land on the south side 
of the brook, and the stream on which his mill then stood. In 1703 Mr. 
Bonum sold his land and mill to Mr. Thomas, who had doubtless owned 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



247 



and occupied it long before that date, as his grant of land from the town 
in 1695 referred to it as his property, and gave liitn permission to move 
the mill to a point lower on the stream. In 1714 Nathaniel Thomas sold 
to Joshua Bramhall the house built by him, now owned by Harriet W. 
Dunham, and the land on which it stands, which the deed states was 
then occupied by Mr. Bramhall. In 1719 Mr. Thomas sold to Mr. 
Bramhall the remainder of his land, which is described in the deed as 
" bounded south by the brook, east and north by the road, and west by 
land sold to said Bramhall, with the fulling-mill, shop, and press-coppers, 
and also the stream bought of George Bonum, with the liberty of dam- 
ming and digging earth on land of John Watson, he making a passage- 
way for herrings." Mr. Bramhall was a clothier by trade, and as he 
bought of Francis Adams in 1714 the strip of land above referred to, for 
a way to the mill, it is probable that he was in its use and occupation 
before that date. In the deed above mentioned of the house on Mill 
Lane to Joshua Bramhall, it is described by Mr. Thomas, the grantor, as 
" the house in which Mr. Bramhall now lives." The whole estate 
remained in the possession of Joshna Bramhall during his life, and 
descended to his heirs, during whose ownership the dam was changed to 
its present location, and a grist-mill built, which was run for many 
years. In 1797 Benjamin Bramhall, one of the heirs of Sylvanus Bram- 
hall, the grandson of Joshua, sold a fulling-mill, adjoining the grist-mill, 
with one-quarter part of the water-privilege, to Nathaniel Carver, who 
sold it in 1798 to George Sampson, by whom it was sold in 1807 to Isaac 
Barnes. In 1805 the other heirs sold the grist-mill and the remainder of 
the mill lot and privilege to Salisbury Jackson, who sold it in 1807 to 
Isaac Barnes. In 1847 Isaac Barnes and Lucy Harlow, the son and 
daughter of Isaac, sold it to the Robbins Cordage Company. In 1859 
the Robbins Cordage Company sold it to Nehemiah Boynton and others, 
who sold it in the same year to Leavitt Finney and others. In 1865 the 
Plymouth National Bank assigned to E. C. Turner a mortgage given 
by Mr. Finney of his part of the property, Mr. Turner having bought in 
the previous year of Ellis Barnes and others the remaining part. In 
1865 Mr. Turner sold it to Asa H. Moore, who sold it in 1866 to Isaac N. 
Stoddard, Jeremiah Farris, and Franklin B. Cobb. In 1867 Mr. Cobb 
bought the shares of Messrs. Farris and Stoddard, and in 1879 the Ply- 
mouth Five Cents Savings' Bank, having taken possession under a 
mortgage given by Mr. Cobb in 1871, sold it to Nathaniel Morton, its 
present owner. 

The remainder of the property once belonging to Joshua Bramhall, 
having descended by inheritance and by purchase of other heirs into the 
hands of Joseph Bramhall, a son of Joshua Bramhall, was sold, in 1807, 
by Thomas Marsh and Joseph Bramhall, his administrators, to Benjamin 
Bramhall, who resold it to them the same year in their individual 



248 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



capacity. In 1810 they sold that part on which the main part of the 
house owned and occupied by the heirs of the late Josiah D. Baxter 
stands, to Job Cobb, Jr., who sold it, in the same year, to Thomas and 
William Jackson, who built the house now standing. In 1828 Thomas 
Jackson sold his part to William, and William sold the whole, in 1832, 
to Peleg Faunce. In 1850 Mr. Faunce sold it to Everett F. Sherman, 
who sold it, in 1852, to Josiah D. Baxter. The remainder of the estate, 
which included the house occupied by Joshua Bramhall before 1714, was 
divided in 1807, Thomas Marsh taking the easterly part and Joseph 
Bramhall the westerly part. In 1810 Mr. Marsli sold his part to Benja- 
min Bramhall, in whose possession and that of his heirs it remained 
until 1872, when it was sold by Lemuel Bradford, collector of taxes, to 
Josiah D. Baxter, who took it down and built an extension to his own 
house on the land. The westerly part was conveyed by Joseph Bram- 
hall to Stephen Rogers, who sold a part of it, in 1837, to Luther Ripley, 
and the remainder, in 1816, to Job Rider. In 1848 Mr. Ripley sold his 
part to Edward Morton, and in 1855 Joseph Rider, son of Job, sold his 
father's part to John Smith. In 1854 William H. Spear, administrator 
of Edward Morton, sold Mr. Morton's part to Samuel Talbot, who sold 
it in the same year to John T. Hall, who sold it in the present year to 
Harriet W. Dunham. John Smith gave a deed of mortgage of his part 
in 1856 to the Plymouth Five Cents Savings Bank and after possession 
had been taken, the mortgage was conveyed, in 1857, to Josiah D. Bax- 
ter, who sold it in the same year to Joseph Rider. In 1859 Mr. Rider 
sold it to John T. Hall, who sold it, with the remainder, to Harriet W. 
Dunham. 

The next lot, on which the double house stands owned by Lewis 
Brown and the heirs of William H. Bradford, with the exception of the 
piece of land west of the house on which the engine-house formerly 
stood, was partly sold by George Barrow in 1706, and partly granted by 
the town in 1709, to Francis Adams, who built a house on the lot a part 
of which is still standing. That the house was built before 1714 is 
proved by the deed from Mr. Adams to Mr. Bramhall of the four and a 
half feet of land above mentioned in that year, in which Mr. Adams 
described it as running from the road to the fulling-mill between his 
house and that of Mr. Bramhall. In 1716 he sold the easterly part of 
the land and house to Jonathan Eames, from whom it passed into the 
hands of Nathaniel Carver, who remodelled the house, and placed his 
initials, with the date 1771, on the chimney. From Nathaniel Carver it 
passed, in 1816, by a deed from the other heirs, into the hands of his 
son, Josiah Carver, whose son, William Carver, sold it, in 1869, to 
Lewis Brown, its present owner and occupant. The engine-house lot 
was a part of the adjoining Spooner estate, which will be described 
herer.Uer. 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



249 



The westerly part of the house was sold by Francis Adams, in 1733, 
to Ebenezer Bartlett, who sold it, in 1737, to Stephen Churchill. In 
1773 Nathaniel Churchill, son of Stephen, sold it to Nathaniel Carver, 
who thus became the owner of the whole. In 1779 Mr. Carver sold the 
westerly part to Lemuel Bradford, from whom it passed under a mort- 
gage in 1821 into the hands of his son, David Bradford. In 1772 
Ephraim Spooner sold to Lemuel Bradford the old engine-house lot, 
which passed also, under the mortgage above mentioned, to David 
Bradford, and in 1830 David Bradford sold the property to his brother, 
William H. Bradford, whose heirs still own it. It has been stated that 
a part of the last lot was sold by George Barrow in 1706, and a part 
granted by the town in 1709, to Francis Adams. It was also stated that 
the old engine-house lot, which is a part of the Bradford land, was sold, 
in 1772, by Ephraim Spooner, the owner of the adjoining lot on the west, 
to Lemuel Bradford, the father of the late William H. Bradford. The 
part granted by the town was twenty-two feet wide on the street, and 
the part bought of George Barrow was fifty feet wide. The latter por- 
tion was a part of a tract of land extending as far as the Dunham house 
lot, now owned and occupied by Hannah N. Shaw, the wife of Eleazer 
Shaw, which was owned, as far back as the records reach, by Jonathan 
Sparrow of Eastham. It was probably granted at an early date to 
Richard Sparrow, the father of Jonathan, who moved from Plymouth to 
Eastham in 1653. 

The lot, on which the Spooner house, so called, stands, now owned 
by Solomon J. Gordon, and occupied by Mrs. Raymond, was sold in 
1695 by Jonathan Sparrow to George Bonum, who sold it, in 1697, to 
George Barrow. The engine-house lot and the strip of land fifty feet 
wide above mentioned were sold with it to Mr. Bonum, and by him to 
Mr. Barrow, who sold the latter to Francis Adams in 1706, as above 
stated. In 1711 Mr. Barrow sold the Spooner lot to Joseph Mitchell 
(sometimes spelled in the deeds Mighill), who sold it, in 1719, to Thomas 
Spooner, son of Ebenezer and grandson of William Spooner, the progenitor 
of the Spooner family. The lot afterwards passed into the hands of 
Thomas Spooner, the son of the above Thomas, and then into the hands 
of Nathaniel Spooner, the son of the last Thomas, who built the house 
now standing. After the death of Mary Spooner, the widow of Nathaniel, 
it was sold, in 1845, by her heirs to Henry J. Oliver, who conveyed it by 
a deed of mortgage, in 1846, to the Plymouth Institution for Savings. 
In 1854 the mortgage was assigned by the bank to Solomon J. Gordon, 
who now owns the estate by virtue of possession under the mortgage. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned by the widow of Isaac 
Sampson, was sold with the last lot in 1695, by Jonathan Sparrow, to 
George Bonum. Mr. Bonum sold it, in 1697, to George Barrow, who sold 
it, in 1708, to Ebenezer Dunham. Mr. Dunham built a house on the lot 



250 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



which he occupied and sold, in 1717, to Timothy Morton. Mr. Morton 
occupied the estate until his death, and in the division of his estate, in 
1748, it was assigned to his son Charles. In 1770 Charles Morton con- 
veyed it to his son Charles and daughter Mary, who held and occupied 
it until 1781, when they sold a part of the estate to Silas Morton, and 
Charles sold his interest in the remainder to his sister Mary. In 1782 
Silas Morton sold his part to Rossiter Cotton, who sold it in the same 
year- to Nathaniel Thomas. In 1783 Mr. Thomas sold it to Samuel 
Sherman, who bought in 1791, of Job Morton, the other part, which he 
had bought of Mary in 1789. Samuel Sherman thus become in 1791 the 
owner of the whole estate, and sold it, in 1792, to his son, William Sher- 
man, who built the house now standing. At the death of Mr. Sherman it 
was inherited by his daughter Elizabeth, now the widow of Isaac Sampson, 
who is its present owner. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned in part by Triphena 
Sherman and in part by her sister, Lydia 1)., the wife of James W. 
Blackmer, was also sold by Jonathan Sparrow to George Bonum.in 1695, 
with the house now standing, which is one of the oldest houses yet 
described in the landmarks. It is probable that it was built by Mr. 
Bonum, as it is described in the deed from Mr. Sparrow as the house in 
which " Robert Barrow now lives." Mr. Barrow was the son-in-law of 
Mr. Bonum, who probably built the house on land actually purchased 
before its transfer by deed. In 1G97 Mr. Bonum sold it to George 
Barrow, who sold it, in 1G99, to James Barnaby. In 1725 James 
Barnaby sold it to Thomas Branch. At the death of Mr. Branch the 
easterly part came into the possession of Samuel Sherman, who married 
his daughter Experience, and the westerly part into the possession of 
Ebenezer Churchill, who married his daughter Mary. The easterly part 
remained in the possession of the Sherman family, and was finally owned 
and occupied by the late Samuel Sherman, the grandson of the first 
Samuel, whose daughter Triphena is its present owner and occupant. 
The westerly part descended from Ebenezer Churchill to his son, 
Branch Churchill, who occupied it some years. In 1815 William 
Xelson, administrator on the estate of Branch Churchill, sold it to John 
Blaney Bates, whose executor sold it, in 1827, to his brother-in-law, 
Jacob Taylor. In 1828 Mr. Taylor sold it to Ezekiel Bates, a brother 
of John Blaney Bates, who sold it, in 1833, to George Raymond. Mr. 
Raymond gave to Mr. Bates a deed of mortgage under which Mr. Bates 
took possession and sold the estate, in 1837, to William Morton Jackson. 
In 1x41 Mr. Jackson sold it to Joseph M. Bradford, who sold it, in 1850, 
to Seth McLaughlin. In 1852 Mr. McLaughlin sold it to Everett F, 
Sherman, who sold it, in 1855, to his father, Samuel Sherman, and his 
uncle, Thomas Branch Sherman. After the death of the Messrs. Sher- 
man it came into possession of their heirs, and was sold to Lydia, the 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



251 



daughter of Samuel Sherman and wife of James W. Blackmer, who is its 
present owner and occupant. 

The remainder of the land as far as Spring Lane was granted by the 
town, in 1683, to Charles Stockbridge, to whom a grant of the stream 
near it was also made for the purpose of erecting a grist-mill. Mr. 
Stockbridge died very soon after, and his widow, Abigail Stockbridge, 
sold it, in 1684, to Nathaniel Church, who became also the owner of the 
mill property. Mr. Church built and occupied the house now owned and 
occupied by Hannah N., the wife of Eleazer Shaw, and the house, 
together with the land as far as the lane, was sold, in 1717, by his widow, 
Sarah Church, to Charles Church, who had become the manager of the 
mill. In 1724 Mr. Church sold it to Samuel Clark, who sold it, in 1725, to 
Nicholas Drew and John Rickard. In 1729 Mr. Rickard sold his interest 
to Mr. Drew, who thus became the owner of the whole estate, and sold it, in 
1735, to Eliakim Tuppcr. In 1748 Mr. Tupper sold it to Sylvanus 
Bartlett, who occupied the Shaw house, and built the house adjoining at 
the corner of the lane now owned and occupied by the heirs of Benjamin 
Drew. In 1797 Mr. Bartlett sold the old house to his son, Jesse Bartlett, 
and the new house to his daughter Sophia, who became the wife of Ben- 
jamin Drew, whose heirs are now in possession. In 1817 Jesse Bartlett 
sold the old house to William P. Ripley, who sold it. in 1821, to the late 
John Foster Dunham. In 1877 the heirs of Mr. Dunham sold it to his 
daughter Hannah N., the wife of Eleazer Shaw, as above stated, who 
now owns it, and with her husband occupies it. 

In 1638 Adey Webb sold a house and lot to John Jenny. In 1637 
Abraham Pierce sold a house and lot to Joshua Pratt lying next to the 
land of Mr. Webb, which afterwards came into the possession of Mr. 
Jenny. In 1638 Nicholas Snow sold a house and lot to Samuel Eddy, 
who sold it in the same year to Richard Clough, by whom it was sold, in 
1639, to Mr. Jenny. These three lots, which had in 1639 come into the 
possession of John Jenny, were situated on the south side of Summer 
Street, and extended from Spring Lane as far as the middle of the lot 
on which the house now stands owned and occupied by Barnabas 
Churchill. 

In 1696 Anne Jenny sold to Nathaniel Thomas the tract of land above 
mentioned between Spring Lane and the lot of Barnabas Churchill, 
which is described in the deeii as about an acre, bounded on the east by 
the way leading to the grist-mill, on the south by the Town Brook, on 
the west by the lot sold by Samuel Jenny to Nathaniel Jackson, on 
which "Mr. Jackson's house stands," and on the north by the "street" 
leading down into the woods. It is further described as comprising 
three original house-lots formerly occupied by John Jenny, John Ray- 
ner, and a third person not mentioned, but probably Samuel Eddy. It is 
probable that John Rayner occupied temporarily one of the estates 



252 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



owned by John Jenny before his occupancy of the minister's house fur- 
nished by the town. 

In 1710 Nathaniel Thomas sold to Haviland Torrey that part of the 
land which he had bought of Mr. Jenny in 169G, lying between Spring 
Lane and the house formerly owned by Heman Cobb, and now occupied 
by Jesse Harlow. On this land Mr. Torrey built the double house 
standing on the corner of Spring Lane, and occupied a part of it as a 
residence. After the death of Mr. Torrey, in 1750, that part of the 
house now owned by Samuel Loring descended to his son John, who 
also occupied it, and from him to his son John, who also made it his res- 
idence. In 1805 the last John Torrey, grandson of Haviland, sold it to 
James Spooner, who occupied it many years. In 1837 Mr. Spooner gave 
a deed of mortgage of the property to the Old Colony Bank, who, by 
virtue of possession under this mortgage, sold it, in 1838, to Samuel 
Shaw. Mr. Shaw, after some years' occupancy, sold it, in 1818, to his 
brother, Southworth Shaw, who sold it, in 1873, to Samuel Loring, its 
present owner. 

The westerly part of the house, after the death of Haviland Torrey, 
came into the possession of his son Nathaniel, who occupied it some 
years, and sold it, in 1752, to John May. In 1753 Mr. May sold it to 
William Torrey, the brother of Nathaniel, who sold it, in 1751, to Caleb 
Stetson. Mr. Stetson lived in the house until 1760, when he sold it to 
Gideon Bradford. In 1762 Mr. Bradford sold it to William Crombie, 
who sold it, in 1792, to Barnabas Otis. Mr. Otis occupied the house 
until his death, in 1847, using a portion of the building as a saddler's 
shop. In 1850 Timothy Gordon, the administrator on the estate of Mr. 
Otis, sold it to Chandler Carver, who sold it back to Dr. Gordon in his 
individual capacity, and it is now the property of his son, Solomon J. 
Gordon of New York. 

The next lot, on which another double house stands, remained vacant 
during its ownership by Haviland Torrey, and at his death was inherited 
by his son, William Torrey. In 1753 William Torrey sold it to John 
May, who built the westerly and middle parts of the house now stand- 
ing. In 1778 Mr. May sold the middle and easterly parts of the lot, 
with that part of the house standing on the middle part, to David Loth- 
rop, who occupied it until his death. After the death of David Lothrop 
the middle part came into the possession of his daughter Bathsheba, the 
wife of William Nelson, and mother of the late William Nelson, and 
William Nelson, having purchased of Mr. Lothrop, in 1795, the easterly 
end of the lot, built that part of the house there standing. 

In 1815 William Nelson sold the easterly part to William White, the 
father of the late Mrs. Arabella Goodwin, who sold it back to Mr. Nelson 
in 1820. In 1857 the late William Nelson sold it to Calvin Ripley, who 
sold it, in 1866, to William S. Robbins, its present owner. The middle 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



253 



part is still owned by the heirs of William NelsoD, the representative, 
by inheritance, of David Lothrop, who purchased it, in 1778, of John 
May. The westerly part was occupied by John May until his death, 
and afterwards by his son John, the father of the late Charles May, who 
was born in the house. In 1794 the last John May sold it to John Bur- 
bank, who sold it, in 1796, to Thomas Washburn. In 1813 Mr. Wash- 
burn sold it to Nathaniel Ripley and William P. Ripley, his son, the last 
of whom, after his father's death, sold it, in 1831, to Truman C. Holmes. 
In 1836 Mr. Holmes sold it to William Churchill, who sold it, in the same 
year, to Joseph Allen. In 1845 Mr. Allen sold it to Nathaniel Russell 
and Nathaniel Russell, Jr., the last of whom, after his father's death, 
sold it, in 1874, to Asaph S. Burbank, its present owner and occupant. 

The remainder of the land sold by Mr- Jenny, in 1696, to Nathaniel 
Thomas, as far as the lot of Barnabas Churchill, remained in the 
Thomas family until 1777, and was occupied as a tannery. In that year 
John Thomas, the grandson of Nathaniel, sold the land and tannery 
buildings to William Watson, Ephraim Spooner, and Sylvanus Bartlett, 
under whose ownership the business was carried on until 1788, when 
Samuel Jackson and Samuel Cole obtained possession under an execu- 
tion against Messrs. Watson and Spooner of their interest, and sold it, 
in 1789, to John Torrey. After 1789 Messrs. Bartlett and Torrey were 
the owners, and carried on the business until about the year 1800, when 
the property was divided, Mr. Bartlett taking the land on which the 
house of the late Heman Cobb stands, and Mr. Torrey the remainder. 
In 1812, after the death of Mr. Bartlett, his son Jesse sold his part to 
Joel Perkins, who sold it, in 1019, to Thomas Washburn, by whom it 
was sold, in the same year, to William P. Ripley. In 1827 Mr. Ripley 
sold it to Heman Cobb, who built the house now standing on the site of 
a former building or shop, which was sold and moved to the rear of the 
store of Adoniram J. Atwood, where it now stands. Mr. Cobb occupied 
the house built by him until his death, when it came into the possession 
of his daughter, Sarah F., the wife of Jesse Harlow, who now occu- 
pies it. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and occupied by John 
Eddy, and which it is very probable is the precise spot once occupied by 
his first ancestor, Samuel Eddy, was set off to John Torrey in the division 
of the tanyard lands as above mentioned. At the death of Mr. Torrey 
it was inherited by his daughter Maria, the wife of Woodworth Jackson, 
who sold it, in 1809, to Thomas Washburn. In 1813 Mr. Washburn sold 
it to Joel Perkins, who sold it, in 1817, to Ezra Lucas, who built the 
house now standing. In 1831 Mr. Lucas sold it to George Harlow, who 
sold it in the same year to John Wiswall. In 1843 John Atwood, the 
son-in-law of Mr. Wiswall, and administrator on his estate, sold it to John 
Eddy, its present owner and occupant. 



254 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



The next lot, with the exception of a strip along its westerly side, 
afterwards bought of William Nelson, who owned the adjoining estate, 
was also a part of the tannery-lot set off to John Torrey, and afterwards 
inherited by his daughter Maria, the wife of Woodworth Jackson. In 
1807 Mr. Jackson sold it to Joseph Johnson, who built a part of the 
present house and occupied it as a residence. In 1822 it came into 
the possession of Barnabas Hedge, under an execution against Mr. 
Johnson, and was sold by Mr. Hedge, in 1827, to Hannah M, and Mary, 
daughters of Joseph Johnson. In 1829 the Misses Johnson sold it to 
William Wild, who sold it, 1832, to Daniel Rider. In 1833 Mr. Rider 
sold it to Sally Rider, who sold it, in 1843, to Joseph Rider, by whom 
and by his father, Job Rider, the lot was enlarged by the purchase of a 
strip of land five feet wide of William Nelson, and an addition made to 
the house. In 1845 Joseph and Job Rider sold th# house and lot 
to Stephen Rogers, whose heirs now own and occupy it. 

The field which extended westerly between Town Brook and Summer 
Street from Spring Lane to the land of the Robinson Iron Company, was 
in the old records called " Webb's Field." The lots already described 
were in this field, and purchased by John Jenny. His purchase covered, 
in addition to these lots, thirty-three feet now included in the lot of 
Barnabas Churchill. This narrow strip of land, together with five feet 
sold by William Nelson to Job Rider in 1845, and added to the ad- 
joining lot, made a lot thirty-eight feet wide, which Samuel Jenny, 
grandson of John, sold, in 1G88, to Nathaniel Jackson, the husband of 
his daughter Ruth. The deed of Mr. Jenny described the lot as bounded 
on the west by the land of Sarah, the widow of William Fallowell, and 
as having a house standing thereon, " in which Nathaniel Jackson now 
lives." The deed further described the lot as bounded northerly by the 
street going over Prison Brook. This is the first and only allusion yet 
found by the writer to Little Brook under that name, and he is inclined 
to the opinion that the statement made by Thacher, that the first prison 
was built in that neighborhood, was an inference drawn from this name 
in the records. The name may be satisfactorily accounted for by the 
probable fact that Little Brook was one of the prison limits of the town, 
within which, as was the custom within the memoiy of many readers, 
persons arrested for debt retained their freedom. The writer remembers 
sign-boards in several streets, one of which was attached to the stable 
now owned by Mr. Chandler, bearing the words " Gaol Limits," which no 
arrested debtor could pass without danger of being remanded to prison. 

In 1C96 Nathaniel Jackson sold the above house and lot to William 
Fallowell, whose mother, Sarah, the wife of William Fallowell, and 
daughter of John Wood, owned and occupied the adjoining lot on the 
west, which was granted to her grandfather, William Fallowell, hy the 
Colony Court, in 1640. The land granted by the court to Mr. Fallowell 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



255 



extended from the northwest corner of the Nathaniel Jackson lot, thirty 
feet west of the northeast corner of the lot now owned by Barnabas 
Churchill, to a point three feet westerly of the northwest corner of the 
house now owned and occupied by the heirs of the late Sylvanus Harvey. 

In 1729 William Tobey and others, heirs of the third William Fal- 
lowcll, sold the whole tract, including the Nathaniel Jackson lot, to 
Nathaniel Thomas and John Cooper. In 1730, in accordance with the 
terms of a division made and recorded, the easterly half was set off to 
Mr. Thomas, and the westerly half to Mr. Cooper. In 1777 John 
Thomas, grandson of Nathaniel, sold the part set off to his father 
to Barnabas Hedge, the father of the late Barnabas, and grandfather of 
the late Isaac L. and Thr.mas Hedge, and in 1786 Richard Cooper, the 
son of John, sold his father's part also to Mr. Hedge. The whole land 
was held by Mr. Hedge during his life and inherited at his death by his 
son Barnabas. After the death of the late Barnabas, all not sold by him 
during his life was set off in the division of his estate to his grand- 
children, Nathaniel L. Hedge and Sarah Thomas, the wife of Joseph 
Cushman. In 1841 Eunice D. Hedge and others sold to William Nelson 
the lot on which he built the house occupied by him until his death. In 
18G7 Sarah Nelson, the widow of William Nelson, sold it to Barnabas 
Churchill, who now owns and occupies it. 

In 1840 Barnabas Hedge sold the next lot to Comfort Bates, who built 
the house now standing, and occupied it until his death. In 1879 his 
heirs sold it to Nathaniel Wood, who now holds it as a tenement-house. 

In 1845 Messrs. Hedge and Cushman sold to Willard Wood the land 
west of the lot sold to Mr. Nelson, as far as the lot owned and occupied 
by the heirs of Sylvanus Harvey. Mr. Wood laid out Willard Place 
twenty-four feet wide to a point two hundred and forty feet from Summer 
Street, and sold houso lots. In 1845 he sold to his bi'other Nathaniel 
Wood the lot next to that of Mr. Bates, on which he built the house, 
which he now owns and occupies. The lot of Nathaniel Wood was 
bounded on the west by the middle of the brook, and in the same year 
Willard Wood sold the lot between that line and Willard Place to Lewis 
Finney. In 1850, after the death of Mr. Finney, Mr. Wood, who was his 
administrator, sold it to Harvey W. Weston, who sold it back in the same 
year to Mr. Wood in his individual capacity. Mr. Wood built the house 
now standing on the lot, which he occupied until 1863, when he sold it to 
William II. Nelson, bounding the lot by the westerly line of the brook, 
and thus retaining, what he still holds, possession of its westerly half. 
In 1876 Mr. Nelson sold it to James Millar, who sold it in the present 
year to Hervey N. P. Hubbard. The various lots on Willard Place were 
sold at various times and built upon, and in 1849 Mr. Wood sold to 
Nathaniel Russell and Nathaniel Russell, Jr., the fee of the Place, and it 
was afterwards extended by them to the brook. 



256 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



The remainder of the land on Summer Street, which Mr. Wood pur- 
chased of Cushman and Hedge, he sold in 1848 to Nathaniel Russell, 
which included all between Willard Place and the estate of Sylvanus 
Harvey. After the death of Mr. Russell, which occurred in 1852, the 
land was sold in 1855 by his son, LeBaron Russell, to Benjamin Bramhall, 
who sold the corner lot on which the store stands in 1856 to Oliver Edes, 
and the coal-yard adjoining in 1855 to Isaac W. Jackson. In 1857 
Messrs. Edes and Jackson sold their lots to Franklin B. Cobb, who built 
the store there standing, and occupied it many years. In 1877 William 
T. Davis came into their possession under a mortgage given to him by 
Mr. Cobb in 1874, and sold them with the store, in 1879, to Adoniram J. 
Atwood, who is at present the owner. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and occupied by the 
heirs of the late Sylvanus Harvey, was sold by Messrs. Cushman and 
Hedge in 1842 to Micab Richmond, who sold it in the same year to Mr. 
Harvey, who built the house now standing and occupied it until his 
death. The original lot extended westerly to a point three feet from the 
westerly corner of the house. The remainder of the lot was purchased 
afterwards, as will be stated below, of owners of the adjoining land. 

From the point above mentioned to the westerly end of the " Long 
House," so called, standing near the factory pond, the land was owned 
by John Wood at the time of his death, in 1701. It was probably pur- 
chased by Mr. Wood of Zechariah Eddy, who is mentioned in the old 
colony records as its owner under a grant from the court in 1665. Under 
the date of June in that year it is recorded that : — 

" The Court have granted unto Zacary Eddy a small gussett of land lying betwixt 
his land and the brook from his house below the path to Nemaskett, unto the aforesaid 
brook unto a bridge or way near a path that turns out of the old way unto William 
Nelson's house; the said parcel of land soe bounded as aforesaid, is granted unto the 
said Zacary Eddy, to him and to his heirs forever, with all and singular the appurten- 
ances belonging thereto, on condition that the said Zacaiy Eddy doe continue a bridge 
near his house on the place where it is needed for horse and cart for the use of the 
country, for the full term of twenty years from the date hereof." 

It is plain that the land above referred to was what is now the factory 
land, and that the bridge which Mr. Eddy was required to continue was 
for the convenience of travel to and from "new fields" where early 
grants of land were made and houses built. This bridge was probably 
at the old ford where the Nemaskett path coming down the south side of 
the brook, and the Agawam path coming down by South Pond and 
through "new fields" met and crossed the stream, entering the settle- 
ment substantially through what is now Summer Street. Recent 
investigations made by Mr. B. M. Watson have enabled him to trace 
Nemaskett path through his grounds to the Plymouth Mills, where it 
crossed the brook, and the writer has found conclusive evidence in the 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



257 



old colony records that the Ag.awn.ra path passed near the house of 
William Pontus, at " new fields, " and so on by " four ponds," which 
must have been Cook's, Great South, Boot and Gunner's Exchange. 

In the division of the estate of John Wood the easterly part of the land 
under consideration was set off to Richard Cooper, who married his 
daughter Hannah, and this part included what will be remembered by 
many readers as the old tanyard. In 1766 and 1786, by two deeds, 
Richard Cooper, the grandson of the above Richard, sold it to William 
Crombie, who established a tannery on the land, and carried it on for 
many years. He also built a dwelling-house in the northeasterly corner, 
on the line of the adjoining land of Barnabas Hedge, and in 1795 sold to 
Wood worth Jackson a strip twenty-eight feet wide next to Hedge, and 
running to the brook, which included the house and a portion of the 
tanyard. In 1805 Mr. Jackson sold it to his sister, Lydia Jackson, who 
sold it in 1816 to Nathaniel Russell, William Davis, and Samuel Spear, 
the owners at that time of the factory privilege. In the same year 
Messrs. Russell, Davis, and Spear bought of the heirs of William Crombie 
the remainder of the tanyard, which they sold the same year with 
certain reservations to Solomon Richmond. Mr. Richmond carried on 
the business many years, and in 1856 his heirs sold the property to 
Nathaniel and Andrew L. Russell, sons of Nathaniel Russell. In 1856 
Nathaniel Russell, who had become the owner of the Iron Works and 
houses and lands appertaining thereto, sold to Sylvanus Harvey eighteen 
feet of land adjoining his house lot, together with the old house, known 
as the Lapham house, standing on the same, with a right of way over 
eight feet of the adjoining land to the rear of his lot. Mr. Harvey moved 
the house to a lot on the westerly side of Willard Place, where it now 
stands, owned and occupied by Lemuel Bradford Faunce, and added the 
eighteen feet of land to his homestead lot. The remainder of the land 
Nathaniel Russell sold in January, 1866, to the Robinson Iron Company, 
by whom the way to "new fields" was changed to its present location 
next to the land of Mr. Harvey. 

The remainder of the land owned by John Wood as far as the westerly 
end of the " Long House " was set off in the division of his estate in 
different lots to his son, Nathaniel Wood, his son-in-law. Richard Cooper, 
and his daughter, Sarah Fallowell, the widow of William Fallowell. In 
1704 it was sold by them to James Barnaby, who sold it in 1706 to 
Thomas Branch. At the death of Mr. Branch it was inherited by his 
daughter Thankful, the wife of James Howard, and at their deaths by their 
son Thomas. In 1768 Thomas Howard conveyed it to Elkanah Watson, 
whose deed describes it as containing one acre and forty rods. In 1783, 
under an execution against Mr. Watson, it came into the possession of 
Benjamin Stockbridge, who sold it in the next year to Thomas and 
William Davis. In 1787 the Messrs. Davis sold it to George Watson, 



258 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



who sold it in 1792 to his son-in-law, Martin Brimmer, with the right to 
build a dam for the purpose of erecting a factory. During its possession 
by Mr. Brimmer a rolling-mill, slitting-niill, grist-mill, and oil-mill were 
erected, and the "Long House" above mentioned. In 1805 Sarah 
Brimmer, the widow of Mr. Brimmer, and the administrator on his estate, 
sold it to N. Russell and others, the proprietors of the Iron Works, from 
whom it came, in 1837, into the sole possession of Nathaniel Russell, by 
whose heirs it was sold in 18G6 to the Robinson Iron Company. During 
its ownership by Mr. Brimmer, who was a man of genius and fond of 
experiment, carburetted hydrogen gas, for purposes of illumination, was 
manufactured on the premises for the first time in America. The " Long 
House " referred to shoilly after its purchase by Mr. Russell and others, 
was occupied by Oliver Ames, who was at that time carrying on on a 
limited scale the manufacture of shovels, under a lease of a portion of the 
lower privilege now belonging to the Plymouth Mills. There in the 
easterly room on the lower floor his son, Oliver Ames, one of the pro- 
jectors and the late President of the Pacific Railroad, was born within a 
hundred feet of the spot where the first illuminating gas on this side of 
the ocean was made and burned. Both spots have become historic. It 
is singularly appropriate that the birthplace of principles which have 
added a nation to the families of the earth should be identified with a 
discovery which has changed darkness into light, and with an enterprise 
like the railroad to the Pacific, which has made our country one and 
inseparable. The detractions of politicians, under which Mr Oakes 
Ames, the brother of Oliver, and the prime mover in that gigantic 
scheme, suffered and died, have faded with the partisan demands of the 
hour, and travellers across the continent will soon be able to view, on the 
highest mountain pass of their journey, the monument built to his 
memory and honor. This house was not sold to the Iron Works Company. 

Beginning again at Ring Lane, the land as far as the westerly side of 
Edes Street, comprising about three acres, was originally divided into 
three lots. One of these was granted to Samuel Gray, and sold by him, 
in 1636, to William Fallowell ; a second was granted, in 1640, to Gabriel 
Fallowell, and a third, in the same year, to Richard Wright. In 1610 
Mr. Wright sold his lot to Gabriel Fallowell, who appears to have occu- 
pied it as a place of residence. At a later date the three lots came into 
the possession of a second William Fallowell, and were sold, in 1729, 
by William Tobey and others of his heirs, to John Cooper and Nathaniel 
Thomas. In a subsequent division of land by Messrs. Cooper and 
Thomas this tract was set off to Mr. Thomas, who owned it until his 
death, and whose son Nathaniel inherited it. At the death of the second 
Nathaniel it came into the possession of his daughter Hannah, who 
married General John Thomas of the Revolution. After the death of 
Mrs. Thomas it descended to her son Nathaniel of Kingston, who died 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



259 



unmarried, and from whom it came into the hands of his brother, the 
late Colonel John Thomas, of Kingston, and his sister Hannah, the wife 
of Rev. Zephaniah Willis. In 1846 it was sold by their heirs, John 
Thomas and Nathaniel Thomas Willis and others to Oliver Edes. Before 
its sale its Summer Street front, and a portion of the land on Ring 
Lane, had been occupied many years by buildings erected by different 
persons under land leases. The building on the corner of Ring Lane 
was occupied by Lemuel Robbins, and sold by him to the late Heman 
Cobb. It was afterwards owned by William T. Savery, and sold by him 
to Mr. Edes after his purchase of the land. The next lot was sold by 
Mr. Edes, in 1872, to James Ellis, who built the wheelwright's shop now 
occupied by him. The next lot was sold by Mr. Edes in two parcels — 
one in 1863 and one in 1872 — to Franklin B. Cobb, who built the stable 
now owned by the Plymouth National Bank, by virtue of possession 
taken under a mortgage of one parcel, and a purchase of the other at a 
mortgagee's sale. The next lot was sold by Mr. Edes, in 1856, to Syl- 
vanus Harvey, who built the blacksmith's shop now occupied by his son 
David. The next lot, on which an old, unoccupied building now stands, 
was sold by Mr. Edes, in 1856, to Benjamin Bramhall, who soid it, in 
1861, to Adoniram J. Atwood, its present owner. The next lot, on the 
corner of Edes Street, was leased many years since by Benjamin Dun- 
ham, who placed on the lot a building which he moved from the lot now 
occupied by the house occupied by Jesse Harlow, and owned by his wife. 
Mr. Dunham occupied it as a store, and was succeeded by Ellis Drew, 
who afterwards sold it to Nathaniel Wood. Mr. Wood moved the shop 
to the rear of the lot, where it now stands, and built the present dwelling- 
house and store, both of which he occupied. In 1856 he bought the lot 
of Mr. Edes, and in 1860 sold it to Adoniram J. Atwood, its present 
owner. Edes Street was laid out by Mr. Edes soon after his purchase. 

The next tract of land, as far as the estate of Eveline B. Field, at the 
earliest recorded dates was owned by Robert Barrow, who built the 
house now standing on the corner of Edes Street. In 1716 his widow, 
Lydia Barrow, sold it, with the house, to her son Thomas, who sold it, 
in 1719, to James Barnaby. In 1726 Mr. Barnaby sold the house and 
corner lot on which it stands to Thomas Jackson, who sold it, in 1734, to 
Joseph Rider. In 1743 Joseph Rider sold it to James Howard, who sold 
it, in 1757, to John Howard. In 1765 John Howard sold it to Alexander 
Robinson, who sold it, in 1768, to Zacheus Curtis. In 1777 Mr. Curtis 
sold it to William Holmes, who sold it, in 1785, to Solomon Inglee. In 
1791 Mr. Inglee sold it to Zephaniah Harlow, who sold it, in 1795, to 
Nathaniel Goodwin. In 1806 General Goodwin sold it to Moses Nichols, 
who sold it, in 1809, to Otis Nichols, who again sold a part of the prem- 
ises, in 1818, to Brackley Cushing, and the remainder to Joshua Knee- 
land. The part belonging to Mr. Cushing finally came into the hands of 



260 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Isaac B. King and others, by whom it was sold, in 1869, to William R 
Blake; and the part belonging to Mr. Kneeland was sold, in 1879, by his 
son, John Kneeland of Boston, who had inherited it, to Charlotte C. 
Bartlett, the last of twenty-two recorded owners of the estate. 

The next lot is a part of the land sold in 1719 by Thomas Barrow to 
James Barnaby. In 1725 Mr. Barnaby sold it to Thomas Branch, whose 
daughter Thankful, the wife of Ebenezer Churchill, inherited it at his 
death. After the death of Mr. Churchill it was sold, in 1795, by his son 
George to Nathaniel Goodwin, by whom the present building was 
erected for a candle-factory. After the death of General Goodwin it was 
sold by his administrator, in 1821, to Nathaniel Russell, who conveyed 
it, in 1828, to the late Nathaniel Wood. Mr. Wood had remodelled and 
occupied the house several years before the date of his deed, and he 
continued to make it his residence until he sold it, in 1857, to David 
Bradford. In 1872 it was sold by Louisa F. Bradford, the widow of 
David Bradford, to Nathaniel Shaw. The vacant lot which adjoins it 
was a part of the land owned by Mr. Wood, who separated it from the 
estate during his ownership, and is now owned by his son Nathaniel. 

The next lot was also a part of the last-mentioned lot, and was sold, 
in 1841, by Nathaniel Wood, to his son, Willard Wood, who sold it, in 
1843, to Delos A. Dunlap. In 1849 Mr. Dunlap sold it to Mark J. and 
Lemuel S. Bumpus, the former of whom, in 1851, bought his brother's 
share and moved upon the lot a building which had previously stood 
where the blacksmith-shop of Mr. Harvey now stands, and before that 
on the Spooner lot in High Street, and converted it into a dwelling- 
house. 

The next lot, on which the Saunders house stands, was a part of the 
land already described, until it came into the possession of Nathaniel 
Goodwin. In 1813 General Goodwin sold it to Lemuel Robbins, who 
built the house now standing, and sold it in the same year to Isaac 
Barnes. It afterwards came into the possession of John Saunders, the 
lot having been enlarged by purchase in 1844 by Mr. Saunders of Free 
man and Eleazer Stevens Bartlett of twelve feet adjoining it on the 
west. The heirs of Mr. Saunders have sold it during the present year to 
Joseph Mawbey. 

The next lot, on which the Williams house stands, was also a part of 
the original tract sold by Thomas Barrow, in 1719, to James Barnaby, and 
sold by Mr. Barnaby, in 1725, to Thomas Branch. After the death of Mr. 
Branch it came into the possession of James Howard, who married his 
daughter. In 1769 Thomas Howard, son of James, sold it to Jonathan 
King, who sold it, in 1774, to William Crombie. In the year 1800 Mr. 
Crombie sold it to Rossiter Cotton, who sold it, in 1809, to Robert 
Roberts, In 1817 Mr. Roberts sold it to James Spooner, who, in 1835, 
sold it to Freeman and Eleazer Stevens Bartlett. In 1844 the Messrs. 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



261 



Bartlett sold twelve feet above mentioned to John Saunders, to enlarge 
his lot, and in 1847 sold the lot under consideration to Silas M. 
Churchill. In 1849 Mr. Churchill sold it to Lewis Bartlett, who sold it 
again to Mr. Churchill in 1852. In 1865 Albert R. Ellis and others, heirs 
of Mr. Churchill, sold it to Benjamin Hathaway, who sold it, in 1875, to 
Alexander McLean. In 1877, Mr. McLean sold it to Mary Williams, 
who built the house now standing on the lot. 

The vacant lot next on the west has the same pedigree as the lot just 
described up to its ownership by the Messrs. Bartlett. In 1860, after the 
death of Freeman Bartlett, it was sold by his son, Eleazer Stevens Bart- 
lett, to John T. Stoddard, who, in 1&71, gave a mortgage deed of the land 
to Isaac N. Stoddard, who, in 1875, took possession under the mortgage. 
It was sold in the same year under a first mortgage given to the Plymouth 
Savings Bank in 1868, and purchased by Isaac N. Stoddard, who is the 
present owner. 

The next lot, on which the Seymour house stands, had the same record 
as the last, until it came into the possession of James Spooner, in 1817. 
In that year Mr. Spooner sold to Bartlett Bradford, the owner of the ad- 
joining lot on the west, twelve feet to enlarge his lot, and in 1830 sold 
the lot under consideration to Henry Seymour, who built a house on the 
lot, and whose heirs still own and occupy it. 

The land from this point, as far as Oak Grove Cemetery, comprising 
six acres, was originally divided into two lots of three acres each. The 
first lot was granted by the town, in 1712, to Ebenezer Dunham, and was 
described in the grant as situated at " Shrieve's Hole." In a deed of the 
land at a later date the place is called Sheriffs Hole, under a probable 
misapprehension of the meaning of the ancient designation. The word 
sheriff now in use is the latest form of a word which has experienced 
various changes. In Saxon the word " reve," or *' reeve," signified 
steward, and when stewards for "shires" were appointed in England, 
they were called "shire reeves, 1 ' and afterwards " shrieves," and finally 
" sheriffs." It is probable that it derived its name from Thomas Shrieve, 
who was in Plymouth at an early date. The " Hole," which designated 
the land under consideration, is doubtless that in the rear of the house 
occupied by Benjamin F. Field, and east of the new road leading from 
Summer to Samoset Street. 

In 1712 the other lot of three acres, extending to the Cemetery, was 
granted by the town to Stephen Totman, who sold it, in 1718, to Thomas 
Howland. This lot is described in the grant as situated at " Bushy Hill," 
which is doubtless the hill immediately in the rear of the house occupied 
by Martin V. B. Holmes. Mr. Howland sold the lot in the same year to 
Ebenezer Dunham, who thus became the owner of the six acres. In 1719 
Mr. Dunham sold the whole tract to Haviland Torrey, from whom it 
descended through bis son John to his granddaughter Martha, the wife 



262 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



of James Doten. In 1782 Mr. Doten sold it to Samuel Davis, who sold 
two small parcels, one in 1804 and one in 1808 to Heman Holmes, on 
which Mr. Holmes built the Field house, now standing. In 1809 Mr. 
Holmes sold the house and the lot on which it stood to Barnabas Hedge, 
who sold it, in 1816, to the late Bartlett Bradford, the father of Lewis G. 
Bradford, now living in Plymouth. In 1817 Samuel Davis sold an addi- 
tional parcel of land to Mr. Bradford to enlarge his lot, and Mr. Bradford 
made the estate his place of residence until his death. In 1855 Lucy 
Bradford, the widow of Bartlett Bradford, conveyed it to Caleb Rider, 
husband of her deceased daughter Lucy, and Eveline B. Field, the wife 
of Benjamin F. Field, who granted to her in return a life estate in the 
premises. In 1856 Mr. Rider, as tenant by courtesy, conveyed his interest 
to Mrs. Field, who after the death of her mother became, as she continues, 
the owner of the whole estate. In the year 1875 Oak Street was laid out 
through the grounds of Mrs. Field. 

The next lot, on which the house stands occupied by Isaac W. Jack- 
son, was a part of the land granted to Ebenezer Dunham in 1712. Its his- 
tory was the same as that of the last lot, until it came into the possession 
of Samuel Davis in 1782. In 1825 Mr. Davis sold it to William Seymour, 
who bought the unfinished factory, which had stood many years at Holmes' 
Dam, and used the material in the construction of the house now standing. 
In 1830 Mr. Seymour sold it to Joanna Robbins, who occupied it until 
1847, when she sold it to Josiah Bartlett. Mr. Bartlett also occupied it 
and sold it in 1852 to William Thomas, who sold it in the same year to 
Leander Lovell. Mr. Lovell sold it in 1855 to Fanny, the wife of Josiah 
Bartlett, who gave a deed of mortgage to Mr. Lovell. In 18G6 Abbie R. 
Perkins, the wife of Arad Perkins, and assignee of the mortgage, sold it 
to Almira B. Pember, the wife of Stephen Pember, who occupied it until 
1875, when she sold it to Hosea Kingman. In 1877 Mr. Kingman con- 
veyed it to Philip D. Kingman, who conveyed it in the same year to 
Hosea Kingman and William II. Whitman, trustees of Isaac W.Jackson, 
under the will of his mother, Harriet O. Jackson. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and occupied by John 
Atwood, was a part of the land granted by the town in 1712 to Stephen 
Totman. It was sold in 1718 by Mr. Totman to Thomas Howland, who 
sold it in 1718 to Ebenezer Dunham. From this point its record is the 
same as that of the last lot, until it came into the possession of Samuel 
Davis. In 1829 the heirs of Mr. Davis sold it to Nathaniel Russell, who 
sold it in 1830 to Eleazor Stevens Bartlett. In 1835 Mr. Bartlett sold 
it to .John Atwood, who built the house which he still owns and occupies. 

The three next lots, extending to the Cemetery, were also a part of the 
Totman grant, and had the same record as the last lot until they came 
into the possession of Eleazer Stevens Bartlett. The first of the lots was 
sold by Mr. Bartlett, with the house now standing, in 1841 to Joseph 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



263 



Maybury. In 1856 Mr. Maybury sold it to George and James Heath, 
the latter of whom, the son of George, now owns and occupies it. The 
second and third lots were sold by Eleazer Stevens Bartlett in 1851, with 
the house standing on the third lot, to James A. Freeman, who gave a 
deed of mortgage back to Mr. Bartlett. In 1853 Mr. Bartlett sold them 
under his mortgage to Willard Wood and James A. Danforth. In 1863 
Sarah T. Danforth, the widow of James, sold his interest to William S. 
Danforth, who bought of Mr. Wood the remainder. In the same year 
Mr. Danforth sold the lots to Sarah Bumpus and Alexander P. Bumpus, 
who occupied them and sold the second lot in 1873 to Charles W. 
Bumpus, who built the house now standing on the lot. In 1874 Charles 
W. Bumpus sold the second lot and house to Charles T. Holmes, who 
still owns and occupies it. The third lot, which was retained and occu- 
pied by Sarah Bumpus and Alexander P. Bumpus, was sold by them in 
1874 to William R. Drew, its present owner. 

The land owned by the Oak Grove Cemetery Association, called at an 
early date Doane's Field, but remembered by many readers as Spooner's 
Woods, comprised according to the old records about fourteen acres. Of 
these about "eight acres were, about the year 1700, in the possession of 
Nathaniel Jackson, and the other six acres were granted by the town in 
1711 to Joseph Bramhall. In 1715 Mr. Jackson sold four acres to Mr. 
Bramhall, and in 1737 Mr. Bramhall sold the ten acres owned by him to 
Thomas Spooner. Mr. Jackson sold his remaining four acres in 1735 to 
Thomas Spooner, making Mi - . Spooner at that date the owner of the 
whole. Mr. Spooner owned the land during his life, and at his death it 
descended to his son Thomas, from whom it was inherited by his son 
Ephraim, whose children, James, Ebenezer, and Sally Spooner, finally 
came into its possession. In 1837 James Spooner conveyed his interest 
to the Old Colony Bank, and in 1841 Ebenezer and Sally conveyed theirs 
to Andrew L. Russell, who joined in the same year with the Old Colony 
Bank in a deed to the Oak Grove Cemetery Association. 

The land beyond the Cemetery, extending as far as the westerly line 
of the estate of Edward W. Atwood, which was a part of Doane's Field, 
was sold in 1719 by Nathaniel Wood to John Wood, and by the latter, in 
1726, to Thomas Spooner. Having descended to the second Thomas 
Spooner and to his son Ephraim, it was sold in 1822, after the death of 
Ephraim, by his heirs, to Elias Thomas, who built the house now stand- 
ing on the land. In 1847 Mr. Thomas sold one acre adjoining the 
westerly line of the Cemetery to Thomas Russell, whose executors sold 
it in 1855 to Johnson Davie. In 1877 Mr. Davie sold it to James C. 
Murphy, who conveyed it in 1878 to John J. Williams, the archbishop 
of the diocese, and it is now a part of the cemetery of the Catholic 
Church. After the death of Elias Thomas the house, with the remainder 
of the estate, passed into the hands of his children, Frank A. and William 



264 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



A. Thomas, and Georgianna, the wife of Edward W. Atwood. In 1868 
Jane Thomas, the widow of Frank A. Thomas, conveyed her interest to 
William H. and Georgianna, and in the same year William H. sold his 
interest to Mr. Atwood, thus making him and his wife the owners of the 
estate. 

The next estate, which older readers will remember under the name 
of Hayward's orchard, formerly included a part of the ministerial land 
hereafter referred to, and land granted by the town in 1711 and 1714 to 
John Wood and Abiel Shurtleff. The part which belonged to the minis- 
terial land was sold in 1795 by David Bates to James Thacher, who 
sold an undivided half in 1797 to Nathan Hayward. The part owned by 
John Wood was set off in the division of his estate to his daughter Mary, 
the wife of Jacob Taylor, who sold it in 17C3 to John Kempton, who 
built a house on the land, in which he lived. The part owned by Mr. 
Shmtleff was sold by him in 1723 to Ephraim Kempton, who sold it in 
1737 to Joshua Drew. Mr. Drew sold it in 1745 to Samuel Kempton, 
who sold it in 1750 to John Kempton, who thus became owner of both 
lots. In 1793 Mr. Kempton sold them to James Thacher, who sold an 
undivided half, in 1797, to Nathan Hayward. In 1810 Dr. Thacher sold his 
remaining interest to Dr. Hayward, and in 1846 Dr. Hayward sold the 
land, after the house had been taken down, to Josiah Bartlett, who sold 
it in 1856 to Southworth Barnes. In the same year Mr. Barnes sold it to 
James Merrick Smith, who sold it in 18c9. with the house which he had 
built, to Edwin C. ITilh In the same year Mr. Hill sold it to Robert 
Ingalls, who sold it in 1861 to Henry H. Fitch. In the same year Mr. 
Fitch sold it to Jane Spencer, who sold it in 1862 to James P. Arthur. 
In 1867 it was sold by Mr. Arthur to Jacob H. Loud, trustee of Johnston 
Brown, who now occupies the estate. 

The next lot, now belonging to Benjamin Ward, was at one time a 
part of the Hayward orchard. In 1809 Dr. Thacher and Dr. Hayward 
sold the lot, which contains a little over five acres and a quarter, to the 
late Benjamin M. Watson, who sold it in 1816 to Robert Dunham. In 
1863 William G. Dunham, son of Robert, sold it to Alanson Thomas, 
whose administrator sold it in 1879 to Mr. Ward, its present owner. 

'The land beyond the Ward lot as far as the woods was common land, 
until it was granted to the first precinct for the benefit of the church. 
In old deeds it was always referred to as ministerial land, and the grant 
included, in addition to twenty-three acres on the northerly side of the 
road, seventeen and seven-eighths acres on the southerly side, which 
will be referred to hereafter. In 1786 a committee of the precinct sold 
the land under consideration to David Bates, who built the house which 
readers will remember was burned a few years since. Two acres and a 
half on the easterly end were sold by Mr. Bates in 1795, as above men- 
tioned, to James Thacher, and became a part of the Hayward orchard. 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



265 



The remainder, after the death of Mr. Bates, passed into the hands of 
Jonathan Harvey and his wife Hannah, a daughter of Mr. Bates, who 
sold, in 1816, seven acres, including the house, to Truman Bartlett. In 
1844 Mr. Bartlett sold it to Zaben Olney, who sold it, in 1854, to Benja- 
min M. Watson, the present owner. The remainder of the ministerial 
land was sold by Mr. Harvey, in 1803, to George Jackson, who sold it, 
in 1811, to Robert Dunham, the father of its late occupant, William G. 
Dunham, who built the house on the land in which his widow has 
recently died. 

The line of the "mile and a half tract" granted by the proprietors to 
the town in 1701, which crossed the road east of the farm of the late 
Charles Hathaway, having been substantially reached, the writer will 
retrace his steps, and give the history of the Summer Street lands, not 
yet described, on the southerly side. 

The seventeen acres of ministerial land on the south side of Summer 
Street, above referred to, extended from the woods to a point on the 
highway reached by a line running a few feet westerly of the house of 
B. M. Watson. That part lying west of the lane leading to Billington 
Sea was sold, in 1795, by a committee of the first precinct, to Elnathan 
Holmes and Joseph Trask. Of this that part on which the house of 
Thomas Sampson stands was sold, partly by the heirs of Mr. Trask, in 
1802, to Rossiter Cotton, and partly by Mr. Holmes, in 1806, to Robert 
Dunham. Mr. Cotton sold his part, in 1804, to Barnabas Hedge, and 
Mr. Dunham sold his, in 1815, to William White. Mr. Hedge sold the 
part purchased by him, in 1815, to Mr. White, and in 1825 Mr. White 
sold the whole to Simeon Dike. In 1830 Mr Dike sold it to the late 
Thomas Sampson, who built the house which is now owned and occupied 
by his son Thomas. The remainder of the land west of the lane was 
sold by the heirs of Mr. Trask, in 1803, to Rossiter Cotton, who sold it, 
in the same year, to Nathan Reed. In 1843 Rebecca Reed, the widow 
of Nathan, sold it to John Tribble, who sold it, in 1853, to Lucinda Fin- 
ney, the wife of Albert Finney, who built the house now owned and 
occupied by her son Albert. That part of the ministerial land lying 
east of the lane was sold by a committee of the precinct, in 1786, to 
William Hall Jackson, who sold it, in 1803, to his son, Salisbury Jack- 
son. In 1816 Salisbury Jackson sold it to Truman Bartlett, whose heirs 
sold it, in 1844, to Zaben Olney. In 1854 Mr. Olney sold it to Benjamin 
M. Watson, of whose estate it is now a part. 

The remainder of Mr. Watson's estate lying along the highway was 
originally a part of fifty-six acres belonging to Nathaniel Warren, the 
son of Richard Wan-en of the Mayflower. This tract of land extended 
from the ministerial land easterly to the long house near the dam of the 
Robinson Iron Company. It was bounded on the south by the brook to 
a point not far from the Plymouth Mills, and beyond that point westerly 



266 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



by a line separating it from land of Nathaniel Thomas, rutming over 
the high land and across Mr. Watson's estate. After the death of Mr. 
Warren it was inherited by his son James, and in the division of the 
estate of James Warren, the upper part of the land, extending as far 
easterly as a point nearly opposite to the gate of the cemetery, was set 
off to Nicholas Sever and his wife Sarah, who was the widow of Charles 
Little, and the daughter of Mr. Warren. In 1772 Mary Marshall, 
daughter of Mrs. Sever, and William Sever, her son, sold the part set off 
to their mother to John Torrey and William Crombie. In 177-1, in a 
division of land owned in common by Messrs. Torrey and Crombie, all 
that part of Mr. Watson's land which was the Sever land between the 
ministerial land and the land of the late Elias Thomas, comprising 
about seventeen acres, was set off to Mr. Torrey. In 17U7 John Torrey, 
the son of the above John, sold it to Jesse Harlow, whose heirs sold it, 
in 1815, to Nathaniel Russell and others, proprietors of the cotton fac- 
tory. Other tracts, bounded by deep water, were bought by Mr. Russell 
of other parties, and the whole was sold by him in 1846 to Mr. Watson, 
who built a house on the estate, and has since that time made it his resi- 
dence. Other purchases by Mr. Watson of rear lands have enlarged his 
estate, which now measures, on both sides of the highway, about 
seventy-eight acres. In early deeds the valley in which his house is 
situated was called " Prince's Bottom," and older readers will remember 
it by that name. In 1638 the colony court granted "ten acres of land 
in some convenient place about the town to Mr. Thomas Prence, gov- 
ernor, provided it not too much prejudice the commons for the cattle." 
It is probable that this was the spot selected by him, and that the rich 
bottom land in the valley has since borne his name. Mr. Prence was at 
that time living near what is now the junction of High Street and Spring 
Lane, on land granted to him by the town in the same year. The house 
of Mr. John Rayner, or the parsonage-house, was situated near the 
church, nearly on the site of the house owned by Charles P. Harlow, and 
in the grant referred to the land of Mr. Prence is described as lying 
"betwixt Spring Lane and Mr. John Rayner." It is clearly indicated 
by the records that the ten acres selected by Mr. Prence were neither at 
Newfields nor in the neighborhood of Murdock's Pond ; nor again at 
any place on the north side of Summer Street, between the town and 
the woods, for all these localities are satisfactorily accounted for. It is 
not therefore an unreasonable conjecture, supported as it is by the name 
of " Prince's Bottom," and by the fact of the residence of Mr. Prence in 
that part of the town, that they were a part of what is now Mr. Wat- 
son's estate. 

The next estate, belonging to the heirs of Elias Thomas, was set off 
to William Crombie, in 1774, in the division above referred to. In 
1796 Mr. Crombie sold a small lot next to Mr. Watson's corner to Ansel 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



267 



Faunce, who built the house now standing. In 1805 Mr. Faunce sold it 
to Isaac Barnes, who sold it, in 1808, to Elias Thomas, a recent comer to 
the town from Middleboro'. The remainder of the Sever land, pur- 
chased by Messrs. Torrey and Crombie in 1772, and set off to Mr. 
Crombie in the division of 1774, was sold, in 1815, by Zacheus Bartlett, 
administrator of Mr. Crombie, to Samuel Bradford, who sold it, in 1816, 
to Bartlett Bradford. In 1817 Mr. Bradford sold a part to Elias Thomas, 
and in 1829 the remainder to Elias Thomas, Jr., who, in 1850, sold it to 
his father. In the original division of the land of James Warren, above 
referred to, seven acres, extending from the Sever land easterly to the 
school-house lot, bounded by the highway, and crossing the brook so as 
to include a strip of land on its southerly side, was set off to the second 
James Warren. In 1736 Mr. Warren sold it to David Turner, who sold 
it, in 1756, to Thomas Jackson. In 1762 Mr. Jackson sold back to Mr. 
Turner that part lying north of the brook, and in 1767 Mr. Turner sold 
it to Messrs. Torrey and Crombie, who included it in the division made 
in 1774, by which it was set off to Mr. Crombie. A portion of this land 
was included in the various transfers above mentioned, resulting in its 
possession by Elias Thomas. After the death of Mr. Thomas a part of 
his estate was sold by his executor to Joseph B. Shaw, and came into 
the possession of Mark J. Bumpus, its present owner, under a mortgage 
given to the Plymouth Loan Fund Association in 1858, and after pos- 
session taken in 1863, assigned to him in 1865. Another portion was 
sold, in 1857, by the executor of Mr. Thomas, to David Dixon, who sold 
it, in 1870, to Henry I. Seymour. A third portion was set off in the 
division of his estate to Lucinda, the wife of Albert Finney, and sold by 
her, in 1868, to Mr. Seymour, who is now the owner of both lots. 

The next field, lying west of the house-lot of the late Caleb Harding, 
was sold by William Crombie, in 1817, to Nathaniel Thomas, whose 
widow, Jane, devised it by will to Enoch Drake, who sold it, in 1854, to 
Nathaniel C- Lanman. In 1868 the heirs of Mr. Lanman sold it to Mr. 
Seymour, the owner of the adjoining land. 

The land next on the east was sold, in 1802, by Mr. Crombie to Israel 
Hoyt, who built the two houses standing side by side on the lower road. 
In 1814 Mr. Hoyt sold it to Nathaniel Thomas, who built and occupied 
the house on the upper road now owned by the heirs of Andrew L. Rus- 
sell, and occupied by the widow of Caleb Harding. At that time the 
gore of land at the fork of the roads, with the house now standing, was 
owned and occupied by Dolphin Garner, a brother of Dolphin Hubbard, 
who will be remembered by older readers as Dauphin the musician, who 
was so important a part of the balls and parties of that time. The 
remainder of the James Warren land, between the school-house and the 
Plymouth Mills, bounded by the road and the brook, was sold by Mr. 
Crombie, in 1800, to Rossiter Cotton, who sold it, in 1815, to Nathaniel 



268 



PLYMOUTH COLOKT. 



Russell and others, proprietors of the Iron Works. That part not occu- 
pied by houses is still owned by the heirs of Mr. Russell. The lot on 
which the Hatton House stands was sold by Nathaniel and Andrew L. 
Russell, in 1857, to John W. Hatton. who built the house, which is now 
standing, and occupied by some members of the family. The next lot 
was sold by Nathaniel Russell, in 1848. to George E. Dillard. who sold 
it, in I860, to George Benson, who built the house which he still owns 
and occupies. 

The land between this point and the long house, so called, comprising 
about three acres, is the remainder of the nibr-six acres referred to as 
originally belonging to Nathaniel Warren. At the death of Mr. Warren 
it came into the possession of his son James, who sold it in 1711 tc 
Samuel Kempton. In 1750 Mr. Kempton sold it to George Watson, 
whose heirs sold it in 1815 to Nathaniel Russell and others, owners of die 
Iron Works. The first lot, on which the school-house stands, was sold in 
1841 by Mr. Russell to the Central School District, and after the 
abolition of school districts it became the property of the town. The 
next lot was sold by Mr. Russell, in 1847, to Mark J. Bumpus. who sold 
it in 1848 to James Reed, who built the house now standing, and bought 
in the same year of Mr. Russell the land in the rear of the school-house. 
The next lot was sold in 1847 by Mr. Russell to Lemuel S. Bumpus, who 
sold it to James Reed in 1853. The next lot was sold by Mr. Russell in 
1846 to Joshua Hathaway, who sold it in the next year to Joseph May- 
bury. In 1>4> Mr. Maybnry sold it to Seth Benson, Jr.. who sold it in 
1873 to Levi Ransom, who built and owns the stable standing on the 
lot. The next lot, now vacant, was sold by Mr. Russell to Seth Benson 
after he had came into possession of the next lot, which, with James 
Bradford, he bought in 18-3 of the proprietors of the Iron Works, and on 
which they built the house now standing, the whole of which afterwards 
came into the possession of Mr. Benson, and is now owned by his heirs. 
The next lot was sold by the proprietors in 1823 to Charles Brewster, 
who built the house now standing, which is still owned by some of his 
heirs. The next lot was sold by the proprietors in 1823 to Sarah Bart- 
lett, who built the house now standing, and sold it in 1850 to Lemuel S. 
Bumpus. In the same year Mr. Bumpus sold one-half to Martin Benson, 
and in 1*66 the remainder, and Mr. Benson is now the owner and occu- 
pant of the estate. The next lot was sold by the proprietors in 1819 to 
Daniel Foster and Joshua Hathaway, who built the house now standing. 
In 1824 Mr. Foster sold his part to Frederick A. Cotton, from whom it 
passed into the hands of Micah Richmond, who sold it in 1851 to Henry 
M. Hobart. The other part was devised by Joshua Hathaway to George 
A. Hathaway, who sold it in 1855 to Mr. Hobart. making him at that 
date the owner of the whole. In 1872 Mr. Hobart sold a part to 
Frederick A. Atwood, and in 1S78 the other part to J. W. Hatton. The 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



269 



next lot, lying west of the long house, was sold by the proprietors in 
1833 to Sally Reed, who built the house now standing, and whose heirs 
sold it in 1863 to Sarah J. Wall, its present owner and occupant 

An abstract of the titles of the various privileges on Town Brook not 
mentioned in this chapter may be found in Chapter V. 

Ring Street or Ring Lane. — Ring Lane derived its name from 
Andrew Ring, who came to Plymouth in 1628, and married in 1646 
Deborah, daughter of Stephen Hopkins, and for a second wife, Lettice, 
widow of John Morton. The laDe was opened to enable him to reach, 
from Summer Street, land granted to him at an early date in the neigh- 
borhood of Murdock's Pond. Mr. Ring was afterwards one of the pur- 
chasers of Middleboro', and in accordance with the rules of the court 
abandoned this land when he became a non-resident. In 1711 a tract of 
land was sold by the town to William Ring, his grandson, for fifteen 
shillings per acre, which included the upper part of Ring Lane, and 
extended easterly as far as Spring Lane, being bounded on the northwest 
by Burial Hill, and on the southeast by the Summer Street lots. In 
deeds of that period the lane is referred to as leading to the land of 
William Ring. The land on the westerly side of the lane, as far as the 
northerly line of land of Mr. Edes, has been already described. After 
its purchase by Mr. Edes the dwelling-house now standing there was 
built by him, and occupied until recently as his residence. The building 
adjoining it on the north was built for a barn, and occupied by Mr. Edes 
as such until its recent conversion into a tenement-house. The land 
beyond this point on the westerly side of the lane will be considered in 
connection with Russell Street. 

The lot of land on the easterly side of the lane, on which the house 
stands owned and occupied by Benjamin Ward, was originally a part of 
the corner lot until that lot came into the possession of Andrew and 
Stephen Bartlett. In 1807 it was sold by Stephen Bartlett, who in a 
division of the estate came into its possession, to William Bradford, who 
built the house now standing. In 1810 Mr. Bradford sold it to William 
Sturtevant, from whom it descended to his son Isaac, by whose heirs, 
among whom was Zilpha, the wife of Barnabas Faunce, it was sold in 
1829 to Judah Bartlett. Mr. Bartlett occupied the house until his death, 
having enlarged the lot by purchase of land from Nathaniel Russell in 1846, 
and in 1874 it was sold by J. Frank Bartlett, and other heirs of Mr. Bartlett, 
to Mr. Ward, its present owner and occupant. The next lot, on which 
the house stands owned and occupied by the widow of Grant C. Parsons, 
lies within the limits of the land of William Ring, above referred to. 
In 1738 Hannah Ring, widow of William, sold the whole tract to Caleb 
Sherman, who married her daughter Rebecca. In 1752 Mr. Sherman 
sold it to John Torrey, Nathaniel Torrey, and Sylvanus Bartlett In a 



270 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



subsequent division Nathaniel Torrey came into the possession of the 
Lind from Ring Lane to the estate of William Bartlett, on High Street, 
bounded south by the Summer Street lots, and north and east by that 
part of the land set off to Sylvanus Bartlett. It included the street and 
lots on both sides. The lot under consideration was sold by Nathaniel 
Torrey, in 1765, to James Hovey, whose heirs sold it in 1786 to Joshua 
Thomas. In 1794 Mr. Thomas, in connection with Sylvanus Bartlett 
and James Thacher, and others, who owned the remainder of the land 
as far as Market Street, laid out High Street, and the easterly end was 
called Thacher Street, while the westerly end was known for many years 
by the name of Thomas Street. In 1823, in accordance with recom- 
mendations contained in a report of a committee of the town the name 
of High Street was given to the two streets, and the name of the old 
High Street was changed to Summer Street. In the year 1808 Judge 
Thomas sold the lot in question to Heman Holmes, who built the house 
now standing, and sold it in 1808 to John Tribble. Mr. Tribble occupied 
it as a residence until his death, and in 1866 his widow, Marcia Tribble, 
sold it to Grant C. Parsons, whose widow still owns and occupies it. 

High Street. — The lot on High Street, on which the house stands 
owned by Heman C. Robbins, has the same record as the last, until it 
■came into the possession of Joshua Thomas. Judge Thomas moved a 
shop upon the lot, which was the nucleus of the present building. In 
1809 he sold it to Nathaniel Russell and others, proprietors of the Iron 
Works, who sold it, in 1820, to Joseph Allen. After a short occupancy, 
Mr. Allen sold it, in 1821, to Thomas Spear, who lived and died on the 
estate, and whose heirs sold it by two deeds, one in 1869 and one in 
1874, to Mr. Robbins, its present owner and occupant. 

The next lot, which has the same early record, was sold by Joshua 
Thomas, in 1806, to Thomas Paty, who sold in the same year one-half to 
Thomas Atwood, who sold it back to Mr. Paty in 1830. In 1854 Samuel 
Talbot and his wife Jerusha, daughter of Mr. Paty, who had inherited 
one-half and bought the other half in the same year of Nancy Paty, her 
sister, sold it to Samuel T. Spear, who sold it back in 1855. In 1858 
Mr. Talbot sold it to Stephen Bartlett, who built the house now standing. 
In 1872 Mr. Bartlett sold it to Solomon M. Holmes and Aaron Samp- 
son, 2d, and took a mortgage back, under which he sold it, in 1876, 
to John T. Hall, who conveyed it in the same year to Mr. Bartlett, by 
whom it was again sold in that year to Everett F. Sherman. 

The next lot, after coming into the possession of Joshua Thomas, was 
sold by him, in 1801, to Ephraim Everson, who built the house now 
standing. In 1810 Mr. Everson sold it to William Sturtevant, who sold 
it in the same year to David Ripley. Mr. Ripley sold it in the same year 
to Barnabas Hedge, whose administrator sold it, in 1841, to Lucy 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



271 



Spooner. In 1850 Mrs. Spooner sold it to her son Nathaniel, who sold it, 
in 1866, to John B. Wilson, its present owner and occupant. , 

As this is the limit of the land sold by the heirs of James Hovey to 
Joshua Thomas in 1786, the writer will retrace his steps, and describe 
the lots on the north side of the street included in the Thomas land 
before considering the land between this point and Spring Lane, which 
was set off to Sylvanus Bartlett, one of the purchasers with John and 
Nathaniel Torrey in 1752. 

The first lot, next to Russell Street, on which the Rider house stands, 
includes two lots as laid out by Joshua Thomas, one of which he sold, in 
1804, to Freeman Bartlett, and the other, in 1809, to Robert Dunham. 
In 1806 Mr. Bartlett sold his lot to John Bartlett, who sold it, in 1807, 
to Mr. Dunham. In 1809 Mr. Dunham sold both lots to Heman Churchill, 
who sold them in 1810 to Job Rider. Mr. Rider built the house now 
standing, and sold it, in 1816, to Daniel Rider, by whose heirs it is still 
owned and occupied. 

The next lot was sold in 1807 by Joshua Thomas to John Blaney 
Bates, who sold it, in 1808, to Heman Cobb. Mr. Cobb built the house 
now standing, and sold it, in 1830, to Benjamin Harlow. In the same 
year Mr. Harlow sold one-half of the estate to his son-in-law, Thomas 
Spear, and the other half to Lewis Bartlett. In the same year also Mr. 
Spear sold his half to Rhoda Harlow, the wife of Benjamin, who sold it, 
in 1832, to Heman Cobb, Jr. In 1836 Mr. Bartlett sold his half to Mr. 
Cobb, making him the owner of the whole. In 1856 Mr. Cobb sold it to 
Andrew Bartlett, its present owner and occupant. 

The next lot was sold in 1807 by Joshua Thomas to John Blaney 
Bates, who built the house now standing, and sold it in 1813 to Thomas 
Jackson Cotton. In 1816 Mr. Cotton sold it to Thomas Spear, who sold 
it in 1821 to Joseph Allen. Mr. Allen lived on the estate until 1826, 
when he sold it to Truman Bartlett, Jr., who made it his residence until 
his death. In 1876 Mercy Bartlett, the widow of Truman, sold it to 
Lydia K. Holmes, the wife of Lewis Holmes, who is the present owner 
and occupant. The next lot was sold by Joshua Thomas, in 1802, to 
Truman Bartlett, Sr., as will be hereafter described. From this point 
to Spring Lane the land was set off to Sylvanus Bartlett in the division 
above referred to. The lot, on which the house stands owned and 
occupied by William Bartlett, was sold by Sylvanus Bartlett in 1801 to 
Freeman Bartlett, who built the house now standing, and sold it in 1802 
to Truman Bartlett, who enlarged the lot by the purchase, above men- 
tioned, of Joshua Thomas of the garden west of the house, and occupied 
the estate until his death. In 1855 his heirs sold it to William Bartlett, 
its present owner and occupant. 

The next lot came from Sylvanus Bartlett into the possession of his 
son J esse, who built the house now standing, and sold one-half, in 1807, 



272 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



to Isaac Bartlett. In the same year Isaac sold his half to Elizabeth 
Whiting, who sold it, in 1851, to Benjamin Whiting. In 1854 Mr. 
Whiting sold it to Louisa A. Allen, who sold it, in the same year, to 
Ephraim B. Holmes, by whom it was sold, in 1858, to Mary Brown. In 
1807 Jesse Bartlett sold his remaining half to Sarah Churchill, who sold 
it, in 1822, to Rebecca Churchill, by whom it was sold, in 1837, to Mary 
Brown. Miss Brown devised it by will to Eliza Ross of Boston, who 
sold it,- in 1864, to Eber W. Hall, its present occupant. 

The next lot, on the corner of Spring Lane, was sold, in 1800, by Syl- 
vanus Bartlett to John Paty, who, in 1801, gave a deed to his brother 
Thomas, who had previously built the house now standing on the lot. 
It is now owned by the heirs of Thomas Paty, one of whom, his daugh- 
ter Nancy, was born and has always lived in the house. The land sold 
by Mr. Bartlett to John Paty extended up the lane to Burial Hill, and 
only the lower half was sold to Thomas Paty. On the rear lot John 
Paty built the house now standing, which he occupied till his death, and 
devised by will to his daughter Deborah, the wife of the late Samuel 
Alexander, who occupied it many years. In 1871 the heirs of Mr. Alex- 
ander conveyed it to their co-heir, Sylvia C, the wife of William T. 
Savery, who sold it in the same year to Frederick C. Adams. In 1872, Mr. 
Adams sold it to Lydia W., the wife of Albert Benson, its present occupant. 

The corner lot, on the other side of High Street, was sold, in 1799, by 
Sylvanus Bartlett to his daughter Sophia, the wife of Benjamin Drew. 
Mr. Drew built the house now standing, and sold it, in 1813, to William 
Brown, who occupied it until his death. In 1848 his widow, Xabby 
Brown, sold it to Robert Brown, who sold it, in 1868, to Everett F. Sher- 
man. In 1870 Mi - . Sherman sold it to Warren Rickard. 

The tract of land bounded by the town-house and the Market Street 
lots on the east, the old prison land and Summer Street on the south. 
Spring Lane on the w est, and Burial Hill and the Square on the north, 
was granted, in 1641, to Richard Sparrow. In 1656 Mr. Sparrow sold it 
to George Bonum, and for many years it was called " Bonum's Field." 
During its ownership by Mr. Bonum the only part sold was the lot on 
the corner of Summer Street and Spring Lane, already referred to. 
Before its ownei-ship by Mr. Sparrow the parsonage, occupied first by 
Ralph Smith, and afterwards by John Rayner, was situated on this 
tract, nearly on the site of the house on the south side of the Unitarian 
church, occupied by Charles P. Harlow. In 1654 Mr. John Rayner sev- 
ered his connection with the Plymouth church, and in 1667 his son John 
sold his father's lot to George Bonum. The first school-house built in 
the colony also stood on this tract, and references discovered by the 
writer in early deeds clearly indicate its location near the northerly 
end of Cooper's Alley. In one of the deeds conveying a lot of land 
bounded by the Square, and running sixty-three feet westerly from the 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



273 



country or town-house, the westerly corner of the lot conveyed is de- 
scribed as "a little below the school-house." 

In 1711 Mr. Bonum sold the land above-mentioned to Nathaniel 
Jackson, who sold, at various times, the lots fronting on Summer Street, 
already described. Mr. Jackson sold other scattering lots, the history of 
which will be followed before entering on a description of these which, 
at his death, came into the possession of his son Thomas, and were 
subsequently sold by him and his heirs. 

Spuing Lane. — Beginning at the southerly end of Spring Lane, the 
history of the lot next to the Leacli house, owned by William T. Hollis, 
has already been given, in connection with the corner lot, up to its 
possession by Phineas Leach, who built the house standing on the lot. 
In 1842 a deed of mortgage was given of the lot and house by Mr. Leach 
to the Plymouth Savings Bank, who sold it, in 1871, to Mr. Hollis, its 
present owner. 

The next three lots were sold, in 1713, by Nathaniel Jackson to 
Charles Church, who sold them, in 1724, to Samuel Clark. In the same 
year Mr. Clark sold them to Jonathan Eames, from whom they passed 
under an execution in 1741, to Samuel Bartlett. In 1762 Mr. Bartlett 
sold them to Sylvanus Bartlett, who sold them, in 1788, to John Cotton, 
at that time the owner of the adjoining corner estate. In 1795 the 
heirs of Mr. Cotton sold them to John Bishop, who sold, in 1799, the lot 
next to that of Mr. Hollis to Iohabod Bearse, who built the house now 
standing on the lot. In 1808 Mr. Bearse sold it to Calvin Crombie, who 
sold it, in 1815, to Hannah Coofts. In 1823 Mary W. Coofts, daughter 
of Hannah, sold it to Frederick A. Cotton, from whom it came Into the 
possession of Caroline J. W. Spear, who sold it, in 1867, to Isaac J. 
Lucas. In the same year Mr. Lucas sold it to James Furney, who sold 
it, in 1869, to Mary A., the wife of George Henderson, whose family 
still occupy it. 

The next lot was sold by Mr. Bishop, in 1799, to Benjamin Cooper, 
who built the house now standing. In 1826 a part of the estate passed 
under an execution into the hands of Robert Davie and Samuel Talbot, 
who sold it, in 1828, to Lydia Ripley, who finally came into possession 
of the whole. In 1869 John Chase, who married Lydia, daughter of 
Lydia Ripley, sold it to Mary Roach, its present occupant. 

The next lot was sold, in 1799, by Mr. Bishop to Benjamin Morton, 
who built the house now standing, and whose heirs sold it, in 1817 to 
Joseph Avery. In 1820 Mr. Avery sold it to George Bartlett, from 
whom it was inherited by his daughter Hannah, whose administrator 
sold it, in 1856, to Louisa A. Allen. In the same year Miss Allen sold it 
to Ellen Quinn, who sold it, in 1867, to Gaylord Jackson. In 1875 Mr. 
Jackson sold it to William S. Danforth, its present owner. 



274 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



The two remaining lots were sold by Nathaniel Jackson in 1711 to 
Ebenezer Dunham, who sold them in 1713 to Timothy Morton. In 1754 
Charles, son of Timothy, sold the lot next to that of Mr. Dan forth to 
Josiah Torrey, who sold it to Nathaniel Torrey in 1756. In 1759 
Nathaniel Torrey sold it to Ebenezer Atwood, who sold it to Thomas 
Jackson in 1759. After Mr. Jackson, it was owned by John Watson, 
whose heirs sold ii in 1785 to William Bradford, who built the house now 
standing. In 1816 Jesse Bradford, son of William, sold it to the late 
Hamlin Tilson, whose heirs sold it in 1867 to Mark J. Bumpus. The 
next, or corner lot, on which the Rogers house, so called, stand?, was 
sold by Charles Morton, above mentioned, to Ebenezer Churchill, whose 
son, Branch Churchill, sold it in 1796 to Rufus Bartlett. Mr. Bartlett 
built the house now standing, and sold it in 1799 to Thomas Rogers, who 
occupied it until his death. It afterwards came into the possession 
of Isaac Robbins, who married the daughter of Mr. Rogers, and it is 
now owned and occupied, by Isaac M. Robbins, son of Isaac above 
mentioned. 

Two lots on the westerly side of Spring Lane remain to be described 
to complete the history of that early way; that on which the Baptist 
meeting-house formerly stood, and the lot adjoining on which the house 
stands recently occupied by the widow of Ellis Rogers. The first of these, 
originally a part of land owned by John Wood, was sold by his sons, 
Nathaniel and Barnabas, in 1725, to Thomas Spooner. It afterwards 
came into the possession of Haviland Torrey, from whom it descended to 
his son Nathaniel, who sold it, in 1765, to his brother, John Torrey. From 
John Torrey it descended to his daughter Meriah, the wife of Woodworth 
Jackson, who sold it, in 1806, to John Bishop. In 1821 Mr. Bishop sold 
it to the First Baptist church, who built in that year the meeting-house 
which was burned in 1861. In 1868 the lot was sold by the deacons of 
the church to Stephen Bartlett and others, who sold it to the town for a 
school-house in 1869. 

The other lot was a part of the land set off to Sylvanus Bartlett in 
a division of land owned by him in common with John and Nathaniel 
Torrey, and purchased by them of Caleb Sherman, the son-in-law of 
William Ring, in 1752. Mr. Bartlett built a house on the lot, and in 1813 
it was sold by Nathaniel Spooner, the administrator of Mr. Bartlett, to 
Barnabas Hedge. In 1824 Mr. Hedge sold the house and half of the lot 
to Sally Finney, who sold it, in 1849, to Benjamin C. Finney. Mr. Hedge 
sold the other half of the lot, in 1824, to Finney Leach, whose son 
Phineas sold it to Lydia Goddard, who sold it, in 1850, to Mr. Finney, 
who thus became the owner of the whole. In 1852 Mr. Finney sold it to 
Ellis Rogers, whose widow took down the old house and built the house 
now standing. 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



275 



Town Square, South Side. — One other lot was sold by Nathaniel 
Jackson during his life, that already referred to west of the Town-House, 
which included the lot, on which the house of the late Allen Bradford 
and that of Seth Morton now stand. It was sold by him, in 1720, to 
Ignatius Cushing, who built in that year the present Morton house. In 
the same year, after building the house, he sold it to Ebenezer Doggett, 
who occupied it until 1743, when he sold it to Thomas Foster. In 1744 
Mr. Foster sold it to John Kempton, who sold it, in 1783, to Jonathan 
Tufts. It was occupied by Mr. Tufts until his death, and sold by his 
heirs, in 1828, to Jacob and Abner S. Taylor. In 1831 the Messrs. 
Taylor recorded a declaration of trust, under which they held a part 
of the Morton house in trust for Nancy, the wife of Philip Taylor, which 
part they sold, in 1838, to Seth Morton, now living, having sold the 
other part, in 1832, to Seth Morton, his father. After the death of Mr. 
Morton, Sr., Mrs. Morton, the wife of Mr. Morton, now living, bought 
out the heirs of the father, and she and her husband own the estate 
which they now occupy. The other part of the lot, purchased by the 
Messrs. Taylor of the heirs of Jonathan Tufts, was sold by them, in 1840, 
to Stephen Lucas, who built the house adjoining the Town-House. In 
1844 Mr. Lucas sold it to Levi Hubbard, who sold it in the next year to 
Benjamin Hubbard. In 184f> Dr. Hubbard sold it to William S. Bartlett. 
who sold it, in 1854. to William S. Battles. Mr. Battles occupied it until 
1869, when he sold it to the late Allen Bradford, whose widow still owns 
and occupies it. 

High Street, East End. — The remainder of the Bonum field was 
inherited at the death of Nathaniel Jackson by his son Thomas, who kept 
it intact during his life. At his death it was set off in the division of his 
estate to his granddaughter Elizabeth, the daughter of his son Hezekiah, 
and the wife of Thomas Sturges. In 1786 Mr. Sturges and wife sold the 
Nickerson lot, bounded by High Street, Spring Lane, and Burial Hill, to 
Thomas Jackson, the uncle of Mrs. Sturges. In 1788 Mr. Jackson sold 
it to Wait Atwood, who built the house now standing. At the time of the 
conveyance to Mr. Atwood High Street was not laid out, and the lot had 
its front on Spring Lane. It was provided, however, in the deed, that 
if a street should be laid out Mr. Atwood should throw out six feet along 
the southerly line. In 1817 Thomas Atwood, son of Wait, sold the estate 
to Eleazer Holmes, who sold it, in 1823, to John Nickerson under a 
mortgage from whom it is now owned by the Plymouth Savings Bank. 

In 1793 Thomas Sturges and wife sold the remainder of the Bonum 
field, at that time measuring one acre and a half, to James Thacher, who 
in the next year opened the street from Spring Lane to Market Street. 
In 1794 Dr. Thacher sold the lot next to the Rogers' house on the south 
side of the street to Ruth, the widow of William Bradford, who sold it, 



276 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



in 1800, to her son William. In the same year Mr. Bradford sold it to 
Ephraim Holmes, who built the house now standing and whose heirs still 
own the easterly half. The westerly half was sold by Mr. Holmes, in 
1800, to Thomas Bradford, who sold it, in 1817, to Richard Holmes. In 
1822 the heirs of Richard Holmes sold it to Zacheus Barnes, who sold it, in 
1829, to Eleanor, the wife of the late Solomon Faunce, who still owns it. 

The next lot was sold in 1794 by Dr. Thacher to Seth Nickerson, who 
built the house now standing. In 1800 the executor of Mr. Nickerson 
sold one-half to William Nelson and William Barnes, who sold it to 
William Weston, whose widow, Mary Weston, sold it, in 1841, to Benjamin 
Churchill. The other half was sold, in 1845, by William Nickerson, son 
of Seth, to Benjamin Churchill, who thus became the owner of the whole. 
In 1867 Mr. Churchill sold it to Ebenezer Cobb, who sold it, in 1872, to 
George A. Whiting. 

The next lot was sold by Dr. Thacher in 1794 to Benjamin Rider, 
from whom it descended to his daughter Patience, the wife of George 
Sampson. In 1822 Mrs. Sampson sold it to Joseph White, who sold it to 
Daniel Gale. In 1837 Mr. Gale sold it to Jacob and Abner S. Taylor, 
who sold it, in 1838, to Stephen R and Joseph P. Brown, and in 1847 
Stephen sold his share to his brother Joseph. During its ownership by 
the Messrs. Brown a building which had been previously owned by 
Barnabas Churchill and James G. Hedge, and occupied by them as a 
workshop, and which formerly stood near the little brook in the field, 
between Summer Street and the mill-pond, was bought and placed on 
the lot, where it was used as a furniture warehouse, until Mr. Joseph P. 
Brown converted it into a dwelling-house, and made it his residence. 

The next two lots were sold by Dr. Thacher in 1794 to Nathaniel 
Spooner, who built a barn on the lots, and sold them in 1828 to Jacob 
Covington, who buiH the Finney house, now standing. The barn was 
moved to the Thomas land opposite the nail works, where it was used 
many years as a blacksmith-shop, and afterwards bought by Mark J. 
Bumpus, and moved to his lot opposite the long house, and converted into a 
dwelling-house. After the, death of Mr. Covington his heirs sold the 
westerly lot, with the house, in 1852, to Benjamin C. Finney, who now 
owns and occupies it. The easterly lot was sold in 1846 by the heirs of 
Mr. Covington to Joseph P. Brown, who sold it the next year to the 
Mayflower Lodge of Odd Fellows. The lodge erected a hall on the lot, 
which they sold, after the erection of their new hall in Town Square in 
1877, to Lorenzo Tribble, who converted the hall into a dwelling-house. 

The next lot was sold by Dr. Thacher in 1794 to Andrew Croswell, 
whose widow, Sarah C. Croswell. sold it in 1797 to John Virgin, the 
father of the late George W. Virgin, and of John, whose widow has 
recently died. In 1816 the estate was divided between the two sons, and 
George sold his part to his brother. 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



277 



The next lot was sold by Dr. Thacher in 1794 to Lydia Churchill, 
the wife of Sylvanus, and Mary Darling, the aunt of Lydia, who built 
the house now standing. In 1829 Wilson Churchill, the brother-in-law 
of Mary Darling, sold her part to the late John L. Morton, who occupied 
it until his death, and whose heirs now own it. The part owned by Lydia 
Churchill was occupied by her and her husband until they died, and is 
now the property of John D. Churchill. 

The next lot was sold by Dr. Thacher in 1794 to Irene Thompson, 
who sold it in 1799 to Ichabod Davie, who added it to his estate on 
Summer Street. By the will of Nancy Davie, the widow of Ichabod, it 
was devised to the Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, who sold 
it in 1870 to John D. Churchill and Susan A. Churchill, his wife. In 
1861 John D. and Susan A. Churchill sold it to William H. Morton, who 
sold it in 1876 to William B Tribble. Mr. Tribble built the house 
standing on the lot, and sold it in 1878 to Benjamin Swift, its present 
owner and occupant. 

The lot on the north side of High Street, next to the Nickerson lot, 
was sold by Dr. Thacher in 1794 to James Doten, who built the double 
house standing on the lot, and sold the westerly half in 1800 to John 
Doten. In 1810 John Doten sold it to William Doten, whose executor 
sold it in 1814 to Jesse II. Turner. In 1869 Esther Turner sold it to 
Ephraim B. Holmes, by whose heirs it is now owned. The easterly half 
was sold by James Doten in 1812 to Benjamin Barnes, who sold it in 
1825 to John Washburn. In 1840 Mr. Washburn sold it to David 
Holmes, who sold it in 1854 to Everett F. Sherman. In 1871 Mr. Sher- 
man sold it to Lewis Eddy, its present owner. 

The next lot was sold in 1796 by Dr. Thacher to Ezra Burbank, who 
sold it to John and David Bartlett. The Messrs. Bartlett built the house 
now standing, and in 1801 John Bartlett sold the easterly part to Ezra 
Finney. In 1803 Mr. Finney sold it to Phineas Wells, who sold it in 
1850 to Peleg Faunce, whose heirs now own and occupy it. The westerly 
part was sold in 1808 by David Bartlett to Daniel Jackson, who sold it 
in 1820 to Jacob Covington. In 1828, when Mr. Covington moved into 
the house on Summer Street bought of Mary Spooner, he sold this 
estate to Robert Davie. In 1830 Samuel Talbot, administrator of Robert 
Davie, resold it to Mr. Covington, who sold it in the same year to 
Zacheus Barnes, whose son-in-law, Ozen Bates, is now its owner. 

The next lot was sold by Dr. Thacher in 1794 to Hezekiah Jackson, 
who sold it in the same year to Benjamin Cooper, who built a house on 
the lot. In 1796 Mr. Cooper sold it to James Robbins, who sold it in 
1797 to Anselm Robbins. In 1805 Anselm Robbins sold it to Isaac 
Bartlett, who made it his residence until 1832, when he built and occu- 
pied the house at the head of Spring Hill, now owned and occupied by 
the heirs of the late John B. Atwood. In that year Captain Bartlett sold 



278 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



it to Samuel Robbins, who sold it in 18G7 to Lorenzo Tribble, by whom 
the old house was renovated and is still owned. 

The next lot was sold by Dr. Thacher, in 1794, to Chandler Robbins, 
who sold it, in the same year, to Joseph Tribble. In 1802 Mr. Tribble 
sold ten feet of his lot to Joseph Cooper, the owner of the next lot, and 
the remainder, in 1803, to Benjamin Bramhall. In 1810 Mr. Bramhall 
sold it to Joseph White, with the house now standing, which had been 
built by him. In 18-12 Mr. White, having built on the northerly end of 
the lot the house near the church occupied by Charles P. Harlow, sold 
the lot and house on High Street to John S. Lucas. In 1813 Mr. Lucas 
sold it to Samuel Robbins, who sold it, with the estate last described, to 
Lorenzo Tribble, its present owner. The northerly end of the lot, with 
the house built by Mr. White, was sold by him, in 1817, to Southworth 
Barnes, by whose heirs it was sold, in 1SC5, to Charles T. Holmes. 

In 179G a small lot above the alley, nineteen feet wide, and extending 
northerly to Church Street, was sold by Dr. Thacher to Joseph Cooper 
and John Virgin, the southerly end to Mr. Cooper, and the northerly 
end to Mr. Virgin. Mr. Cooper was a chairmaker by trade, and at the 
time of the passage of the deed had built a shop on the lot. In 1797 
Mr. Virgin conveyed to Mr. Cooper his part of the lot. In 1802 Joseph 
Tribble sold to Mr. Cooper, as above mentioned, ten feet, making a lot 
twenty -nine feet wide, on which he built an addition to his shop, and 
converted it into the dwelling-house now standing. In 1812 the heirs of 
Joseph Cooper sold their interest to their co-heir, the late Joseph Cooper, 
whose heirs sold it, in 1881, to Samuel II. Doten. 

The next lot on the easterly side of the alley, opened by Dr. Thacher for 
the convenience of residents on High Street, was sold by him in 1791 to 
Jonathan Tufts, who then owned and occupied the Morton house adjoining. 
Mr. Tufts was a peruke-maker and barber by trade, and built on the north- 
erly end of the lot a shop which became historic as the gathering-place 
of the gossips of the day. It was the central point from which every 
racy story and new scandal took its start, and spread to every fireside in 
the town. In 1828, after the death of Mr. Tufts, his heirs moved the 
shop back on a line with High Street, and converted it into the house 
now standing, which they occupied after the sale of the old house to 
Jacob and Abner S. Taylor. The northerly end of the lo.t was included 
in the sale to the Messrs. Taylor, who afterwards sold it to Charles Tufts 
of Boston, one of the sons of Jonathan. In 1870 Charles Tufts and the 
other heirs of Jonathan Tufts sold the house and lot to the late Allen 
Bradford, whose heirs sold it, in 1881, to Jason W. Mixter. 

Russell Street and South Russell Street. — Russell Street was 
laid out by the county commissioners in 1831, having been staked out 
and opened by land-owners on its route several years before that date. 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



279 



The land through which it ran was owned by Andrew Bartlett, John B. 
Thomas, Benjamin Drew, Simeon Dike, and Nathaniel Russell. Its 
southerly line was bounded in part by town and parish lands, which will 
be described as the history of the street proceeds. The land of Mr. 
Bartlett consisted of a small lot at the junction of Russell and High 
Streets, a part of which was afterwards bought by the town, in 1866, and 
thrown into the street. This lot was once a part of the house-lot of 
Daniel Rider. The land of Benjamin Drew extended from the Bartlett 
lot to the estate now owned and occupied by the widow of Ephraim B. 
Holmes, and consisted of a half of an acre, which Sylvanus Bartlett, the 
father of Mrs. Drew, bought, with Thomas Davis, of James Warren in 
1755. Mr. Warren bought it, in 1739, of Nchemiah Ripley, who bought 
it, in 1716, of Ignatius dishing. Mr. Cushing bought it, in 1710, of 
Eleazer Rogers, who bought it, in 1699, of Richard Sears. In 1697 Mr. 
Sears bought it of Samuel Lucas, who inherited it from his father, 
Thomas Lucas. Thomas and Samuel Lucas, and Mr. Sears, and Mr, 
Rogers lived on the land, having a passage to Summer Street by Ring 
and Spring Lanes. In the division of land held in common by Messrs. 
Bartlett and Davis this lot was assigned to Mr. Bartlett The land of 
John B. Thomas extended from the Edes land, on Ring Lane, to the 
middle of the garden of Benjamin Bramhall, and came into his pos- 
session from his father, Joshua Thomas, who bought it, in 1768, of the 
heirs of James Hovey. Mr. Hovey bought it, in 1758, of Jonathan 
King, who bought it, in 1754, of Joseph King. In 1709 Joseph King 
bought it of Haviland Torrey, who bought it, in 1705, of Eleazer Ring, 
who inherited it from his father, William Ring, the original grantee. 
The land of Simeon Dike extended from the Drew land to the town lot, 
on the easterly side of the street, and from the Thomas land to the estate 
of the late Lewis Bartlett on the westerly side. This lot covered two 
acres, purchased in 1825 by Mr. Dike of LeBaron Bradford, the son of 
Sarah Bradford, who inherited it from her father, Thomas Davis. It 
was bought by Mr. Davis and Sylvanus Bartlett, in 1753, of Elizabeth, 
the wife of Joseph Pierce, and daughter of Eleazer Ring, who inherited 
it, with the Drew land, from his father, William Ring, the original 
grantee. In the division above referred to it was assigned to Mr. Davis. 
The town lot mentioned above, between the Washburn house and the 
school-house, was, until Russell Street was laid out, a part of Burial 
Hill. The remaining land on the easterly side of the street, extending 
to a point fifty feet easterly of the present westerly line of the county 
land, was owned by the first precinct, to whom it was laid out as a par- 
sonage-lot, pursuant to a vote of the town on the 9th of May, 1709. 
The original grant included an additional piece of forty feet, which was 
sold to the town by the precinct in 1819, and by the town to the county 
in 1822. The land of Mr. Russell extended from the southwesterly line 



280 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



of the estate of the late Lewis Bartlett to the easterly line of the estate 
of the late Charles Sever, his southwesterly line crossing the street diag- 
onally, and striking tho corner of the parsonage land. This lot, which, 
as originally granted by the town, in 1711, to Joshua Morse, comprised 
eight acres, was sold, in 1718, by Mr. Morse to Lazarus LeBaron, and in 
1811 by Isaac LeBaron, son of Lazarus, to his son-in-law, Nathaniel 
Russell. Its original bounds, which remained unchanged at the time 
Russell Street was first opened, ran by the Nicolson lot on the east as far 
as the field formerly belonging to Richard Holmes ; thence, as the fence 
now runs, a little north of the reservoir, across Allerton Street, to a cor- 
ner on the side hill northeast of Murdock's Pond ; and thence by a line 
southwest of the Dolphin Little house and the estate of the late Lewis 
Bartlett, to the corner of the parsonage land. The earlier history of the 
lands along the street having thus been given, the land-owners at the 
time the street was opened will be considered in the description of the 
separate lots as the sources of their title. 

The Thomas land, above mentioned, was devised by the will of John 
B. Thomas to his grandson, John T. Stoddard. That part of it on Ring 
Lane, with the two houses standing on the same, is now in the possession of 
Isaac X. Stoddard, by a purchase made in 1875 from the Plymouth Savings' 
Bank, who sold under a mortgage given by John T. Stoddard in 1868. 
One of the above houses was moved from the Edes land, where it was 
originally built by Lazarus Simms, and the other is the law office 
formerly occupied by William Thomas, on the Thomas lot on Main 
Street. The lot on the westerly corner of Russell and Edes Streets was 
sold in 1876 by Isaac N. Stoddard to Adelia, the wife of Thaxter F. 
Burgess, and is now owned and occupied by her. The next lot, on which 
the house stands owned and occupied by Martin F. Benson, was sold in 
1867 by John T. Stoddard to John C. Barnes. In 1876 Mr. Barnes sold 
it to Everett F. Sherman, who moved upon the lot the stable formerly 
occupied by Stephen Bartlett on High Street, and converted it into a 
dwelling-house, which he sold in 1877 to its present occupant. The lot 
on which the house of David 0. Harvey stands includes three lots 
described on a plan recorded in the registry. The first was sold in 1865 
by John T. Stoddard to Bartlett Ellis, who sold it in 1873 to Mr. Harvey. 
The second was sold by Mr. Stoddard in 1859 to William Williams, who 
sold it in 1872 to Mr. Harvey. The third was sold by Mr. Stoddard in 
1860 to Samuel T. Spear, who sold it in 1872 to Martin Rickanl. In 
1874 Mr. Rickard sold it to Martin W. Ripley, who sold it in 1875 to Mr. 
Hai •vey. The house standing on the lots was built by Mr. Harvey, who 
still owns and occupies it. The land between the lot of Mr. Harvey and 
Stoddard Street, extending along the southerly side of that street, is a 
part of the old Thomas land, and is owned by Mr. Isaac N. Stoddard. 
The rear lot on the northerly side of Stoddard Street was sold in 1869 by 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



281 



John T. Stoddard to Jacob Howland, who built the house which he now 
owns and occupies. Mr. Howland sold in 1879 a part of his lot to his 
son, Arthur L. Howland, who built the house on the same, which he 
now occupies. The lot on the corner of Stoddard and Russell Streets 
was sold in 1857 by Isaac N. Stoddard, guardian of John T. Stoddard, to 
Lorenzo Tribble, who built the house now standing, and sold it in 1867 
to James E. Dodge, its present occupant. The remainder of the Thomas 
land on Russell Street, consisting of a part of the garden of Benjamin 
Bramhall, was sold by Mr. Stoddard to Mr. Bramhall to enlarge his lot 
hereafter described. 

Returning to the Drew land on the easterly side of Russell Street, the 
first act of Mr. Drew, after Russell Street was opened, was to lay out 
Bartlett Place and name it in honor of his father-in-law, Sylvanus Bart- 
lett, from whom his wife inherited the land. In 1838 he sold the corner 
lot to Daniel Rider, who added it to his High Street estate. The next 
lot he sold to Andrew Bartlett, the owner of the adjoining land on High 
Street. The next lot, on the southerly side of the place, he sold in 1843 
to John S. Lucas, who built the house now standing, and sold it in 1849 
to Robert Brown. The adjoining lot he sold in 1848 to his son Benjamin, 
who sold it in 1850 to Robert Brown to enlarge his estate. The lot at 
the head of Bartlett Place, on the northerly side, was sold in 1841 by Mr. 
Drew to William Churchill, who built the house he now occupies. The 
next lot was sold in 1841 by Mr. Drew to Ephraim Bartlett, who built 
and occupied the house now standing until his death, and whose widow 
sold it in 1874 to Horace Porter Bailey, its present occupant. The 
estate on the upper corner of Bartlett Place and Russell Street was sold 
by Mr. Drew to Oliver T. Wood in 1838, who built the house now stand- 
ing, and sold it in 1846 to Ephraim B. Holmes, to whose estate it now 
belongs. 

Coming now to the Dike land, the lot next to the above, on which the 
house stands owned and occupied by the widow of Ephraim B. Holmes, 
was sold in 1833 by Mr. Dike to Oliver T. Wood, who sold it in 1846 to 
Ephraim B. Holmes, who built the house now standing. The two next 
lots were also sold by Mr. Dike in 1833 to Mr. Wood, the first of which 
was sold by him by two deeds, oue in 1844 and one in 1845, to his 
brother, Isaac L. Wood, who built the house which he still occupies. 
The other was sold by Mr. Wood in 1835 to John Washburn, who built 
the house now standing. In 1865 it was sold by his widow, Nancy 
Washburn, to Edward Baker, who sold it in 1871 to Joseph Nickerson, 
the pastor of the Universalist church. In 1875 Mr. Nickerson sold it to 
his brother, Alpheus S. Nickerson, who sold it in the same year to Ansel 
R. Churchill, its present occupant. That part of the Dike land on the 
westerly side of the street was sold by Mr. Dike in 1833 to William 
Atwood and Charles Churchill. The first lot, on which the house stands 



282 



PLYMOUTH COLONT. 



owned and occupied by Benjamin Bramhall, was sold by Messrs. Atwood 
and Churchill in 1835 to James Bradford. In 1837 Eleanor Bradford, 
the widow of James, sold it to William Nelson and John Battles, who 
sold it in 1840 to Mr. Bramhall, who built the house now occupied by 
his widow. The remainder of the land was divided between Mr. Atwood 
and Mr. Churchill, the former building the house he still occupies, and 
Mr. Charles O. Churchill, son of Charles, building that which he now 
owns and occupies. 

Coming now to the Russell land, the lot on the southerly corner of 
Allcrton Street, was sold by Nathaniel Russell, in 1836, to Lewis Bartlett, 
who built the house now standing, and whose widow and family stiU 
occupy it. Allerton Street was opened by Mr. Russell as far as his land 
extended, and in 1842 he sold to Nathaniel C. Lanman the two lots in 
the rear of that of Lewis Bartlett. On the first lot Mr. Lanman built 
a shoe-shop, which he sold in 1870 to Charles O. Churchill, who con- 
verted it into a dwelling-house now owned by him. On the other lot he 
built the house now standing, which he still occupies. The lot occupied 
by the reservoir was sold by Nathaniel Russell to the town in 1855. 
The lot south of the reservoir, on which the Battles house stands, was 
sold after the death of Mr. Russell, by his sons Nathaniel, Andrew, and 
LeBaron, in 1856, to Timothy E. Gay, who built the house now standing, 
and sold one-half in the next year, and the other half, in 1865, to John 
Battles, whose widow now occupies it. The lot on the northerly corner 
of Allerton Street was sold, in 1852, by Nathaniel Russell to Samuel 
Gardner, who built the house now standing, and sold it, in 1859. to Elliott 
Russell. Mr. Russell occupied it until 1873, when he sold it to William 
H. Nelson and others, trustees. The next lot was sold by Nathaniel 
Russell, in 1845, to Putnam Kimball, who built the house now standing, 
and sold it, in 1870, to Bradford L. Battles, its present occupant. The 
next lot was sold by Mr. Russell, in 1845, to Nathaniel C. Lanman, who 
sold it in the same year to Edmund Robbins. In the same year Mr. 
Robbins sold it to Theodore W. Snow, the pastor of Christ Church, 
during whose possession that church was built, and by whom it was con- 
veyed to the church in 1847. The next lot on the corner of Sever Place 
was sold, in 1865, by Nathaniel and Andrew L. Russell to William 
Churchill, who sold it, in 1866, to William S. Danforth. In the same year 
Mr. Danforth sold it to James Bates, whose heirs sold it, in 1877, to 
Samuel T. Rider, by whom the house now standing was built, and is 
now occupied. The land on Sever Place, next south of the reservoir, 
was sold, in 1850, by Mr. Russell to George Simmons, who built the 
house now standing, and after many years 1 occupancy sold it, in 1877, to 
Robert E. Bramhall. its present occupant. The lot on which the Sever 
house stands was sold, in 1832, by Mr. Russell to the late Charles Sever, 
who built the house now standing, and whose heirs still occupy it 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



283 



The parsonage land, above described as extending ac the time Russell 
Street was opened to a point fifty feet easterly of the westerly line of the 
county land, was bounded on the south by Burial Hill. In 1837, by a 
vote of the first precinct, it was placed in the hands of the trustees 
of the Fuller Ministerial Fund, who, after opening South Russell Street 
through the land, divided it into lots, which were all sold in 1839. The 
two front lots on which the school-house stands, and the two rear lots 
now used as a playground, were sold to Andrew L. Russell and Edmund 
Robbins, who sold them, in 1840, to the town. The next front and rear 
lots were sold to Ephraim Bartlett who sold them in the next year to 
William B. Barnes. Mr. Barnes built the two houses now standing, and 
sold that on South Russell Street, in 1844, to Orin Bos worth, and that on 
Russell Street, in 1845, to John Battles. In 1849 Mr. Bos worth sold his 
house and lot to William Thomas, and in 1870 John Battles, Jr., and 
Betsey C. Barnes, wife of James Barnes, children of John Battles above 
mentioned, sold the other to Daniel E. Damon, its present occupant. 
The next front and rear lots were sold to John Gooding, and afterwards 
came into the possession of his son, Benjamin B. Gooding, who built the 
house on Russell Street, which he at present occupies. The rear lot was 
sold, in 1871, by Mr. Gooding to Anselm D. Robinson, who conveyed it, 
in 1872, to Mary Ann G. Stranger. The next front and rear lots were 
sold to James G. Gleason and John T. Hall. Mr. Hall sold his interest, 
in 1840, to Mr. Gleason, who built the house now standing. In 1846 
Mr. Gleason gave a deed of mortgage of both lots to the Old Colony 
Bank, who sold the front lot under their mortgage, in 1847, to Henry 
Carter, who sold it, in 1848, to Thomas L. Franklin, the pastor of Christ 
Church. In 1849 Mr. Franklin sold it to James Barnes, whose heirs sold 
it, in 1866, to John J. Russell, by whom, in the same year, it was sold to 
the county, to whom it now belongs. The rear lot was sold by the bank, 
in 1849, to Joshua Pratt, whose executors sold it, in 1870, to his daughter, 
Mrs. Stranger, above mentioned. The next front and rear lots were sold 
to the county, the former being included in the yard of the House of Cor- 
rection, and the latter occupied by a barn next to the old Standish 
estate. 

The remaining estates on the south side of South Russell Street were, 
until a modern date, a part of Burial Hill, and were granted to individuals 
at various times. The Standish estate was sold by the town in 1812 to 
Joseph Bartlett, who sold it, in 1827, to Susanna Standish, the mother of 
Joshua Standish, who built a house and blacksmith-shop on the land, 
which he occupied until his death. In 1867 it was sold under a mortgage 
from Joshua Standish, Jr., to Timothy Gordon, and bought by Charles 
G. Davis, its present owner. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and partly occupied 
by Bartlett Ellis, consists of two town lots, of which the westerly one 



284 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



was sold, in 1799, to Thomas Matthews, and the other, in 1812, to Joseph 
Bartlett. Mr. Matthews owned a house on the corner of Court Street 
and the square, where the Russell House now stands, which he occupied 
as a tavern. The tavern stable stood on the lot in question, and when 
Joseph Bartlett bought, in 1808, the Court Street estate, on which he 
built the brick house now standing, he also bought this lot. In 1842 the 
heirs of Mr. Bartlett sold the two lots to Nathaniel C. Lanman, who sold 
the whole, in 185-i, to Bartlett Ellis, the present owner, by whom the 
barn was converted into the dwelling-house now standing. 

The next lot on the corner of School Street also consists of two town 
lots, one of which was sold, in 1799, to Josiah Cotton, and the other, in 
1819, to Zacheus Kempton. Mr. Cotton built the corner house, and his 
widow sold the lot to Joseph Bartlett, who sold it, in 1825, to Mr. 
Kempton, the owner of the other lot. In 1828 Mr. Kempton sold the 
whole to Bartlett Ellis, who built the house on the westerly part of the 
lot, next to his own residence. 

The strip of land on the south side of Court Square now covered by 
the street was, previous to 1857, occupied by two houses, one on the 
corner of Court Street, with a shop standing in its yard, owned by the 
heirs of Joseph Bartlett, and the other on the corner of School Street, 
owned and occupied by Nathaniel C. Lanman. In 1857 these lots, up to 
the present line of the street, were bought by the town, and, together 
with other rights of the town in the square, conveyed to the county, 
subject to its use and control so long as the county buildings should 
occupy their present location. The Lanman lot was a part of the Court 
Street estate, already described, up to the time of its possession by 
Samuel Jackson in 1775. Mr. Jackson built the house formerly standing 
on the lot, which was bought, in 1857, by Charles G. Davis, and now 
stands on his lot in Lothrop Street. In 1782 Mr. Jackson sold the west- 
erly part to Peter Hoiaies, who sold it, in 1793, to James Doten. In 
1809 Josiah Torrey, guardian of Susanna, daughter of James Doten, 
sold it to Joseph Bartlett, who sold it, in 1817, to Nathaniel C. Lanman. 
The easterly part was sold by Mr. Jackson, in 1782, to Thomas Coving- 
ton, who sold it, in 1790, to Rowland Cobb. In 1792 Mr. Cobb sold it to 
Enoch Randall, who sold it, in 1799, to Joseph Barnes. In 1844 Eliza- 
beth Barnes, the widow of Joseph, sold it to Nathaniel C. Lanman, who 
sold the front part of the lot, with the house, in 1857, to the town. Mr. 
Lanman afterwards built the house now standing, chiefly on land in the 
rear of the original lot, which he had purchased, in 1835, of Bethiah 
Dyer and other owners of the estate now on the corner. In 18G8 the 
heirs of Mr. Lanman sold the estate to John C. Barnes, its present 
occupant. 

The land on which the county buildings stand, exclusive of forty feet 
sold by the precinct in 1819 to the town, by whom it was sold, in 1822, 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



285 



to the county, and fifty feet sold by the trustees of the 7 Fuller Ministerial 
Fund to the county in 1839. both of which parcels have already been 
referred to, was granted by the town to Ephraim Little, in 1698. In 
1709 Mr. Little, in exchange for eight acres of land in Middleboro', con- 
veyed it to the town for the use of the ministry of the town forever. In 
the deed of conveyance Mr. Little, who was at that time the minister of 
Plymouth, called the lot his " valley lot, nigh the pound, at the head of 
the great gutter." In the deed of the town to Mr. Little it is described 
as situated above the pound, so that it may be assumed that the pound 
of that early period stood in what is now Court Square. In 1773 the lot 
was sold by the precinct to the county, and a jail, with a keeper's house, 
was built on the land, to take the place of the old prison and prison- 
house on Summer Street. In 1785 the town sold to the county fifteen 
feet in front of the above lot, and the land conveyed was described in the 
deed as extending two feet easterly of the platform of the old well. A 
fracture in the water-pipe a few years since over the sunken filling of 
this well fixed its location under the sidewalk on Russell Street, abreast 
of the fourth post from the easterly end of the entrance to the square. 
Two feet east of the well-platform carries the county land about as far 
east as the curbing across the inclosure, and the knowledge of this 
boundary may at some future time become important, in view of the 
conditional grant of the square to the county by the town. In 1819 the 
present stone jail was built, at a cost of eleven thousand five hundred 
dollars, and the present keeper's house, at a cost of about two thousand 
dollars. In 1820, after the old jail had been taken down, and the keeper's 
house had been moved to Market Street and converted into the building 
now occupied by John E. Luscomb, a court-house was built, at a cost of 
twelve thousand dollars, and occupied in the spring of 1821. In 1852 
the present house of correction was erected, at a cost of sixteen thou- 
sand five hundred dollars, and in 1857 the court-house was altered and 
enlarged, at a cost of twenty-four thousand dollars. The latter building 
is justly appreciated as an ornament to the town and an honor to the 
county. In 1881 it was partially burned, and restored at a cost of about 
eight thousand dollars. 

The Nicolson estate on the north side of Court Square, now a part of 
the Russell land, was long a distinctive and interesting feature of Ply- 
mouth. It was granted by the town in 1711 to Ignatius Cushing, and 
extended from the yard of the Russell house to the Sever estate, running 
north as far as the Holmes field. In 1718 Mr. Cushing sold it to Ebenezer 
Curtis, who sold it in 1719 to Rev. Ephraim Little. In 1724 Sarah Little, 
widow of Mr. Little, sold it to Josiah Sturtevant, who sold it in 1734 to 
David Turner. Mr. Turner built the house remembered by most readers, 
and sold it in 1744 with the front land to James Nicolson, who made it 
his residence until his death. 



286 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



In 1772, after the paternal estate had come into the possession of 
Thomas Nicolson, son of James, he bought of David Turner the original 
lot. After that time the estate remained intact until it was sold by 
Samuel Nicolson in 1853 to Mary Rowland Russell, who took down the 
house and added the land to the Russell estate, of which she had become 
possessed at the death of her father in the previous year. After the 
death of Captain Nicolson his widow fitted the house for a hotel, for 
which, with its pleasant situation, numerous rooms, ample garden, and 
spacious stable and sheds, it was for the period well adapted. As matron 
of the establishment, Mrs. Nicolson, by her dignity, courtesy, business 
tact, and excellent table, made it a favorite resort for travellers and per- 
manent boarders. Among the latter, within the memory of the writer, 
were Samuel Davis, Gustavus Gilbert, in the first years of his law prac- 
tice, Ebenezer G. Parker, the first cashier of the Old Colony Bank, Isaac 
N. Stoddard, teacher of the High School, Eliab Ward, a student-at-law, 
and Hiram Fuller, teacher of a private school, who was afterwards one 
of the editors of the New York Mirror. It was also the resort of mem- 
bers of the bar during the various terms of court, and is associated with 
the memory of distinguished men of earlier times. Within its social 
walls were gathered on such occasions, at different periods, Abraliam 
Holmes, Charles J. Holmes, Ebenezer Gay, Austin Packard, William 
Baylies, Wilkes Wood, Timothy Coffin, Zechariah Eiidy, Welcome 
Young, Nimphas Mars ton, Kilburn Whitman. Nahum Mitchell, and not 
unfrequently James T. Austin, Franklin Dexter, and Rufus Choate. 
Mrs. Nicolson, somewhat advanced in years, abandoned her establish- 
ment in 1836 and moved to Boston, where she spent the remainder of her 
life with her children, and died in 18-14 at the age of seventy-six. She 
was succeeded by Zaben Olney and William Randall in the management 
of the hotel, and after a short occupancy by Moses Bates and Theodore 
Drew as a private residence it was sold to Miss Russell in 1853, and soon 
after taken down. 

School Street. — At what date School Street was opened the writer 
finds nothing on the records enabling him to determine. The only 
reference bearing on it is at the date of 1799, when, by a vote of the town, 
it was widened at the northerly end, between the alley and the square 
by taking a strip from abutters on the easterly side. It was probably 
a way thrown out by owners of land on Main and Court Streets to reach 
the stables in the rear of their lots, which gradually by consent of owners 
became a town way. Burial Hill came down to this way, as it should 
do to-day, and as it is hoped it will do again at some future time, carry- 
ing its slope to the street in conformity with the engine-house lot recently 
graded and fenced by the town. In the hour of adversity, however, the 
town saw fit to dispose of lots along the base of the hill, and replenish its 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



287 



treasury at the expense of a permanent blemish and disfigurement in the 
centre of the village. The first lot, in the rear of the house at the corner 
of South Russell Street, was sold by the town in 1810 to Benjamin Holmes, 
who built the house now standing on the front of the lot, and after many 
years' occupancy sold it in 1831 to Nathaniel C. Lanman. In 1871 the 
heirs of Mr. Lanman sold it to Isaac Lanman, who conveyed it in the 
same year to Mary Ann Hardy, its present occupant. The rear of the 
lot was built upon by Leonard Snow, who married a daughter of Mr. 
Holmes, and it is now occupied by his heirs. 

The next lot was sold by the town in 1793 to William Goodwin, whose 
heirs sold it in 1825 to Roland E. Cotton. Mr. Cotton sold it in 1846 to 
Nathaniel C. Lanman, whose heirs sold it in 1878 to Thomas B. Bartlett, 
its present owner. The next lot was sold by the town to Mr. Lanman in 
1830, who built the house now standing, and whose heirs sold it in 1875 
to Thomas Atwood, its present occupant. The next lot was sold by the 
town in 1787 to Ebenezer Luce, whose grandson, Maltiah Howard, sold 
it to Isaac N. Stoddard. In 1869 Mr. Stoddard sold it to John C. Barnes, 
who built a barn on the lot, and afterwards converted it into the dwelling- 
house on the lot which he now owns. The next lot, on the corner of the 
way leading up to the Burial Hill, was granted by the town in 1798 to 
Joshua Thomas, who built the building on the lot for a barn, and some 
ol whose heirs still own it. 

The lot on which the school-house stands is made up of two lots, a 
part of which has been thrown out into the passage-way up the hill. 
The northerly lot was sold by the town to James Warren, who sold it in 
1766 to Abiel Shurtleff. In 1790 Timothy Goodwin, administrator of 
Abiel Shurtleff, sold it to James Thacher, who sold it in 1791 to William 
Goodwin, who bought the southerly lot of the town in 1799. In 1826 the 
heirs of William Goodwin sold it to the town, and the present school- 
house was erected. The next lot was sold by the town in 1790 to James 
Doten, who sold it in 1796 to Nathaniel Goodwin, who built a barn on 
the lot. In 1820 the heirs of General Goodwin sold it to John B. Bates, 
who sold it in 1821 to Richard Holmes. In 1827 Mr. Holmes sold it to 
Joseph White, who sold it in 1846 to Alden White. In 1846 Mr. White 
sold it to Amasa Holmes, who sold it in 1851 to William B. Tribble, who 
has sold it in the present year to Z. F. Leach. 

The next lot was sold by the town in 1790 to James Doten, who sold 
it in 1796 to General Goodwin to enlarge his barn lot. In 1805 General 
Goodwin sold it to Rossiter Cotton, who sold it in 1817 to Joseph Avery 
In 1822 Mr. Avery sold it to Samuel Talbot and John Calderwood 
Holmes, who were at that time partners as bakers, and used the stable 
in connection with their business. Shortly after George Chnrchill 
became associated with Mr. Talbot in the place of Mr. Holmes, and in 
1853 Talbot and Churchill sold it to Everett F. Sherman and Asa A. 



288 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Whiting. In 1854 Messrs. Sherman and Whiting sold it to Josiah D. 
Baxter, whose son, after his death, sold it to George A. Whiting, who 
has sold it in the present year to Z. F. Leach. 

The next lot, on which the stable of Harlow and Bailey stands, is 
made up of two lots, one granted to James Shurtleff in 1740, and the 
other to Consider Rowland in 173G. Mr. Howland sold his lot, in 1740, to 
Isaac Lothrop, whose son sold it, in 1790, to Thomas and William Jackson. 
Mr. Shurtleff sold his lot, in 1743, to Thomas Foster, who sold it, in 
1766, to Abiel Shurtleff. In the same year Mr. Shurtleff sold it to David 
Diman, who sold it, in 1771, to Barnabas Hedge. Mr. Hedge sold it, in 
1787, to Thomas and William Jackson, who thus became the owners of 
botli lots. In 1863 and 1864 they were sold by Sarah W. Bartlett and 
Leavitt T. Jackson to Harlow and Barnes, and in 1869 Mr. Barnes sold 
his interest to H. P. Baily, making him and Samuel Harlow the owners 
of the estate. 

The next lot, on which the Reed barn stands, now a part of the stable 
of Z. F. Leach, was sold by the town, in 1736, to Consider Howland. It 
was afterwards sold to Edward Winslow, who sold it, in 1759, to Abiel 
Shurtleff. In 1766 Mr. Shurtleff sold it to John Russell, whose widow, 
Mercy Russell, sold it, in 1782, to Andrew Croswell, whose widow sold 
it, in 1797, to Nathaniel Russell, who enlarged the lot by a grant of an 
additional strip of land in 1799. In 1800 Mr. Russell sold it to Nathan 
Reed, who built a barn on the lot, which was burned about 1835. In 
1843, after the erection of a new barn, it was sold by Rebecca Reed, 
widow of Nathan, to Caleb Rider, the owner of the adjoining estate. 
The next lot, extending to a point about fifty feet north of the old engine- 
house lot, was sold by the town, in 1798, to William Davis, who built 
the main stable now occupied by Mr. Leach. In 1833 Thomas Davis, 
son of William, sold it to Caleb Rider, who afterwards became the owner 
of the last-mentioned lot. The next lot, on which a portion of the stable 
shed stands, was granted, in 1722, by the town to Lazarus LeBaron, who 
sold it to Thomas Witherell. In 1819 Joseph Bartlett and Anna M. 
Bartlett, the last of whom received it by bequest from Harriet Witherell, 
to whom it was set off in the division of her father's estate, sold it to 
William Davis, to enlarge his lot, and it was sold, in 1833, by Thomas 
Davis, above mentioned, to Caleb Rider, who thus became the owner of 
the three lots. In 1866 Rosamond D. Rider, widow of Caleb Rider, sold 
the lots, with the stable buildings, to John D. Churchill, who sold them, 
in 1872, to Everett F. Sherman. In 1877 Mr. Sherman sold them to 
James E. Dodge and Martin Rickard, who sold them, in 1881, to Mary 

E. Robinson, by whom they have been sold, in the present year, to Z. 

F. Leach. The next and last lot on School Street, originally a part of 
the estate of John Alden, but surrendered by him when he became a 
non-resident, has always been held by the town since 1627, and was 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



289 



always a vacant lot until 1765, when the school-house, a few years since 
converted into an engine-house, and recently taken down, was built. 
The lot west of the Alden lot, and now a part of Burial Hill, was, in the 
early days of the colony, owned and occupied by William Holmes, who, 
next to Miles Standish, was the chief military personage in the settle- 
ment. In 1638 he sold it to Nathaniel Souther, who probably, on bis 
removal to Boston in 1649, surrendered it to the colony. Holmes, in his 
deed, describes it as " that house and garden place on the north side of 
the High Street, between the lands of Mr. John Alden and the fort." It 
is probable, as elsewhere stated, that Standish occupied above Holmes, 
nearer the fort. 

Water Street. — Water Street, the only street on the north side of 
the brook remaining to be described, was doubtless opened soon after 
North Street, to connect that street with Leyden Street. It was formally 
laid out in 1716, thirty feet wide, and its courses given from North 
Street to the foot of Leyden Street. In 1734 the lots on the westerly side 
of the street, between North Street and the way leading to Middle Street, 
extending to the top of Cole's Hill, were sold by the town to various 
persons, and all of them have been recently sold to the Pilgrim Society. 

The next estate, together with the land at the head of the dock, on 
the opposite side of the street, was sold by the town in 1736 to Joshua 
Drew, a ship-carpenter by trade. It was occupied by workshops in con- 
nection with the building-yard at the head of the dock. In 1774 Mr. 
Drew sold the yard and shops to Nicholas Drew, who sold them in 1755 
to Sylvanus Bartlett. In 1805 Mr. Bartlett sold them to Benjamin Brarn- 
hall, who erected the building now standing on the lot. For many 
years, during its ownership by Mr. Bramhall, Charles Bramhall occupied 
the north store, and the southerly one was occupied by various tenants, 
among whom was Solomon Sylvester, now living. In 1842 Mr. Bram- 
hall sold the north half to George Bramhall, whose son, George W. 
Bramhall, now owns it; and in 1849 he sold the south half to Ellis 
B. Bramhall. In 1852 the trustees of Ellis sold his half to Rufus 
Churchill, who occupied it for a time, and from whom it passed in 1871 
to the Plymouth National Bank, its present owner. The next small lot, 
on which the old building stands recently occupied by Alexander 
Robbins, and now owned by his heirs, was a part of the Drew estate, 
and was for many years owned by Ephraim Harlow, and occupied by 
him as a hatter's shop. The next lot, on which a double store stands, 
was also a part of the land granted to Joshua Drew, and sold by him to 
James Hovey, who sold it in 1747 to Ezra Allen. In 1781 Mary Allen, 
widow of Ezra, sold it to Thomas and William Davis, who sold it in 
1824 to Ichabod Davie and Thomas Paty. Messrs. Davie and Paty also 
bought of William Holmes in 1827 a piece of land adjoining it on the 



290 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



south, and built the store now standing. In 1838 Mr. Davie sold his 
part to Corban Barnes, who afterwards bought the remainder, and 
finally sold the whole to J. R. Atwood, its present owner. The next lot, 
on which the blacksmith-shop stands, was sold by the town to George 
Watson, and was a part of the lot on which his distil house stood. It 
was sold by his heirs to John Tribble, who built a paint-shop on the 
land, which he occupied many years, and which is now owned by the 
heirs of Ephraim Holmes. The next lot, on which the storehouse of 
Winslow B. Standish stands, was at an early date in the possession of 
William Witherill, who sold it to John Watson in 1745. At the death 
of Mr. Watson it came into the possession of his son George, who added 
to it the lot last mentioned. It was sold in 1827 by the heirs of George 
Watson to William Holmes, the owner of the adjoining lot, whose heirs 
sold it in 1838 to Otis Churchill. Mr. Churchill sold it in 1838, with the 
store now standing, to Hannah Sampson, who sold in 1839 to Charles 
and Thomas May. In 18-11 the Messrs. May sold it to John Nickerson, 
who sold it in 1859 to Phineas Wells. In 1860 Mr. Wells sold it to 
Elkanah C. Finney, whose heirs sold it in 1873 to Mr. Standish. The 
next lot, now vacant, was sold by the town to Richard and William 
Holmes, who built the house which was taken down a few years since. 

The next lot, on which the Drew house stands, was sold by the town 
in 1734 to John Murdock, who sold it in 1741 to Matthew Lemote. Mr. 
Lemote built the house now standing, and in 1771 it was sold by his son 
George to Thomas Davis, whose son Samuel sold it in 179G to John 
Burbank. In 1.797 Mr. Burbank sold it to Noah Gale, who sold it in 
1803 to Atwood Drew, who occupied the house until his death, and 
whose heirs still own it. The next lot, on which the Bagnall house 
stands, was owned prior to 1724 by Joseph Turell, who sold it in that 
year to John Watson. In 1740 Mr. Watson sold it to Matthew Lemote, 
who sold it in 1740 to Ephraim Churchill. Mr. Churchill sold it to 
Thomas Davis, the owner of the adjoining house and lot, and it was sold 
in 1790 by John Davis, son of Thomas, to Seth Churchill, who built the 
house now standing. In 1822 Stephen Ellis, who had come into its 
possession from Mr. Churchill, sold it to Benjamin Bagnall, whose heirs 
still own it. 

The lot at the junction of Leyden and Water Streets, called the Shaw 
lot, was, as far back as the records reach, owned by William Bradford, 
son of Governor Bradford, who sold it in 1697 to John Murdock. In 
1698 Mr. Murdock sold it to Nathaniel Thomas, whose grandson, John 
Thomas, sold it in 1769 to Ichabod Shaw, who erected the building now 
standing on the lot, which included a blacksmith-shop, which he occupied. 
At the death of Mr. Shaw it was owned and occupied by his son. South- 
worth Shaw, and more recently by Ichabod Shaw, the son of Southworth, 
whose heirs now own it. The next lot, on which the building stands 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



291 



which formerly contained a blockmaker's shop on the lower floor, and 
Turner's Hall, so called, in the second story, was sold by the town to 
Thomas Davis, and in 1791 by his son Wendell to Loth rop Turner, since 
which time it has remained in the Turner family. So many changes 
were made in the lots in this part of Water Street at the time of its 
extension across the brook, about the year 1760, that their detailed 
description would be difficult and uninteresting. In 1716, when Water 
Street was originally laid out, the ford across the brook was approached 
by a way west of the Turner house, between that and the old Drew 
house, which many readers will remember as directly in the rear of the 
barn owned by E. and J. C. Barnes. The writer is aware that of late 
years it has been the opinion of those who have given the subject their 
attention that the way referred to was on the west side of the Drew 
house, between that and the range of houses now standing extending 
southerly from Leyden Street. The records, however, distinctly state 
that it crossed the brook between the lands of Ephraim Kempton and 
Timothy Morton, and a careful examination of titles fixes the Morton 
land in the rear of the Turner lot, and the Kempton land as that on 
which the old Drew house stood. It is probable that the error arose 
from the fact that there was a way on the west side of the Drew estate 
leading to a wharf from which a swing-bridge for foot passengers led 
across the stream. 

Wit arves. — The date of the construction of the early wharves it is 
difficult to determine. They were doubtless either mere bulkheads, 
like those at the heads of the present docks, or so insignificant in pro- 
portions as to have been either gradually enlarged or abandoned 
altogether. The earliest reference in the records to a wharf is under 
date of 1637, when Stephen Hopkins conveyed his house and land " lying 
and being at the broken wharf towards the Eeele River." This structure, 
however, to have become so soon dilapidated, must have been unsub- 
stantial in its construction, and probably adapted to the use of fishing- 
boats alone. In 1695 John Rickard had permission to build a wharf 
near his warehouse, which stood at the foot of Leyden Street. This 
wharf probably stood between Robbins and Barnes 1 wharves, and will 
be remembered by the oldest readers under the name of Burbank's 
wharf. It was what would now be called a pier rather than a wharf, ten 
or twelve feet wide and thirty or forty feet long, and was taken away 
not more than sixty years since. There were others of these small 
wharves, large enough for the wants of the times, built about the year 
1706, by James Warren, Abiel Shurtleff, and others, but the present 
structures had a more recent origin. 

Jackson's wharf was built about 1750 by Thomas Jackson and Thomas 
Foster. In 1765 Mr. Foster gave a deed of his half of the wharf to 



292 PLYMOUTH COLONY. 

Thomas Hubbard, then treasurer of Harvard College. In 1774, after the 
death of Mr. Hubbard, it was found that the deed ran to him individually, 
and his executor conveyed it to the college. In the same year it was 
sold by the college to Thomas Jackson, in whose family it has always 
remained, and whose name it still bears. The dock adjoining the wharf, 
called Tribble's dock, derived its name from Joseph Tribble, who 
married a daughter of Thomas Jackson, and lived at one time on the 
site of the counting-room of George H. Jackson. 

The upper part of Long Wharf was built by J. Murdock, who obtained 
permission from the town in 1732. In 1746 he sold it to Isaac Lothrop. 
It was afterwards owned by Thomas Davis, and finally by Thomas and 
William Jackson, who held it at the time the steamboat company was 
formed in 1829. In that year it was bought by the company at a cost 
of five thousand dollars, and the extension of one thousand feet of timber 
and planks built at a cost of three thousand dollars. The steamboat 
Lafayette was bought at a cost of four thousand dollars, and run as a 
regular packet to Boston, with Truman C. Holmes as captain, and Seth 
Morton as steward. After running two years with poor success she was 
laid up in Tribble's dock, where, after her machinery was removed, she 
died a lingering death. 

Hedge's wharf, now owned by Weston and Harlow, was built by Isaac 
Lothrop about the year 1749, and remained in the possession of the 
Lothrop family, and of Barnabas Hedge, its representative by inheritance, 
until 1850, when it was sold by George Warren and his wife Elizabeth, 
daughter of Mr. Hedge, to George Simmons. In 1853 and 1859, by two 
deeds, Mr. Simmons sold it to Andrew L. Russell, who sold it in the 
same year to Hammatt Billings, with the condition that the rock should 
never be removed, and that the land above the dock should never be 
occupied by any structure not connected with a monument to the Pilgrims 
Under a mortgage given to Mr. Russell by Mr. Billings, Hannah W. 
Russell, widow of Mr. Russell, sold, in 1866, to the Pilgrim Society all 
the land above the face of the bulkhead on each side of the wharf, 
reserving a way to the wharf on either side, but not within fourteen feet 
of the monument. Mrs. Russell afterwards sold the wharf below the 
bulkheads to William H. Nelson, who sold it to its present owners. 
Within the memory of the writer this wharf has many times borne its 
burden of merchandise from all parts of the world. He has seen it 
covered with oil from the Pacific, discharged from the Mayflower, 
Arbella, Triton, and Fortune; with molasses from the West Indies, 
unladen from the brig Hannah; and with cargoes of bar iron from 
Rotterdam and Antwerp, discharged from the Cyclops and Ganges. 
Here, too, in the palmy days of packets, the Splendid, George Simmons, 
master, and the Eagle, Richard Pope, had their regular berths, and flew 
their flags of arrival and departure. With twenty-one stores on Water 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



293 



Street in full operation, and every wharf active, Hedge's wharf was 
by no means the least attractive to the afternoon lounger on a pleasant 
day. 

Davis wharf, as nearly as can be ascertained, was built by David 
Turner. It was sold by Mr. Turner to Thomas Jackson, whose heirs sold 
it at various times to Thomas and William Davis, and at the death of the 
latter, in 1826, he owned the whole, In 1845 Thomas Davi3 and others, 
heirs of William, sold it to Nathaniel Russell and Nathaniel Russell, Jr., 
whose heirs now own it. At this wharf the Polly, Joseph Cooper, 
master, and the Argo, Sylvanus Churchill, had their berths, and per- 
formed their share of the packet business between Plymouth and Boston. 

Nelson's wharf is probably the oldest of the present wharves, having 
been built in 1706 by Nathaniel Warren, and, according to tradition, of 
timber cut on the beach. In that year Mr. Warren sold one-half to John 
Watson, and in 1716 Mr. Watson and James Warren, son of Nathaniel, 
sold the whole to Job Cusliman. In 1724 Mr. Cushman sold it to Robert 
Brown, who sold it in 1756 to Edward Gray. In 1762 Mr. Gray sold it 
to George Watson and Nathaniel Goodwin, who sold one-quarter to 
William Nelson, and three-quarters to Joseph Bartlett. The Nelson 
share is now owned by the representatives of William Nelson and of 
Jesse Harlow, who married his sister. The remaining part was sold by 
Joseph Bartlett to William Davis, who sold it to Isaac Barnes, whose 
heirs sold it in 1839 to their co-heir, Isaac Barnes, Jr. In 1847 Mr. 
Barnes sold it to Benjamin Hathaway, who sold it in the next year to 
Nathaniel Russell and Nathaniel Russell, Jr. In 1857 one-half of the 
Russell interest was sold to George Simmons, who sold it to LeBaron 
Russell, its present owner. 

Carver's wharf was built by Thomas Davis, who obtained permission 
of the town in 1756. It was held in the Davis family until 1820, when 
William Davis, son of Thomas, sold three-quarters to Joseph Bartlett 
and Nathaniel Carver. The Bartlett interest was sold under an execu- 
tion in 1820 to Ichabod Davie and Thomas Paty by Pickman, Lander, 
and Rogers, and was owned, together with the interest of Mr. Davis, by 
the heirs of George Harlow, Howland Davis, and others, until 1881, when 
it was sold to N. E. Harlow. At this wharf Mr. Davis and Mr. Carver 
carried on an extensive trade, and in later times the packet Atlanta, 
commanded at various times by Truman C. Holmes and Samuel II. 
Doten, and the Hector, commanded by Samuel Briggs, Bradford Barnes, 
E. W. Bradford, and John D. Churchill, made it their stopping-place. 
Here, too, the first steamboat in Plymouth waters lay in 1818, and 
remained several days engaged in pleasure and fishing excursions. The 
steamboat Eagle, commanded by Lemuel Clark, father of the late Captain 
William Clark, after a passage of eight hours from Boston, came into 
the harbor, as great a curiosity to the people as the Great Eastern would 



294 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



be to-day anchored in broad channel. Only the year before, the steam- 
boat Massachusetts, built in Philadelphia, arrived in Boston, the first 
vessel propelled by steam seen in Massachusetts waters. She was owned 
by Joseph and John H. Andrews, William Fettyplace, Stephen White, 
Andrew Watkins, and Andrew Ball, and intended to run between Salem 
and Boston. After a few unsuccessful trips she was sent to Charleston 
and lost on the passage. 

Barnes 1 wharf, it is believed, was built by Benjamin Barnes, the grand- 
father of Benjamin Barnes now living, and as far as the writer knows 
has been always owned by the Barnes family until recently sold to 
Nathaniel E. Harlow. The packet Harriet, Samuel D. Holmes, master, 
will be remembered in connection with this wharf, always bright and 
clean and attractive to passengers. 

Robbins' wharf was probably built by Thomas Davis in connection 
with land sold to him by the town about 1760. It was sold by his heirs 
in 1809 to Samuel and Josiah Robbins, the latter of whom, in 1839, 
bought of his co-heirs the share of his father, and became, as he con- 
tinued until within a few years, the owner of the whole. Older readers 
will recall at this wharf the packets Sally Curtis, Samuel Robbins, 
master, and Betsey, Isaac Robbins, master. There were other packets 
in the early part of this century whose berths are unknown to the writer. 
The Belns, Captain Thomas Atwood, the Falcon, Samuel Briggs, the 
Coral, John Battles, and the old black Comet, will be remembered by 
many. The days of packets, like those of stage-coaches, have passed 
away, but for those whose boyhood was passed near the sea there is a 
pleasure in recalling the busy scenes which always attended their arrival 
and departure. 

AVater Street, South of the Bridge. — The ancient way over the 
brook, at the foot of Leyden Street, as already stated, entered between 
the Turner house and the barn of E. and J. C. Barnes, crossing by a ford 
at low-water to the beach on the south side, along which it ran, coming 
out into what is now the road at a point near the present counting-room 
of George Simmons. At that time the causeway by the foundry did not 
exist, and the southerly shore of the pond was a continuation of the 
natural beach. The low land, extending from Water Street through 
what is called Dublin, across Commercial Street, to the springs in the 
rear of the houses standing on Sandwich Street, opposite the Green, was 
a slough or a basin which emptied into the Town Brook through what was 
called Barnes 1 Creek, the remains of which may still be seen south of 
the cooper's shop owned by Samuel Bradford. After the old Eothrop 
field, which included a part of the low land, and the strip of shore above 
referred to, was purchased, in 1842, of the heirs of Barnabas Hedge, by 
Anson H. Harlow, a drain was laid beneath what is now Union Street, 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



295 



turning the waste water to the harbor by a shorter route. In 1721 it was 
voted by the town "that Stephen Churchill, Samuel Marshall, John 
Harlow, and others have the use and improvement of the land upon the 
point on the northerly side of the Town Pond, to wharf on, which may 
be sufficient for a bridge, with a sufficient way straight from the bridge 
over the point to the way betwixt Ephraim Kempton and Timothy Mor- 
ton's land, provided they keep a way for all persons to pass over, so long 
as they maintain a bridge thereon." The point referred to was a high 
sedge flat, stretching out from the north shore of the pond, to the spot 
where the tar-house of the ropewalk formerly stood. On this point, 
under the grant above mentioned, a wharf was built, which was owned, 
in 1759, by Benjamin Churchill, and at a later date by Thomas Davis. 
On the southerly side also a wharf was built on land granted by the 
town to Stephen Churchill in 1711, and these two wharves were made 
the termini of a swing-bridge, which was used for many years by foot- 
passengers on their way from the south part of the town to the wharves. 
In 1759, when a way across the brook for carriages and teams had be- 
come necessary, a committee was chosen by the town to consider the 
subject, who reported in favor of a grant " of all the land, beach, dock- 
age, and flats not already disposed of, br-ginning at the west corner of 
the wharf now possessed by Benjamin Churchill, and from thence 
north thirty degrees east on a straight line to the fence, which divides the 
lands now possessed by Elizabeth Curtis from those possessed by Han- 
nah Dyer, and from thence easterly by said Curtis' lot to the land of 
Lemuel Drew, and so in his range to Turner's south corner, and from 
thence north seventy-eight degrees east in his range to the east corner 
of his wharf, and so in the same range into the bay as far as is con- 
venient for wharfing, and thence southeast to the northeast end of the 
line dividing the land now possessed by Elkanah Watson from the estate 
of Jonathan Barnes, and by George Watson's land to Stephen Churchill's 
wharf, and by said wharf to the bounds first mentioned, to such person 
or persons as would agree to build a good cartway and bridge twenty 
feet wide, so high as to be out of the reach of ordinary tides, over and 
across the Town Brook, and to keep and maintain the said way open and 
in good repair forever, and to allow the said way to be continued of the 
same breadth across the beach to the way laid out below said Watson's 
land, and that for default therein it shall and may be lawful for the said 
town to enter upon said granted premises with the appurtenances as in 
their own right, and hold the same as fully and completely as though no 
such grant had been made." These bounds included a strip of land on 
the north side of the pond, the foundry land, and all the land on the 
south side of the brook, between the brook and Water Street, as far up 
as Barnes' Creek, above mentioned. The recommendation of the com- 
mittee was agreed to by the town, and the present causeway and bridge 



296 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



were built by Thomas Foster, Josiah Churchill, Daniel Dimon, Ebenezer 
Sampson, and Jonathan Sampson, to whom a conveyance of the land 
described was made in 17G2. After the completion of the bridge, the 
town opened a way through the building-yard belonging to the town in 
the rear of the Turner estate, coming out into Leyden Street, as in an- 
cient times, below the barn of the Messrs. Barnes. Water Street was 
shortly extended as it now runs through land conveyed to the town by 
Thomas Davis, Nathaniel Foster, David Turner, and others, and the old 
circuitous route was abandoned. 

The land on which the foundry stands, exclusive of a small strip in 
the rear, was a part of the grant in 1762 to the builders of the causeway 
and bridge, and m a division made by them it was set off to Thomas 
Foster. In 1762 Mr Foster sold to Barnabas Hedge, the grandfather of 
the late Isaac L. Hedge, a parcel of land next to the brook seventy-five 
feet wide on Water Street, and the remainder, in the same year, to John 
Kempton. Mr. Hedge built a warehouse on his lot, and in 1788 pur- 
chased of Mr. Kempton an additional parcel twenty-five feet wide, mak- 
ing his lot one hundred feet wide on Water Street. This lot remained a 
possession of the Hedge family until 1844, when it was sold by the heirs 
of the late Barnabas Hedge to George Simmons, who occupied it until 
1868, when he sold it to the Plymouth Iron Foundry. Mr. Kempton 
built a dwelling-house, which he occupied, on what is now the corner of 
Water and Union Streets, and used the remainder of his lot for a build- 
ing-yard. In 1798 he sold it to Moses Brick, a boat-builder by trade, 
who lived in the house and carried on his business in the yard. After 
the death of Mr. Brick, his widow, Mary, sold the yard, in 1810, to Rob- 
ert Roberts, retaining the house as a residence. In 1817 Mr. Roberts 
sold the yard to Atwood Drew, from whom it came into the possession 
of his son, William R. Drew, who, in connection with Benjamin Cobb, 
carried on the business of an iron foundry for some years previous to 
1856, in which year their establishment was burned. In 1852 Mr. Drew 
bought of his brother, Atwood L. Drew, the strip in the rear above 
referred to, which had been previously owned by Ansel II. Harlow, the 
owner, at that time, of the old Lothrop land in Dublin. In 1866 the 
land was sold to the Iron Foundry. The house of Mrs. Brick was sold 
by her heirs in 1821 to Joseph Pope, who sold it, in the same year, to 
Richard, Thomas, Priscilla, and James Pope. It was finally sold in 
shares at various dates to Lydia, the widow of Atwood Drew, who sold 
it, in 1867, to the foundry, completing the estate now owned and occu- 
pied by that company. 

The land on the westerly side of ^the street, opposite the foundry, as 
far as Barnes 1 Creek, was set off to Daniel Dimon in the division made 
by the builders of the causeway and bridge, and sold by him by two 
deeds, one in 1769 and one in 1786, to Samuel Battles. The first lot, on 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



297 



which a building stands owned by William R. Drew, was sold, in 1820, 
by the heirs of Mr. Battles, to Samuel Bradford, who sold it, in the same 
year, to Sylvanus Harlow and Benjamin Weston. It was occupied by 
them many years as a carpenter's shop, and sold, in 1851, to Mr. Drew, 
ita present owner. In the deed from Mr. Bradford to Messrs. Harlow and 
Weston, the obligation of the assignees of the original grantees to keep 
the " cartway and bridge " in repair, was recognized and made a part of 
the consideration. The adjoining land, on which the building stands 
owned by Samuel Bradford, and occupied by him and Heman Churchill, 
is the site of an old wharf, built by Samuel Battles, and was sold by him 
also, in 1820, to Samuel Bradford, the father of the present owner. 
Before the building occupied by Mr. Churchill was moved upon the lot 
its site was occupied by the blacksmith-shop of John Perry, the father 
of the late Lewis Perry. 

The land between Barnes' Creek and a twelve-foot way leading to 
the pond at the junction of Water and Sandwich Streets, exclusive 'of 
some rear land adjoining the brook, belonging to the first precinct, which 
will be referred to hereafter, was granted by the town to Stephen 
Churchill in 1711. Mr. Churchill built a wharf on his land, the remains 
of which may be seen in the rear of the stable of George Simmons. 
After his death it finally came into the possession of his grandson Ste- 
phen, the father of the late Daniel and Heman Churchill. In 1803 the 
last-mentioned Stephen sold the lot next to Barnes' Creek, on which the 
house stands owned by George H. Harlow, to Lewis Harlow, whose 
administrators sold it, in 1807, to the late Samuel and Henry Harlow, 
from whom it was inherited by their brother, the late George Harlow, 
the father of the present owner. The lot in the rear, on which the 
Simmons stable stands, was sold by Mr. Churchill, in 1801, to Benjamin 
Barnes, whose son, the late Bradford Barnes, sold it to Moses Nichols. 
It was afterwards owned by Otis Nichols and Ellis H. Morton, and sold 
by Mr. Morton, in 1849, to Richard T. Pope and Thomas A. Mayo. In 
1852 Mr. Pope sold his interest to Mr. Mayo, whose widow sold it, in 
18G9, to Benjamin Pierce, of whom it was bought by Mr. Simmons in 
1875. This lot is reached by a twelve-foot way between the Harlow 
house and the other land of Mr. Simmons. The remaining land of Mr. 
Simmons is made up of two lots, of which the easterly one was sold, in 
1805, by Stephen Churchill to Rispah Brewer, wife of James Brewer, 
who built the house remembered as the Brewer house. The westerly lot 
was sold by Mr. Churchill, in 1813, to Samuel Bradford, who sold it, in 
1814, to Mrs. Brewer, to enlarge her homestead. In 1838 Rispah Nich- 
ols, wife of Moses Nichols, and daughter of Mrs. Brewer, sold it to James 
B. Pierce, who sold it, in 1868, to Wait Wadsworth. In the same year 
Mr. Wadsworth, after the old house had been taken down, sold the lot to 
the Plymouth Iron Foundry, who also sold it, in the same year, to 
George Simmons. 



298 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



The next lot was sold by StepheD Churchill in two parcels, one in 
1804 and one in 1808, to William Nye, who built a house on the lot, 
which he occupied until his death, after which it was moved to the oppo- 
site side of the street, where it now stands, owned and occupied by the 
widow of the late Richard Bagnall, and the house now standing on the 
lot was built by his son-in-law, Rufus Churchill, whose wife now owns 
and occupies it. 

The next lot was sold by Stephen Churchill, in 1796, to his two sons, 
Daniel and Heman, who built the house now standing. It is bounded 
on the west by a way twelve feet wide, leading to the brook from a point 
on the street forty-five feet from the centre of the front door of the house. 
In 1811 Daniel Churchill sold the westerly half to the late George Sim- 
mons, whose son George sold it, in 1863, to Benjamin Pierce. The east- 
erly half was occupied by Heman Churchill during his life, and is now 
owned and occupied by his daughter Mary Ann. 

The land belonging to the first precinct, referred to above, was 
granted to the precinct by the town in 1702 for the use of its ministry. 
It consisted of sedge flats on both sides of the brook, now flowed by the 
pond. Those on the north side were leased, in 1795, to William Hall 
Jackson, for nine hundred and ninety-nine years, at an annual rent of six 
bushels of corn, for purposes connected with the ropewalk which he pro- 
posed to build The land on the south side was leased, in 1788, to Ste- 
phen Churchill for the same period, at an annual rent of four bushels. 
The latter tract began at the twelve-foot way already mentioned, at the 
westerly corner of the old Daniel Churchill lot, thence running easterly 
two hundred and thirty-six feet to the old wharf of Stephen Churchill, 
on which the swing-bridge formerly hung, thence northerly to the 
brook, thence by the brook to said way, and thence by said way to the 
bounds first mentioned. Until within a few years rent has been paid by 
the Robbins Cordage Company and the successors of Stephen Churchill, 
and the land still belongs to the precinct. 

All the land on the northerly side of Sandwich Street, between the 
above twelve-foot way and the arch-bridge, was granted by the town in 
1711 to John Foster, who built a distil house on that part of it now occu- 
pied by Gales' block. In 17.34 he sold it to Thomas Davis, whose sons, 
Thomas and William Davis, sold in 1768 the lot occupied by the Barnes 
house to Richard Bagnall, who sold it to William Barnes, the father of 
the late Southworth Barnes. Mr. Barnes built the house now standing 
and occupied it until his death. A part of the house is now owned and 
occupied by Lydia, the widow of Elkanah Churchill, the granddaughter 
of Mr. Barnes. The remainder was sold in 1867 by the heirs of South- 
wood Barnes, and others, to Jacob Howland, who sold it in 1874 to 
Charles O. Churchill. Mr. Churchill sold it in the same year to Desire 
T. Adams, who sold it in 1877 to Rebecca B. Robbins, the wife of William 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



299 



S. Robbins, who is its present owner. The lot between the Barnes house 
and the twelve-foot way is owned by George A. Barnes, grandson of 
William above mentioned. 

The next lot was sold by Thomas and William Davis in 1799 to James 
Robbins, who built the house now standing, and in 1801 sold the easterly 
half to Benjamin Barnes, and the westerly half to Ebenezer Davie. Mr. 
Barnes sold his half in 1803 to Samuel Harlow. It was afterwards owned 
by Lydia Tribble, niece of Mr. Harlow, and sold by her In 18G9 to Laban 
Burt, its present owner, the brother-in-law of Richard Pierce, its occu- 
pant. The westerly half was sold by the heirs of Ebenezer Davie in 
1841 to Eleazer Seabury Raymond, whose heirs sold it in 1874 to Joshua 
Wright, its present occupant. 

The remainder of the Foster grant was sold in 1812 by William Davis 
to Otis Harlow, who sold it to Mr. Davis in 1817, when Mr. Davis sold 
it to John B. Bates. In 1818 Mr. Bates sold it to Daniel Gale, who 
sold the lot adjoining the Robbins house in 1826 to Henry Erland. Mr. 
Erland built the house and shop standing on the lot now owned by his 
heirs. On the remaining lot Mr. Gale built the block of houses now 
standing, and sold it in 1837 to Jacob and Abner S. Taylor. In 1843 the 
Messrs. Taylor mortgaged it to the Barnstable Savings Bank, who took 
possession, and sold it in 1865 to Benjamin Hathaway. In 1875 Mr. 
Hathaway sold it to Thomas Pierce, its present owner. 

The above abstract will give the reader an idea of the ancient con- 
dition of the town pond, as it was called by our fathers, and the changes 
which in progress of time it has undergone. Originally an open bay, 
exposing at low water sedge flats on either side of the brook, its only 
crossing for many years was by a ford at a point near its opening. 
Within this bay four wharves were built, those of Stephen Churchill and 
Samuel Battles on the south side, and of Benjamin Churchill and David 
Turner on the north. The two upper wharves, those of Benjamin and 
Stephen Churchill, were the termini of the swing-bridge constructed in 
1721, which is often referred to in the records. This bridge was doubt- 
lcSjp a mere footpath of timber and plank ssvung across the brook, sus- 
pended at either end by chains attached to the wharves. Up the bay, as 
far as this bridge, whenever the tide would permit, vessels of moderate 
draught had free access. The next change was the construction of the 
causeway and bridge in 1762, the bridge being at first so built as to 
permit its temporary removal for the passage of vessels. The' final 
change occurred in 1821, when the town gave to Josiah Robbins permis- 
sion to erect a tide-gate, and the passage to and from the bay was closed 
forever. 

Sandwich, Pleasant, and North Green Streets. — The next lands 
to be described are those bounded by Sandwich, Pleasant, and North 



300 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Green Streets. That part of this tract as far south as the Carver house 
on Sandwich Street, and the Sherman house on Pleasant Street, was, at 
the time Sandwich Street was laid out, in 1GG6, in the possession of Giles 
Rickard, whose house stood nearly on the site of the homestead of the 
late George Harlow. In 1691 Mr. Rickard sold the land as far as the 
Durfey house to John Foster, from whom it passed into the hands of his 
son Nathaniel. In 1769 Nathaniel Foster sold the lot on which the house 
stands- owned and occupied by the heirs of David Harlow, and the three 
lots above it on Pleasant Street, to Sylvanus Harlow. At the death of 
Mr. Harlow these four lots came into the possession of his son Jesse. 
The house at the junction of Pleasant and Sandwich Streets was built by 
Jesse Harlow, and occupied by him as a residence. In 1827 it was con- 
veyed by his heirs to their co-heir, David Harlow, who also occupied it. 
The next lot on Pleasant Street was sold by the heirs of Jesse Harlow in 
1827 to Sylvanus Harlow, brother of David, who built the house now 
standing, and made it his residence. In 1866 the Plymouth Savings 
Bank, under a deed of mortgage given by Mr. Harlow in 1818, sold it to 
George H. Chase, its present owner. The next lot was sold by the heirs 
of Jesse Harlow in 1840 to William Sylvester, who built the house now 
standing, and sold it in 1858 to Nathaniel E. Harlow, who still occupies 
it. The next and last lot on Pleasant Street, bought by Sylvanus Har- 
low of Nathaniel Foster, was sold by Jesse Harlow in 1810 to his son 
Sylvanus, who sold it in 1827 to the late George Washburn. Mr. Wash- 
burn built the house now standing, and in 1866 Priscilla W., his widow, 
sold it to Martha C. and Margaret H., daughters of Henry Robbins, its 
present owners. 

The two lots adjoining the estate of the late David Harlow, on which 
stand the houses of John Chase and the late George Harlow, were 
formerly one lot, occupied until 1828 by the old homestead of John 
Foster, and prob..My his predecessor, Giles Rickard, before 1691. In 
1771 Nathaniel Foster, son of John, sold the double lot with the old 
house to Samuel Ellis, who occupied its easterly half. In 1774 Mr. Ellis 
sold the westerly half to Robert Bartlett, who sold it in the next year to 
Joseph Bartlett. In 1778 Joseph Bartlett sold it to Isaac Harlow, who 
sold it in 1796 to Barnabas Faunce and William Sergeant. In 1813 it 
was sold by Mr. Faunce to Stephen Bartlett, who again sold it in 1827 to 
the late John Chase. After the death of Samuel Ellis his administrators 
sold the easterly half in 1783 to Samuel Bartlett. who sold it in 1785 to 
Jeremiah Holmes. In 1794 Mr. Holmes sold it to Thomas Davie, whose 
children. Betsey Mayhew, Deborah Davie, and Betsey T., wife of Isaac 
Barnes, sold it in 1825 to the late George Harlow. After the estate 
came into the possession of Mr. Harlow and Mr. Chase the old house 
was taken down, the estate divided, and the two houses were built now 
standing. 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



301 



The three next lots were sold in 1743 by Nathaniel Foster to Amos 
Rider, whose son, Benjamin Rider, sold them in 1746, with a house now 
standing in the rear of the house on the middle lot, to Ebenezer Bartlett 
In 1754 Mi - . Bartlett sold them to Amaziah Harlow, who sold them in 
1762 to James Doten. A part of the two first estates was sold by the 
heirs of Mr. Doten in 1793 to Daniel Goddard, who sold it in 1802 to Isaac 
Banks. In 1834 Mr. Banks sold this part to Henry Carter, who sold it in 
the same year to George Adams. In 1868 Lucy Adams, widow of 
George, sold her interest to Abby, the wife of James H. Robbins, and 
Desire T. Adams, the widow of George N. Adams, son of George, sold 
her interest to Harriet S., the wife of Richard W. Bagnall. The re- 
mainder of the two lots came into the possession of Joshua Torrey, who 
married Sarah, the widow of James Doten, and afterwards into the 
possession of his second wife Susan, the widow of Stephen Paine, whose 
daughter, Susan Paine, married Anthony Sherman Allen, and finally in- 
herited the estate. After the death of Mrs. Allen it came into the posses- 
sion of her daughter, the wife of Richard W. Bagnall above mentioned. 
The third lot, known as the Simmons estate, was sold in 1810 by the 
heirs of James Doten to Richard Durfey, who sold it in 1820 to Ephraim 
Harlow. In 1828 Mr. Harlow sold it to George Simmons, who built the 
house now standing, and 6old it in 1852 to Alfred Shaw. In 1854 Mr. 
Shaw sold it to the late Coleman Bartlett, whose heirs still own it. 

The two next lots were bought of Giles Rickard at an early date 
by Eleazer Morton, brother of Secretary Nathaniel Morton. It is 
probable that a part of the house known as the Durfey house was 
built by his son Nathaniel about the year 1700. The house was sold 
by Eleazer, son of Nathaniel, in 1734 to Nathaniel Foster. Prior to 
1794 the northerly half had come into the possession of Richard 
Bagnall, who sold it in that year to Richard Durfey. In 1819 Mr. 
Durfey sold it to his son Richard, who sold it in 1844 to Thomas B. Sher- 
man and Mary D. Burbank. In 1861 it was sold by Samuel Sherman 
and Mary D. Burbank to George Harlow, who sold it ty Coleman Bartlett, 
whose heirs sold it in 1872 to Lydia A., wife of Elbridge Sears. The 
southerly half passed from Nathaniel Foster to Joseph Tribble, who sold 
it to John Carver, whose granddaughter Betsey, wife of Ozen Bates, and 
daughter of Sylvanus and Betsey (Carver) Churchill, now occupies it. 
The remainder of the Eleazer Morton estate, on which the double house 
stands owned by the heirs of Robert Hutchinson and of E. W. Bradford, 
was sold in 1733 to Jonathan Bartlett, who probably built the house now 
standing. In 1744 Mr. Bartlett sold it to John Holmes, whose adminis- 
trator sold it in 1754 to Joseph Sylvester. In 1782 Mr. Sylvester sold it 
to Joseph 3arnes, whose heirs sold it in 1828 to Joseph Bradford and 
Robert Hutchinson. This lot extended to Pleasant Street, and after it 
came into the possession of Joseph Barnes the part of the lot on that 



302 



PLYMOUTH COLOXY. 



street on which the double house stands, owned by Eliza Ann, the widow 
of George A. Hathaway, and Sophia D., the widow of William D. Sher- 
man, remained in the possession of the Barnes family until 1826, when it 
was sold by William Barnes, son of Joseph, to John Calderwood Holmes, 
whose widow, Jane Avery Holmes, sold it in 1830 to Sylvanus Harlow. 
Mr. Harlow built the house now standing, and in the same year sold the 
southerly half to Mary, widow of Ebenezer Nelson, and mother of Mrs. 
HathaVay, and the northerly half to Frederick Bobbins, whose son 
Charles F. sold it in 1855 to William D. Sherman. 

The next lot, on which the Carver house stands, has a record of 
unusual interest It was granted by the town in 1667 to Jacob Mitchell, 
who built a portion of the house now standing. Mr. Mitchell married in 
1666 Susanna, daughter of Thomas and Sarah (Jenney) Pope. He 
probably built the house immediately after his marriage and made it his 
bridal residence. After a few years he moved to Dartmouth, and was 
killed by the Indians in King Philip's war, in 1675. At the time of his 
removal he sold the estate to Jabez Howland. son of John Howland of 
the Mayflower, who also made it his residence. It is described in early 
deeds as bounded on the north by the garden of Giles Bickard, and on 
the west, south, and east by what are now the lines of Pleasant, North 
Green, and Sandwich Streets. Mr. Howland occupied it until 1680, when 
he moved to Bristol, and sold it to Elkanah Watson. While in the 
possession of the Watson family a lot on the corner of Sandwich and 
North Green Streets was sold to Isaac Lothrop, and the remainder of 
the estate was sold in 1707 by John Watson, son of Elkanah. to Stephen 
Churchill. Mr. Churchill, having sold in 1716 a portion to Ephraim 
Little, died in possession of the remainder, which his widow Experience 
sold in 1755 to her son Benjamin. In 1784 Benjamin Churchill sold it to 
Joshua Thomas and Ephraim Spooner. and in 1790 Judge Thomas, who 
had come into the possession of the whole, sold it to Nathaniel Carver. In 
1867 it was sold by the heirs of Mr. Carver to James E. Sherman, and 
by him to Barnabas H. Holmes, who conveyed it in the present year to 
his daughter, Helen B. Holmes. No house yet described is more nearly 
associated with the Pilgrims than this. Owned and occupied, as it 
undoubtedly was, by Jabez Plowland before the death of his father and 
mother, it is fair to presume that its floors have been trodden by those 
two passengers of the Mayflower, and that its walls have listened to their 
voices Let this ancient structure be added to the list of Pilgrim memo- 
rials, and hereafter share with the rock our veneration and respect. 

While in the possession of the Carver family the above lot extenuea 
through to Pleasant Street, and in 1853 the lot on that street on which 
the house stands owned and occupied by Oliver Edes was sold by the 
heirs of Nathaniel Carver to Leavitt Finne}-. In 1874 Mr. Finney sold 
it to George A. Barnes, who built the house now standing, and sold it, 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



303 



in 1875, to Mr. Edes. The lot on Sandwich Street, on which the barn 
stands adjoining the Carver estate, was a part of that estate when it 
came into the possession of Mr. Holmes, and was sold by him, in 1875, 
to George A. Barnes. In the same year it was sold by Mr. Barnes to 
Mary W. Finney, who sold it, in 1877, to Lydia W. Carleton, wife of 
John Carleton, and Sarah E., wife of Nathaniel B. Bradford. 

A small lot on the corner of Sandwich and North Green Streets was 
sold by John Watson, about the year 1700, to Isaac Lothrop, who built a 
house on the lot and occupied it. In 1707 he sold it to Rev. Ephraim 
Little, who enlarged the lot in 1716 by the purchase from Stephen 
Churchill, then the owner of the Carver estate, of all the land fronting 
on Training Green. In 1726, after the death of Mr. Little, his widow, 
Sarah, sold the house and land to Benjamin Bartlett, who built the house 
now standing on the corner. In 1786 Mr. Bartlett sold the corner lot to 
Jesse Harlow, whose grandson, William, sold it, in 1836, to John Bur- 
gess, whose heirs still own it. The adjoining lot on the west was also 
sold, in 1786, by Mr. Bartlett, to Jesse Harlow, and by William Harlow, 
in 1836. to Mr Burgess. In 1848 Mr. Burgess sold it to Leavitt Finney, 
who built the house now standing. In 1875 George II. Jackson, assignee 
of Mr. Finney, sold it to Mary W. Finney, wife of Leavitt, who sold it, 
in 1877, to Edwin L. Edes, its present owner. 

The next lot was sold by Benjamin Bartlett to James Hovey, who 
sold it, in 1767, to Jesse Harlow, by whom it was sold, in the same 
year, to Lazarus Harlow, who built the house now standing. After the 
death of Lazarus Harlow the easterly half was inherited by his 
daughter Sally, the wife of Peter Holmes, whose son Peter sold it, in 
1867, to William W. Pope, its present owner. The westerly half was 
inherited from Lazarus by his son Lot, and from him by his children 
Rebecca, wife of James Diman, Mary B., wife of William Sylvester, 
and Nancy, wife of David Leach. In 1832 Mary B. and Nancy sold 
their interest to James Diman, and in 1840 James and Rebecca Diman 
sold the whole to Thomas Diman, of whom it was purchased in the 
same year by William Manter, its present occupant. 

The corner lot, on which the Straffin house formerly stood, at the 
death of Benjamin Bartlett, who probably built the house, was set off to 
his widow, Abigail Bartlett. In 1792 it was sold by her heirs to Samuel 
Bradford, who sold it, in 1793, to Stephen ChurchilL In 18li> Mr. 
Churchill sold it to Benjamin M. Watson, who sold it, in 1816, to Samuel 
Bradford. In the same year Mr. Bradford sold it to Henry Bartlett, 
from whom it descended to his daughter, Hannah Straffin Bartlett, 
whose administrator sold it in 1856 to William Straffin. In 1874 it was 
sold by Lemuel Bradford, collector of taxes, to George F. Weston, who 
is its present owner. 



304 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Watson's Hfll. — The hill known in modern times as Watson's 
Hill, in earlier times as Mill Hill and Strawberry Hill, and called by 
Indians Cantaughcantiest, or Planted Fields, will be considered next in 
order At the time of the division of lands, in 1623, the, whole tract 
consisted of about twenty acres, of which four were given to John How- 
land, six to Stephen Hopkins, one to Gilbert Winslow, three to Samuel 
Fuller, one to Edward Uotey, one to Edward Leister, and the remainder 
was the land of the Indian, Hobamak, lying on the top of the hill, 
between the grounds of Hopkins and Howland. In 1638 John Howland 
exchanged a portion of his land, all of which lay north of the line of the 
present Jefferson Street, with John Jenney for the farm on which he 
afterwards lived in Rocky Nook, and the remainder he bequeathed at 
his death to his son, Jabez Howland. Mr. Jenney died in 1644, and his 
widow after a few years removed to Dartmouth. After her removal 
her land on Watson's Hill was surrendered, in accordance with the order 
of court concerning lands of non-residents, and was granted by the 
town to Jabez Howland in 1672. In 1680 Jabez Howland sold to Elka- 
nah Watson, as described in his deed, two acres given to him by his 
father, and about three acres granted to him by the town, and the pos- 
session of these five acres, more or less, by Mr. Watson, and by four 
succeeding generations of his family, gave the name by which the whole 
hill has been so long well known. On this hill Massasoit camped witli 
his followers in April, 1621, while he sent Samoset and Squanto across 
the brook to notify the Pilgrims of his presence. Here Winslow came 
and remained as a hostage, while the great sachem visited the settlement 
and made that memorable treaty, ■which secured, as long as he lived, 
peace to the colony and protection to himself. Were not the book of 
Pilgrim history charged in every line with dramatic incident, that scene 
in the common-house where Carver and the Wampanoag smoked the 
pipe of peace hi ratification of their unwritten compact, would have long 
since found its way to the painter's canvas and poet's page as worth)' of 
everlasting remembrance. The wars and massacres of modern times, 
resulting from the fracture of treaties with western tribes, show plainly 
enough what the fate of our fathers would have been if they had taught 
a less Christian lesson than that which their sons have so signally failed 
to follow and respect. 

The property of Elkanah Watson remained intact until the death of 
his grandson, John, in 1752. After it had come into the possession of 
John, George, Elkanah, and William Watson, the sons of the last John, 
the share of Elkanah was taken on execution in 1790 by Benjamin Drew, 
and that of William in 1788 by Isaac Symmes. Benjamin Drew sold his 
interest, in 1796, to Jesse and Ephraim Harlow, and Joanna Symmes, 
widow of Isaac, sold the interest of her husband, in 1795, to Nathaniel 
Carver. In 1796 the old Howland lands were in the possession of Ben- 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



305 



jamin M. Watson, Jesse and Ephraim Harlow, and Nathaniel Carver. 
In 1799 a strip of land in the rear, extending from the brook to the line 
of Jefferson Street, and bounded on the west by what is now town land, 
about an acre and a half in extent, was set off to Mr. Carver as his 
share. In 1804 Mr. Carver sold this strip to Robert Dunham, who sold 
it in 1816, to Benjamin M. Watson. In 1838 Lucretia B. Watson, for 
herself and as guardian of her son, Benjamin M. Watson, and grandson, 
William W. Goodwin, sold it to Ichabod Morton. 

In 1801 Mr. Watson and the Messrs. Harlow sold to Elijah Macomber, 
from the remainder of the Howland land, a lot on the corner of Pleasant 
Street and Winter, now Robinson Street, which included the two lots 
now occupied by the house of the late Warren S. Macomber, and by the 
First Christian Church. Elijah Macomber built the house now standing 
on the corner, which, by deed of his sons Elijah and John, was con- 
veyed, in 1843 and 1846, to Warren S. Macomber. After a verbal sale 
by Elijah of the adjoining lot in 1827 to the Christian Society, the church 
was built now standing, and the sale ratified by a deed in 1846 from 
Warren S., in whom the record title then stood. In 1802 Mr. Watson 
and the Messrs. Harlow sold the next lot on Pleasant Street to Finney 
Leach, who sold it, in 1808, to Benjamin and William Weston. In 1811, 
after a division had been made, William Weston sold the northerly half 
to William Nelson, who sold it, in 1815, to James Howard, the father of 
the late Curtis C. Howard. In 1815 Benjamin Weston sold his half also 
to Mr. Howard, who built the house now occupied by the widow of 
his son. 

The next lot was sold in 1802 by Mr. Watson and the Messrs. Harlow 
to Adoniram Judson, then the pastor of the Third Church recently or- 
ganized, who built and occupied the house now owned and occupied by 
his daughter, Abigail Brown Judson. 

In 1804 Mr. Watson sold all the interest he then had in the Howland 
lands to Mr. Judson, who became with the Messrs. Harlow the owner of 
what remained unsold. By a division made in 1804 all the land on 
Pleasant Street, between the Judson lot and Jefferson Street, was set off 
to Mr. Judson, who sold in 1805 the lot adjoining his homestead to 
Joseph Holmes. Mr. Holmes built the house now standing, and sold it 
in 1827 to Thomas and George Adams. In 1831 the Messrs. Adams sold 
it to Martin Bates, who sold it in 1837 to the late George Simmons. In 
1864 George Simmons and others, heirs of the late owner, sold it to 
Christopher T. Han-is, who still owns and occupies it. 

The next lot was sold in 1808 by Mr. Judson to his daughter Abigail, 
and it always remained vacant until 1875, when it was sold by Miss 
Judson to George A. Barnes, who built the house which he now occupies. 
The next lot was sold by Mr. Judson in 1806 to Lazarus Symmes and 
Lewis Finney, who built the double house now standing. In 1809 Mr. 



306 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Symmes sold his half to Mr. Finney, who was the owner of the whole 
estate at the time of his death. The northerly half is now owned and 
occupied by some of the heirs of Mr. Finney, and the southerly half was 
sold in 1879 by the heirs of the late Harrison Finney to Deborah W. 
Perkins, who is its present owner. 

The next lot was sold by Abigail B. Judson in 1853 to George F. 
Weston, who built the house which he still occupies. Other land in the 
rear of the Pleasant Street lots was set off to Mr. Judson in the division 
above referred to, which was sold by his widow, Abigail Judson, in 1329 
to Elijah Macomber, who sold it in 1838 to Ichabod Morton. At the last- 
mentioned date Mr. Morton was in possession of all the lots not yet 
described, except the two lots on the north side of Jefferson Street, the 
lot on Robinson Street, on which the house of Charles H. Rogers now 
stands, and a tract bounded by the brook, Pleasant and Robinson Streets, 
including the house formerly occupied by Ephraim Harlow, all of which 
lots were set off to the Messrs. Harlow in the division with Mr. Judson 
in 1804. The Rogers lot, on Robinson Street, was sold by the Messrs. 
Harlow in 1807 to Wilson Churchill, who sold it in 1814 to James Howard. 
In 1815 Mr. Howard sold it to Benjamin Weston, who sold it in 1820 to 
Lewis AVeston. Lewis Weston built the house now standing, and sold 
it in 1837 to Ebenezer Davie, who sold it in 18G6 to Charles II. Rogers, 
its present owner and occupant. In 1810 Jesse and Ephraim Harlow 
made a division of all the lands owned by them in common, and the 
lands on Watson's Hill remaining unsold were set off to Ephraim. In 
1811 Mr. Harlow sold the two lots above referred to on Jefferson Street 
to Lot Harlow. The first lot, on the corner of Sagamore Street, Mr. 
Harlow sold in 1814 to Lewis Finney, whose heirs sold it in 1826 to David 
Harlow. In the same year Mr. Harlow sold it to Elijah Macomber, who 
built the house now standing, and sold it in 1829 to William Thomas. 
In 1838 Mr. Thomas sold it to Corban Barnes and John Nickerson. In 
1841 Mr. Nickerson sold his interest to Mr. Barnes, who sold it in the 
same year to Nathaniel Barnes. In 1852 it was sold by John E., son of 
Nathaniel Barnes, to Hannah Barnes, who sold it in 18G4 to William 
Ellis, by whom it was sold in 1867 to Marcia R., wife of Barnabas Ellis, 
who now occupies it. The adjoining lot was sold in 1835 by Rebecca 
Diman, wife of James Diman and daughter of Lot Harlow, to Ansel 
Holmes, whose administrators sold it in 1842 to Ephraim Holmes. Mr. 
Holmes built the house now standing and occupied it until his death. In 
1879 it was sold by the heirs of Mr. Holmes to John E. Luscomb, who 
now owns and occupies it. 

In 1825 Ephraim Harlow, having opened a court in the rear of his 
homestead, between Robinson Street and the brook, and built a dwelling- 
house on its southerly side, which was occupied for a short time by Syl- 
vanus Maxim, sold the house with a lot extending to Pleasant Street to 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



307 



James Morton, father of James Morton, now living. Mr. Morton occu- 
pied it until his death, and it finally came into the possession of his 
daughter Mary, the wife of John H. Harlow, who built the house adjoin- 
ing the street, and is now the owner of both. The Church lot was sold 
by Ephraim Harlow in 1830 to the Robinson Society, who built the 
meeting-house now standing, and sold it in 1852 to the Methodist Epis- 
copal Society, its present owners and occupants. The remainder of the 
Harlow lands, which includes the lots occupied by the Chandler market, 
the wheelwright's shop, and the blacksmith-shop in their rear, is still in 
the possession of the heirs of Ephraim Harlow, excepting his late 
homestead, which was sold by them in 1873 to Isaac S. Burgess, its 
present owner. 

The remaining lots having come into the possession of Ichabod Mor- 
ton in 1838, his ownership will be considered, in their further descrip- 
tion, as the basis of their title. The lot on Robinson Street, on which 
the house stands owned and occupied by Ebenezer Davie, was a part of 
land of which Mr. Morton sold, in 1854, an undivided half to his brother 
Edwin. In 1855 the Messrs. Morton sold it to Francis J. Goddard, who 
sold it, in the same year, to Mr. Davie. The house now on the lot was 
built by Mr. Davie, and is still occupied by him. The next lot was sold 
by the Messrs. Morton, in 1855, to Southwoi'th Barnes, who sold it, in 
1856, to William W. Pope, who built the house now standing, and sold 
it, in 1868, to his brother, Richard T. Pope, its present owner. The 
next lot was also sold by the Messrs. Morton, in 1855, to Southworth 
Barnes, who sold it, in 1856, to Henry W. Miller. In 1865 Mr. Miller 
sold it to Thomas Merritt, who sold it, in 1870, to Samuel H. Doten, who 
built the tenement-house now standing on the lot, and sold it, in 1874, to 
Robert W. King. The lot on the corner of Robinson and Mayflower 
Streets was sold by Ichabod Morton, in 1853, to Zephaniah Bradford, 
who sold it, in 1855, to his daughter, Rebecca H. Christian. In 1868 
Mrs. Christian sold it to Thomas Merritt, who sold it, in 1870, with the 
adjoining lot, to Mr. Doten, who is its present owner. 

The vacant lot on Mayflower Street, adjoining the corner lot, was 
sold, in 1855, by the Messrs. Morton to Southworth Barnes, who sold it, 
in 1856, to Clement Bates. In 1870 Mr. Bates sold it to Samuel H. 
Doten, who is the pi-esent owner. The next lot was sold by Ichabod 
Morton, in 1853, to Ahira Bates, who built the house now standing, and 
whose widow still occupies it. 

The lot on the corner of Mayflower and Massasoit Streets was sold, 
in 1853, to Benjamin C. Finney, who sold it, in 1855, to William W. 
Sampson. Mr. Sampson built the house now standing, and sold it, in 
1866, to Charles C. Doten, its present occupant. The remaining lot on 
the square, bounded by Mayflower, Massasoit, Sagamore, and Robinson 
Streets, was sold by Mr. Morton, in 1850, to Charles Burton, who sold it, 



308 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



in 1855, to Josiah C. Fuller, by whom the house now standing was built 
and is at present occupied. 

All the land in the square bounded by Mayflower, Massasoit, Sag- 
amore, and Jefferson Streets, not included in the lots of Marcia R. Ellis 
and John E. Luscomb, already described, except a parcel sold by Mr. 
Morton, in 1845, to Nathaniel Barnes, and now a part of the Ellis lot, 
was sold by Mr. Morton, in 1848 and 1849, to John H. Harlow, who sold, 
in 1872, the whole tract to Josiah D. Baxter, and the two corner lots still 
vacant are at present owned by Mr. Baxter's heirs to the lot on Saga- 
more Street adjoining the Ellis lot was sold by Mr. Baxter, in 1872, to 
Benjamin D. Freeman, who built the house now standing, and sold it, in 
1874, to Thomas H. Ellis. In 1876 Mr. Ellis sold it to Barnabas L. Har- 
low, who now owns and occupies it. The next lot on Massasoit Street 
was sold by Mr. Baxter, in 1875, to Erastus Harlow, who built the house 
which he still occupies. The next lot was sold by Mr. Baxter, in 1872, 
to Rufus H. Pope, who built the house on the lot now standing. 

The lot on the west side of Mayflower Street, opposite the head of 
Jefferson Street, was sold by Mr. Morton, in 1850, to Robert Brown, who 
built the house now standing, and sold it, in 1863, to Barnabas Dunham. 
In 1871 Mr. Dunham sold it to Arthur S. Byrnes, who is still its owner 
and occupant. The adjoining lot on the north was sold by Mr. Morton, 
in 1842, to Joseph Rider, who built the house on the lot in which he now 
lives. The next lot was sold by Mr. Morton, in 1842, to Stephen D. 
Drew, who built the house now standing and sold it to Seth McLaughlin, 
whose widow is now its owner. The next lot was sold by Mr. Morton, 
in 1842, to James Morton, who built the house now standing, and sold 
it, in 1877, to George E. Dillard, its present owner. The next two lots 
were sold by Mr. Morton, in 1850 and 1851, to James W. Drew. Mr. 
Drew built the house now standing on one of the lots, and sold the other, 
in 1857, to Edwin F. Erland. In 1869 Mr. Drew sold the house, and the 
lot on which it stands, to Allen Bradford, who sold it, in 1870, to Eunice, 
wife of Thomas N. Eldridge. In 1869 Mr. Erland sold his lot to Rufus 
H. Pope, who sold it, in 1871, to Mr. Eldridge. 

The lot on which the house of Samuel H. Doten stands consists of 
two original lots. One of these was sold by Mr. Morton, in 1853, to 
Reuben Drew, who built on the lot the house now standing, and sold it, 
in 1855, to Mr. Doten. The other lot was sold by Mr. Morton, in 1856, 
to Mr. Doten, and added to his homestead. The lot adjoining that of 
Mr. Doten on the west was sold by Mr. Morton, in 1844, to Job Rider, 
who sold it to his brother Joseph in 1849. Joseph Rider built the house 
now standing, and sold a part, in 1849, to Sally H. Rider, the widow of 
Job, and the remainder, in 1872, to Sylvia Blanchard. The next lot 
was also sold by Mr. Morton, in 1844, to Job Rider, and by him, in 1849, 
to Joseph. Mr. Rider sold it, in 1853, to Rebecca H. Bradford, who 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



309 



built the house now standing. In 1855 Rebecca sold it to her father, 
Zephaniah Bradford, whose heirs sold it, in 1871, to Horatio Robbins. 
In 1875 Mr. Robbins sold it to David H. Gilbert, who is its present 
owner and occupant. The next lot, adjoining the town land, was sold 
by Mr. Morton, in 1844, to Priscilla, wife of George Raymond, who 
built the house now standing, and whose heirs still own and occupy it. 

The lot on the northerly side of Robinson Street, on which the house 
stands owned and occupied by John Shubert, was sold by the Messrs. 
Morton in two parcels, in 1856 and 1857, to Hiram K. Towle A deed of 
mortgage of the premises was given by Mr. Towle, after he had built 
the house now standing, to the Plymouth Loan Fund Association, under 
which, after an assignment to Charles G. Davis, it was sold, in 1866, to 
Mr. Shubert. 

The vacant land adjoining the above lot on the east was sold by 
Edwin Morton and the administrators of Ichabod, in 1864, to Benjamin 
Hathaway, who sold it, in 1866, to Samuel Loring, by whom, exclusive 
of a parcel sold by him in 1867 to John Shubert, it is now owned. The 
lot east of the above was sold by the Messrs. Morton, in 1856, to Edgar 
C. and Mary G. Raymond, by whom the house now standing on the lot 
was built, and is owned and occupied. A part of the adjoining lot, four- 
teen feet wide, was sold by the Messrs. Morton, in 1856, to Zylpha W. 
Spooner, who added it to the old homestead of her father, the late 
Ephraim Harlow, and sold it, with the homestead, in 1873, to Isaac S. 
Burgess, who built the house next to that of Mr. Raymond, and still 
owns it. 

With the last lot ends the description of the lands allotted to John 
Howland in 1623, and granted by the town to his son, Jabez Howland, 
in 1672, bounded on the north by Town Brook, and on the south by a line 
running from Training Green through Jefferson Street to the town land. 
Along this line was located the spot of ground occupied by Hobamak, 
which is stated in the records as lying between the grounds of Stephen 
Hopkins and John Howland. As in later times the grounds of Hopkins 
and Howland are referred to as bounded by each other, it is probable 
that their grants were intended to include the land of Hobamak, and that 
after his death it was included within their limits. Hobamak, it will be 
remembered, was a young captain of Massasoit, who made his appear- 
ance in the settlement in the summer of 1621, and in a spirit of tender 
devotion attached himself to its service for the remainder of his life. 
The affectionate care he exhibited for the peace and safety of the Pil- 
grims is a striking proof not only of the kind treatment of the Indians at 
hands of our fathers, but of the existence in the savage breast of that 
fountain of kindly feelings which, properly nourished by later settlers 
in New England, would have secured perpetual amity and peace in the 
colonies. In a tract published in England in 1645, entitled " New Eng- 



310 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



land's First Fruits," it is said of Hobamak, that "though he was much 
tempted by enticements, scoffs, and scorns from the Indians, yet could 
he never be gotten from the English, nor from seeking after their God, 
but died amongst them, leaving some good hopes in their hearts that his 
soul went to rest." 

Rev. Adoniram Judson, mentioned above, was born in Woodbury, grad- 
uated at Yale College, and married Abigail Brown of Tiverton, daughter of 
Abraham and Abigail Brown. He had four children, Adoniram, Abigail 
Brown, Elnathan, and Mary Alice. He was first settled at Maiden, after- 
wards in Wenham, and finally ordained in 1802 the first pastor of the Third 
Congregational Church in Plymouth. In 1817 he dissolved his connec- 
tion with the Plymouth Society, and died in Scituate in 1826. Of his 
children, Elnathan, born in Wenham, was a surgeon in the United 
States Navy; Abigail, born in Maiden, is still living in Plymouth at an 
advanced age, and Adoniram was well known as the missionary in 
India. The last-named, born in Maiden, entered an advanced class in 
Brown University in 1804 and graduated in 1807. After leaving college 
he opened a private school in Plymouth, where he prepared for the press 
a book entitled " Young Ladies' Arithmetic," and also a work on English 
Grammar. In 1808, while travelling through the Northern States, his 
mind became imbued with infidel views of religion, and, with no decided 
plan as to his future course of life, he was for a short time a member of 
a theatrical company. In 1810, having passed through a season of 
skepticism and doubt, he joined the church in Plymouth of which his 
father was the pastor. After a short time spent at the Andover Seminary 
he was admitted to preach by the Orange Association of Congregational 
ministers in Vermont. In 1812 he married Ann Hasseltine, and sailed 
in February of that year for India, with the view of devoting his life to 
missionary work. While in India, after the death of his wife, he married 
Sarah, widow of George Dana Boardman, a brother missionary. Five 
children by his second wife are still living, Adoniram, Elnathan, Henry, 
Edward, and Abby Ann, late a school-teacher in Plymouth. During his 
missionary service he made a single visit to his native country, during 
which, having lost his second wife, he married Emily Chubbuck, well 
known in literature as Fanny Forrester, by whom he had one child, 
Emily, who married a gentleman by the name of Hanna, and is still living. 

The land on Watson's Hill remaining to be described is that part 
lying south of a line drawn through Jefferson Street. Between that line 
and the northerly line of the estate of DeForest Shaw, on that part of 
Pleasant Street once called Jordan Street, lies a tract of land, extending 
westerly to the pond, measuring nine acres. The easterly part of this 
tract, bounded by Training Green, and reaching the westerly line of the 
house lots on Mayflower Street, is the allotment of six acres made to 
Stephen Hopkins in the first division of lands in 1623. The westerly 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



311 



part is the allotment of three acres made to Samuel Fuller, Jr., in the 
same division. In 1634, before his removal to Scituate, which occurred 
in that year, Mr. Fuller sold his land to Josiah Cook, and in 1638 Mr. 
Hopkins sold his also to Mr. Cook. Mr. Cook removed to Eastham in 1645, 
and in that year sold the nine acres of land bought of Hopkins and Fuller 
to Giles Rickard. In 1699 Giles Rickard, of a later generation, sold the 
nine acres to Abiel Shurtleff, and stated in his deed that they were given 
to him by his grandfather. In 1713 Mr. Shurtleff sold the land to 
William Barnes, who became the owner before he died, as is shown by 
the inventory of his estate, of all the land between Jefferson Street and 
South Street as far in a westerly direction as Lout Pond. At the death 
of Mr. Barnes the nine acres in question, with the exception of the house- 
lots now occupied by the houses of Ivory L. Harlow, David Drew, and 
Widow Lucy Barnes, which were set off to his son Benjamin, and the lot, 
hereafter mentioned, which he sold while living to Richard Waite 
became the property of his son Lemuel. These three lots, at the death 
of Benjamin, became the property of his son Isaac, and finally of his 
grandson, Isaac Barnes, Jr. The first of these three, in the order men- 
tioned, was sold by Isaac Barnes, Jr., in 1843, to Ivory L. Harlow, who 
built the house now owned and occupied by him. The second lot, on 
which the house stands built by Isaac Barnes, Sr., was sold in 1846 by 
Jeremiah Fairis, assignee of Isaac Barnes, Jr., to Leavitt Finney, who 
sold it in 1848 to David Drew, its present owner and occupant. The 
third lot, on which the house stands built by Isaac Barnes, Jr., was con- 
veyed in 1846 by Mr. Farris to Lucy C. Barnes, the wife of Isaac Barnes, 
Jr., who now as his widow is its owner and occupant. 

William Barnes sold the lot between Jefferson Street and the High 
School house to Richard Waite in 1725 and 1736, who built the north end of 
the house now standing, and sold it to John Winslow in 1736, and it after- 
wards passed into the possession of Thomas Jackson. The remainder of 
the nine acres which came into the possession of Lemuel Barnes was sold 
in 1781 and 1788 by William and Lemuel, sons of Lemuel, to Thomas 
Jackson, at whose death both the Waite and Barnes land came into the 
possession of his daughter Lydia, who, in 1797, sold the whole to her 
brother Thomas. Taking the various lots sold by Mr. Jackson, in the 
order of their sale, the first lot sold by him was that between Jefferson 
Street and the High School house, which he sold in 1797 to Caleb 
Bryant, who built the southerly end of the house now standing. In 1800 
Mr. Bryant sold it to George Rogers, who sold the north half in 1803 to 
Lewis Harlow. Mr. Harlow sold this half in 1805 to Henry Bartlett, 
whose son Hosea sold it in 1829 to John Perry. In 1866 John B. Perry 
and other heirs of John Perry sold it to Elijah B. Smith. The south half 
was sold by Mr. Rogers in 1814 to Bartlett Sears, whose heirs sold it in 
1823 to Lewis Perry. In 1834 Mr. Perry sold it to George Calloway, 



312 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



whose heirs sold it in 1868 to the late James Kendrick, by whose heirs 
it is owned and occupied. 

The High School lot was sold, in the year 1800, by Thomas Jackson to 
John Bishop and others, under whose direction the structure now stand- 
ing on the lot was erected, and by whom it was conveyed, in 1803, to 
the third precinct. The building was used by the precinct as their place 
of worship until their new meeting-house in Town Square was finished, 
when, in 1840, it was sold, with the lot, to Josiah Robbins, who sold it, 
in 1845, to Joab Thomas and others. After a short occupancy by the 
First Christian Society, it was sold, in 1849, by Mr. Thomas and his 
associates to the town, by whom the interior was reconstructed for the 
use of the high and other schools, which have since been its occupants. 
The lot on the corner of Franklin and Pleasant Streets was sold by 
Thomas Jackson, in 1800, to Nathaniel Harlow, who sold it, in the next 
year, to Lewis Harlow, who added it to the next lot on the south, which 
he had bought of Mr. Jackson in the previous year. Mr. Harlow built 
the old house now standing on the lot, and it was occupied by him and 
his heirs until 1871, when the whole estate was sold to Franklin B. 
Cobb, Jr., who built the new house standing on the lot. In 1876 Mr. 
Cobb sold the estate, including both houses, to John L. Chamberlin, who 
sold it, in the same year, to Mary E. Cobb, who is still the owner of the 
old house. In 1879 Mary E. Cobb sold the corner lot, with the new 
house, to Roswell S. Douglas, who conveyed it, in the same year, to 
Sylvester H. Clark, by whom it was conveyed to Francis J. Douglas, the 
grantor to Ezra C. Chandler, its present owner. 

The remainder of the land bought by Thomas Jackson in 1797 of his 
sister Lydia was sold by him, in 1823, to Samuel Bradford, The two 
first lots on Jefferson Street, extending through to Franklin Street, were 
sold, in 1847, by Mr. Bradford to Ansel H. and Ichabod Harlow, who 
sold them, in 1850, to Amasa Churchill and George F. Weston. In 1863 
Mr. Weston sold the first lot to Victorine Annette, wife of Gideon Hol- 
brook, who sold it, in 1872, with the house now standing, to Branch E. 
Blackmer, its present owner. The next lot was sold to Joseph L. Wes- 
ton, who, in 1855, sold a portion to the town for an engine-house lot, and 
the remainder, in 1867, to Jane E., wife of Horace Whitten, who built 
the house which she now owns and occupies. The next lot was sold, in 
1845, by Mr. Bradford to Edwin Lewis, who sold it, in 1849, to John E. 
Barnes and Charles H. Tilson. In 1853 it came into the sole possession 
of Mr. Barnes, who built the house which he now owns and occupies. 
The next lot was sold by Mr. Bradford, in 1847, to Asa Kendrick, who 
sold it, in 1849, to Albert Holmes. Mr. Holmes built the house now 
standing, and sold the west half, in 1852, to George B. Sampson, who 
sold it to Rufus Churchill, of whom it was bought, in 1859, by Ignatius 
Pierce, whose widow continues to own and occupy it. The easterly half 



TITLE8 OF ESTATES. 



313 



was sold by Mr. Holmes, in 1856, to Ezra Finney, whose heirs sold it, in 
1863, to the wife of Heman Churchill, its present owner. The next lot, 
on the corner of Mayflower Street, was sold by Mr. Bradford, in 1847, to 
Betsey Fisher, who sold it, in 1848, to Abijah Drew, by whom the house 
he now occupies was built. 

The first lot on the south side of Franklin Street above the corner 
was sold by Mr. Bradford, in 1844, to William Nickerson, who built the 
house he now occupies. The next lot was sold by Mr. Bradford in the 
same year to Amasa Churchill, who sold it, in 1556, to David L. Harlow. 
The next lot remains unsold in the possession of the heirs of Mr. Brad- 
ford, and that adjoining was sold by Mr. Bradford, in 1843, to Ichabod 
Harlow, who sold it, in 1849, to Samuel Dickson. In 1850 Mr. Dickson 
sold it to George F. Weston, who sold one-half, in 1851, to Amasa 
Churchill, who joined with Mr. Weston in the sale of the whole, in 1854, 
to William Stephens, who built the house on the lot. The next lot on 
the corner was sold, in 1846, to Joseph Lee, who sold it, in 1850, to 
Ephraim Harlow and others. An unfinished house standing on the lot 
was completed by them and sold, in 1854, to Pelham Finney, who sold 
it, in 1867, to Margery Callahan. In 1868 Ellen Gardner, daughter of 
Mrs. Callahan, sold it to Daniel D. Callahan, who sold it, in the same 
year, to George R. Calloway, its present owner. 

Crossing Mayflower Street, the first lot on the land sold by Thomas 
Jackson to Mr. Bradford, immediately south of the house of Arthur S. 
Byrnes, is still in the possession of Mr. Bradford's heirs, a vacant lot. 
The next two lots, on which the Dickson houses stand, compose what is 
known as the windmill lot, and were sold by Mr. Bradford, in 1847, to 
Ephraim Harlow and others, and were again sold, in 1858, to Leavitt 
Finney. In 1867 Mr. Finney sold them to John M. Cobb, who sold the 
northerly one, in the same year, to Calvin L. Dickson, and the other to 
Ruby F. Dickson, the wife of Samuel R. Dickson. 

The remainder of the Bradford purchase, including the lots on both 
sides of Washington Street, and the lots on the westerly side of May- 
flower Street, owned by Nathan W. Douglas, Elisha Douglas, and John 
M. Cobb, was sold by Mr. Bradford in 1842 to Isaac Barnes, Jr., whose 
assignee sold it 1846 to Stafford Sturtevant and Ephraim Harlow. 

The easterly lot, on the north side of Washington Street, was sold by 
Messrs. Sturtevant and Harlow in 1856 to Amasa Churchill, who built 
the house now standing, and sold it in 1870 to Benjamin Hubbard. In 
1871 Dr. Hubbard sold it to Lyndon P. Hubbard, who sold it in 1875 to 
Leavitt T. Robbins and George E. Morton. In 1876 Messrs. Robbins 
and Morton sold it to Rebecca S., wife of Samuel Sampson, who is its 
present owner. The next lot was sold by Messrs. Sturtevant and Har- 
low in 1853 to Corban Barnes, who sold it, with the house now standing, 
in 1855, to Henry J. Raymond, whose heirs now own it. The next lot 



314 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



was also sold to Corban Barnes in 1853, and by him in 1871 to Amos H. 
Locke. In 1877 Mr. Locke sold it to William S. Robbins, its present 
owner. The next lot, on the corner of Mayflower Street, was sold by 
Messrs. Sturtevant and Harlow in 1855 to Samuel R. Dickson, who built 
the house he now owns and occupies. 

The three upper lots on the south side of Washington Street were sold 
by Messrs. Sturtevant and Harlow in 1853 to Amasa Churchill. That on 
the corner Mr. Churchill sold in 1863 to Elijah B. Smith, who sold it in 

1865 to John M. Cobb. Mr. Cobb built the house standing on the lot, 
which he still owns and occupies. The next lot Mr. Churchill sold in 
1858 to William R. Drew, who built the house on the lot, and sold it in 
1870 to Francis M. Miett. The third lot Mr. Churchill sold in 1855 to 
Joseph Antoine, who sold it in 1859 to George X. Adams. In 1865 and 

1866 the widow and heirs of Mr. Adams sold it with the house now 
standing to Mary E., wife of Sylvester R. Swett, who sold it in 1872 to 
Leavitt Finney, of whom it was bought in the same year by the wife of 
Gideon Holbrook, its present owner. The last lot on the street, adjoining 
the homestead of David Drew, was sold by Messrs. Sturtevant and 
Harlow in 1853 to William Manter, who sold it in 1862 to Ellis Barnes, 
its present owner. 

The first lot on Mayflower Street, included in the Sturtevant and 
Harlow purchase, is that of Xathan W. Douglas, which was sold in 
1853 to James Morton, who sold it in 1878 to Mr. Douglas, by whom the 
house he occupies was built. The next lot, on which the house stands 
built by Elisha Douglas, and now owned and occupied by him, was also 
sold to Mr. Morton in 1853, and by him in 1878 to Ichabod A. Holmes. 
In 1879 Mr. Holmes sold it to Mr. Douglas. The remainder of the 
purchase, now a vacant lot, was also bought by Mr. Morton in 1853, and 
sold by him in 1878 to John M. Cobb, its present owner. 

The lots above described cover all the land included in the original 
Hopkins and Fuller grants of 1623, except the meadow and pasture in 
the rear near the pond. 

That part of Watson's Hill which remains to be described lies between 
the northerly line of the estate of DeForest Shaw, extended over the hill 
and South Street, and extends from Jordan or Pleasant Street to the line 
of the slaughter-house pond. Jordan Street, one of its bounds, which 
was a part of what in ancient times was called the road to Jonlan, 
derived its name from Baruck Jourdain, who owned a large tract of land 
near the South Pond Road, which he bought of Samuel Eddy in 1685. 
He was the son of John Jourdain who appeared in Plymouth in the year 
1642 In early deeds the name of the street and road has the same 
spelling as that given above. The land in question includes two acres 
granted to Edward Doty and Edward Leister in 1623, and six acres 
given by the town to James Cole. The two acres of Doty and Leister 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



315 



lie in the southwest corner of the tract, bounded by Mayflower and Stafford 
Streets on the east and south, and the land of Mrs. William Bartlett and 
Peleg C. Chandler and others on the north ; and the six acres of Mr. 
Cole include the remainder of the tract. The six acres were given by 
James Cole in 1701 to his son John, who sold them to Abiel Shurtleff. 
In 1713 Mr. Shurtleff sold them to William Barnes, together with the 
adjacent nine acres heretofore described. At the death of Mr. Barnes 
this part of his estate came into the possession of the heirs of his son 
Benjamin, exclusive of the two house-lots on Pleasant Street, on which 
the houses of Mr. Shaw and Mr. Avery stand, and the land in their rear 
which came into the possession of Hannah, the wife of James Thomas, 
and daughter of Lemuel Barnes. In 1784 Mrs. Thomas sold these lots 
to Isaac Barnes, Sr., from whom the Shaw house and lot and rear land 
descended to his daughter Lucy, the wife of Ivory Harlow. In 1856 
Lucy Harlow sold it to her son, Justus Harlow, whose administrator sold 
in 1861 the lot in the rear, between the house-lot and Mayflower Street, 
to Ellis Barnes, its present owner. In 1867 Martin L. Harlow and others, 
heirs of Justus Harlow, sold the house and lot on which it stands to 
William King, who gave a deed of mortgage of the premises in the 
same year to the Plymouth Savings Bank, and another in 1869 to James 
Morton. In 1873 the property was sold to DeForest Shaw, who is its 
present owner and occupant. The land on the westerly side of May- 
flower Street, belonging to the Hai-low estate, was sold in 1857 by Justus 
and Ivory L. Harlow to Albert C. Chandler, who sold it in 1871 to Peleg 
C. Chandler and others, its present owners. The next lot, on which the 
house recently occupied by Winslow W. Avery stands, including the 
rear land, was sold by Isaac Barnes in 1810 to Ivory Harlow, whose son 
Ivory L. Harlow, built the hoiise now standing. In 1846 it was sold by 
the Plymouth Savings Bank, under a deed of mortgage given in 1843, to 
Benjamin Goddard, who sold it in 1852 to Stafford Sturtevant. It was 
occupied for some years by Mr. Sturtevant, and sold by his heirs in 1866 
to Rosamond Avery. A part of the land on the westerly side of May- 
flower Street belonging to the estate, was sold by Mr. Sturtevant in 1856 
to Albert C. Chandler, and has since formed a part of the Chandler lot. 
On the remainder Mr. Sturtevant built a house, which he sold in 1865 to 
John T. Pope, who sold it in 1867 to Mrs. William Bartlett, its present 
owner. -~ 

The lot south of the southerly line of the Avery house lot, extending 
to Mayflower Street, was set off as above stated, at the death of William 
Barnes, to the heirs of his son Benjamin. A strip of this land, extending 
on Pleasant Street as far south as the land of the late Joseph W. Pierce, 
fell to Alice, daughter of Benjamin Barnes, and wife of Samuel Battles. 
At the death of Mr. Battles that part of it on which the house of E. C. 
Turner now stands, was assigned to his daughter Experience, who 



316 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



married George Perkins, and the remainder to his daughter Sarah, the 
wife of John Gray. Mr. Perkins built the house now standing on the 
lot belonging to his wife, and after his death it was sold by his heirs to 
Ezekiel C. Turner, whose wife was one of his children. The land which 
fell to Mrs. Gray was sold to her sister Elizabeth, wife of John Stephens, 
and was sold in 1867 to Winslow W. Avery by Zacheus Stephens and 
others, administrators and heirs of John Stephens. The remaining strip 
came-by inheritance into the possession of Mary E. Goddard, daughter 
of Ellis Barnes, one of the representatives of Benjamin Barnes, above 
mentioned, by whom a lot on the easterly side of Mayflower Street was 
sold in 1869 to Colman B. Chandler, who built the two houses on the lot, 
one of which he now occupies. The remaining portion was sold by her 
m the same year to Albert Mason and others, who sold it in 1870 to 
Amasa Churchill. In 1871 Mr. Churchill sold it to Thomas Caswell, 
who sold, in 1873, to Amelia Ferdinand, the lot on which her house now 
stands, and in 1877 to Joseph W. and Sarah Pierce the lot on the corner 
of Pleasant and South Streets, on which the house now stands built by 
them. The lot south of Mrs. Ferdinand he sold in 1880 to Joshua Alonzo 
Douglass, who built the house on the lot which he u uw occupies. A 
part of the remainder of the land purchased by Mr. Caswell was sold by 
him to Mr. Aveiy, who added it to the lot on which he has recently built 
the house he now occupies. 

The two acres granted to Edward Doty and Edward Leister, after 
various transfers, came into the possession of Rev. Ephraim Little, whose 
widow sold the lot, in 1724, to Stephen Churchill. In 1755 Benjamin 
Churchill, son of Stephen, sold it to Thomas Foster, who sold it, in 1757, 
to Samuel Harlow. In 1784 it was taken on an execution against Mr. 
Harlow by Nathaniel Goodwin, who sold it, in 1787, to Benjamin Barnes, 
then the owner of the adjoining land, already described. In 1874 John 
C. Barnes, son of Ellis Barnes, one of the representatives of Benjamin 
Barnes, sold it to Thomas Pierce, who sold a lot on its northerly end to 
Nathan K. Douglass. Mr. Douglass built a house on his lot, which he 
now occupies, and Mr. Pierce built two houses on the remainder, one of 
which he now occupies. 

Training Green. — The next tract of land to be considered is 
Training Green. In 1711 all the common land in that vicinity, except a 
parcel bounded by what are now Sandwich, Pleasant, North Green, and 
South Streets, had been granted to individuals. This parcel, up to that 
time, had been used in common by the early settlers, without any special 
vote of the town, and had long been known by the name of Training 
Green. In that year it was voted " that all the land lying to the north- 
ward of the range of the land between Samuel Harlow and John 
Barnes, that is to say, to run up the same point of compass said range of 



TITLES OF ESTATE8. 



317 



Harlow's and Barnes 1 range runs, to run up to the top of the hill and all 
the land to the northward, shall be for a perpetual common or training 
place, never to be granted any part thereof, but be perpetually for public 
and common benefit." In 1716 it was also voted by the town "that the 
Training Green, Cole's Hill, and a spot of land about the Great Gutter, 
with all the common lands to each parcel adjoining, shall not be disposed 
of to any person without special license from the town, notwithstanding 
former grants." In 1781 it was voted by the town that General Goodwin 
have permission to erect a building on the Green for the purpose of 
"keeping the travelling carriages" belonging to the Commonwealth 
free of expense to the town ; and in 1820 the selectmen were authorized 
to convey to the State such a portion of the Green as might be required 
for the erection of a gun-house for the Plymouth Artillery Company, 
possession to be retained as long only as it was used for that purpose. 
Under authority thus given the gun-house was built, which most readers 
will remember as located on the northeast corner of the Green. After 
the disbandment of the company its guns were returned to the State, the 
building was sold by the adjutant-general, and the land restored to the 
town. The building was bought by Henry Whiting, and moved to his 
lot near Hobshole Brook, where it was converted into the dwelling-house 
which he now occupies. 

In 1773 the first precinct sold to the county a portion of the land in 
Court Square, which it held for the benefit of the ministry, and the com- 
mittee making the sale were instructed to invest the proceeds in other 
lands. In 1788 the town having chosen a committee to sell that portion 
of the Green between South and South Green Streets, sold it to the pre- 
cinct, and the Green was reduced at that time to its present shape and 
size. In 1790 the precinct sold this square of land to Jesse Harlow. In 
1798 Mr. Harlow sold to the town a strip of land along his westerly line 
for the purpose of widening Pleasant Street, and a triangular parcel on 
his southwest corner, at the junction of Pleasant and South Streets, tak- 
ing as a consideration in exchange a strip of land fifteen feet wide along 
the line of South Street. Mr. Harlow opened the lane now running 
north and south through the lot, with the view of making all the land 
available for house-lots. In 1806 he sold the lot on the corner of South 
Green and Sandwich Streets to Ezra and John Harlow, who built and 
occupied the house now standing on the lot. The westerly half of the 
house and lot is still owned and occupied by the heirs of John Harlow, 
and the easterly half was sold, in 1853, by the heirs of Ezra Harlow, to 
Gideon Perkins. 

The lot adjoining the above on South Green Street was sold, in 1822, 
by the heirs of Jesse Harlow to John Harlow, who sold it, in 1857, to 
Amasa Churchill. Mr. Churchill built the house on the lot which he 
now occupies. 



318 



PLYMOUTH COLONY 



The lot on which the house stands occupied by Stevens M. Burbank, 
Jr., is made up of several parcels sold at different times by the heirs of 
Jesse Harlow. The front part was sold, in 1812, to Samuel Doten, by 
Nathaniel Spooner, guardian of Harlow J. Torrey, grandson of Jesse 
Harlow, and in 1813 another part immediately in its rear, running from 
the lane to Pleasant Street. Mr. Doten built the house now standing on 
the lot, and occupied it during his life. In 1814 Harlow J. Torrey sold 
a part of the lot facing South Street to Seth Harlow, who sold it, in 1821, 
to John Kennedy, who built and occupied a weaver's shop on his lot. In 
the same year Mr. Kennedy sold a lot on the corner of the lane and 
South Street to the town for a school-house, and in 1823 sold the 
remainder to Isaac Bames. Mr. Barnes sold it in the same year to Mr. 
Doten, who added it to his land. In 1815 Harlow J. Torrey sold the 
remainder of the lot facing South Street to John Harlow, who sold it, 
in 1823, to Mr. Doten, who thus completed his lot as it stood at the time 
of his death. The estate was sold, in 1866 and 1867, by the heirs of Mr. 
Doten, to Stevens M. Burbank, Jr., exclusive of the interest held by 
Cornelia D., the wife of Mr. Burbank, and one of the heirs. In 1870 
Mr. Burbank bought of his father the school-house lot adjoining his 
homestead, a reference to the sale of which will be made hereafter. In 
1875 Mr. Burbank sold the whole estate to Samuel H. Doten, who sold 
it, in the next year, to Cornelia D. Burbank, who has recently recon- 
veyed to Mr. Doten the rear part of the lot. 

The two lots on the corner of Sandwich and South Streets, on which 
the house of A. A. Sherman and the store of E. C. Turner stand, running 
through to the lane, came, at the death of Jesse Harlow, into the posses- 
sion of his grandson, John Torrey. In 1820 they were taken on execu- 
tion by Henry Warren, who sold them in 1821 to John Russell. In 
1824 Mr. Russell sold them to Samuel Doten, who sold them in 1838 to 
Samuel Barnes. Mr. Barnes built the dwelling-house on the corner, and 
sold it in 1858 to Winslow Burgess. In 1874 the heirs of Mr. Burgess 
sold it to A. A. Sherman, who at present owns and occupies it. The lot 
immediately in the rear of the corner lot was sold by Mr. Barnes in 
1866 to the town, and the school-house was moved from its old location 
on the other side of the lane and placed on the lot. The old school-house 
lot was sold in the same year to Stevens M. Burbank, who sold it in 
1870 to Stevens M. Burbank, Jr., the owner of the adjoining land. The 
store and lot were sold by Mr. Barnes in 1838 to Ezekiel C. Turner, its 
present occupant, who bought of Mr. Barnes in 1866 the land in the rear 
as far as the lane. 

The lot immediately north of the above, on which a double house 
now stands, after the death of Jesse Harlow came into the possession of 
his grandson, John Torrey. In 1820 Marcia O. Torrey and others, 
representatives of John Torrey, sold it to Finney Leach, who sold it in 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



319 



1828 to George and Harvey Weston. The house now standing was built 
by the Messrs. Weston, and in 1864 George F. Weston and others, heirs 
of George Weston, sold the north half to Charles H. Morey, its present 
owner and occupant. In 1845 Harvey Weston sold the south half to 
Heman Churchill, who sold it in 1852 to Jacob Swift. In 1867 Alfred 
Edwards and others, heirs of Mr. Swift, sold it to Ezekiel C. Turner, 
who sold it in the same year to Charles E. Bames. In 1870 Mr. Barnes 
sold it to Rufus H. Pope, who sold it in 1871 to Robert H. Barnes, who 
now owns and occupies it. 

South Street. — All the lots on the south side of South Street, from 
the estate of Benjamin D. Clifford to Sandwich Street, and on the west- 
erly side of that street as far as the Wadsworth estate, except the lot on 
the coiner, were originally owned by William Harlow, to whom por- 
tions of the land were granted in 1665 and 1691, and the remainder sold 
to him by Samuel Hicks in 1673- These grants extended to the shore, 
but that part of them lying easterly of Sandwich Street will be consid- 
ered hereafter. The lot on which the house of Mr. Clifford stands 
descended to Seth Harlow, the great-grandson of William, who built 
the house now standing. In 1824 Seth Harlow, the son of Seth, sold it 
to Levi Barnes, who sold it, in the next year, to William Parsons. Mr. 
Parsons occupied it many years, and sold it, in 1861, to William C. 
Fowler. In 1869 Mr. Fowler sold it to Benjamin D. Clifford, its present 
occupant. The enclosed field immediately below the estate of Mr. 
Clifford descended to Phebe Harlow, the great-granddaughter of Wil- 
liam, who married Edward Stephens, and finally descended from her to 
her grandson, the late Lemuel Stephens, and is now owned by his son, 
Lemuel Stephens of Philadelphia. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned by the heirs of Hugh 
Loud, was a part of the land which descended to Phebe Stephens, and 
was sold, in 1805, to Sylvanus Paty by William Stephens, the son of 
Edward. In 1814 Mr. Paty, after building the house now standing on 
the lot, sold it to William Paty, who sold it, in 1846, to William Robin- 
son. In 1857 Mr. Robinson sold it to Abner S. Burgess, who sold it, in 
the same year, to Gideon Perkins and Lemuel R. Wood. In 1859 
Messrs. Perkins and Wood sold it to Hugh Loud. 

The next estate, also a part of the Edward Stephens land, was sold 
to George Ellis, who built the house now standing. In 1828 Benjamin 
Dillard, who married the widow of Mr. Ellis, and Phineas Wells, who 
married his daughter, joined with their wives in a deed of the property 
to Isaac Davie, whose daughter, the wife of James Morton, now owns 
and occupies it. 

The next lot, on which a house stands built by Seth Harlow, son of 
Seth, was sold, in 1816, by Mr. Harlow to William Finney, the father of 



320 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Leavitt Finney, now living. In 1835 Patty, the widow of William Fin- 
ney, sold the westerly half to her son William, who sold it, in 1839, to 
Benjamin Dillard, and in 1842 Mrs. Finney sold the easterly half also to 
Mr. Dillard. In 1871 Mr. Dillard sold the westerly half to Thomas M. 
Coffin, who devised it by his will to the Plymouth Fragment Society. 
In 1877 the Fragment Society sold it to John C. Cave, its present occu- 
pant. In 1848 Mr. Dillard sold the easterly half to James Simmons, 
who sold it, in 1866, to Matilda Jewett 

The next lot descended from William Harlow to his great-grandson 
Seth, from whom it came into the hands of his son Benjamin, who built 
the house now standing. From Benjamin Harlow it came, partly by 
inheritance and partly by purchase from other heirs, into the hands of 
Asa Kendrick and his wife Sarah, who at present own and occupy it. 

The next lot, on which the Mercy Harlow house stands, descended to 
William Harlow, grandson of the first William, and the house now 
standing was probably built by him. He married Mercy, the daughter 
of John Rider, and had Sarah, who married Eleazer Churchill ; Benjamin, 
who married Elizabeth Stephens ; William, who married Hannah Little- 
john; Hannah, who married Ebenezer Samson; Mercy, who married 
Sylvanus Holmes; Keziah; Samuel, who married Mercy Bradford; 
Phebe, who married Edward Stephens; Rebecca, who married Ebenezer 
Ransom ; John, who married Lydia Holmes ; and Seth, who married 
Sarah Warren. Of these Seth and Phebe inherited lands already men- 
tioned. Mercy, the wife of Sylvanus Holmes, inherited land in the rear 
of South Street, until recently owned by her heirs. John inherited the 
Stephens house, to be mentioned hereafter, and Hannah, the wife of 
Ebenezer Samson, inherited the house and lot known as the Morse 
estate. The house in question on South Street, built by William Har- 
low, was occupied by him, and at his death came into the possession of 
his son Seth. At 'he death of Seth Harlow it came into the possession 
of his daughter Sarah, who married Oliver Kempton. Mr. Kempton 
died at sea in 1803, and his widow survived until 1855, when she died, 
at the age of eighty-four. At the death of Mrs. Kempton the estate 
came into the possession of her daughter Eliza, the wife of Elias Cox, 
who sold it, in 1879, to Barnabas Dunham. 

The next lot was a part of the homestead of Seth Harlow, and sold 
by him to his son Nathaniel, who married first Sarah, daughter of Elna- 
than Holmes, and afterwards Elizabeth, the widow of his brother Benja- 
min. Nathaniel Harlow built the house now standing on the lot, and 
occupied it until it was sold, in 1803, to John Allen. At the death of 
Mr. Allen it came into the possession of his son George. 

The next lot was bought by Elias Cox of the heirs of Seth Harlow, 
and sold by his widow in 1878 to Frank Ellis. In the same year Mr. 
Ellis sold it to Lewis Henry Brown, who built the house now standing, 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



321 



and now owns it. The lot on the corner of Sandwich and South Streets 
was town land until 1827, and for many years occupied by the town 
almshouse. In that year the present almshouse, built on land bought of 
Barnabas Hedge in 1826, having been completed, the old house was 
abandoned and sold with the land to Elias Cox. For some years a shop 
on the lot owned by Mr. Cox was occupied by Benjamin Barnes, and 
finally the house now standing was built and sold by Mr. Cox in 1866 to 
Benjamin D. Freeman, who sold it in 1872 to David Turkington. In 
1877 Mr. Turkington sold it to Martha S., the widow of John Batchelder, 
who still occupies it 

The land south of the almshouse lot, bounded by the street, was 
bought by Elias Cox of the heirs of Seth Harlow in two parcels, one in 
1827 and the other in 1834, and the rear lot, on which the Cox house 
stands, near what was once called Jumping Hill, was bought in 1830 of 
the heirs of Sylvanus Holmes. About that time Mr. Cox built the house 
now standing on the lot, which is at present occupied by his widow. 

The next lot, on which the Morse house stands, at the death of William 
Harlow, grandson of the first William, came into the possession of his 
daughter Hannah, who married Ebenezer Sampson. Mr. Sampson built 
the house now standing, and in 1772 sold the north half to George Samp- 
son. From Mr. Sampson it came into the possession of Isaac Covington, 
who married Mary, daughter of Mr. Sampson, and was sold in 1802 by 
Mary Covington, the guardian of his children, to John Perry. In 1831 
Mr. Perry sold it to his two sons, John and Lewis, and in the same year 
John released his interest to his brother. In 1833 Lewis Perry sold it 
to Benjamin Barnes, who sold it in 1838 to John A. Morse. The 
southerly half was divided into Uu parts, one of which came from 
Ebenezer Sampson into the possession of his son Ebenezer, from whom 
it descended to his daughter Olive, the wife of Perry Griffin, and mother 
of Granville Griffin, who is its present owner and occupant. The other 
part was sold in 1809 to Joseph Cooper by the administrator of Hannah 
Sampson, and again sold in 1839 by Mr. Cooper to Mr. Griffin. Under 
a mortgage given by Mr. Griffin to Atwood L. Drew it was sold by Mr. 
Drew in 1849 to John A. Morse, then the owner of the north half of the 
estate. In 1856 Mr. Morse sold it to James Morton, who in 1877 sold it 
to Amasa Churchill and Seth W. Paty, who, with Mr. Griffin, are now 
owners of the whole estate. 

The land between the Morse house and the Stephens estate, including 
the lot on which the Tedesco house stands, and the lot owned by William 
Sears, descended from the first WPliam Harlow to his grandson William. 
After his death it came into the possession of his son, Amaziah Harlow, 
who sold it in 1782 to Benjamin Barnes, the grandfather of Benjamin 
now living. That part of it which constitutes the house-lot adjoining 
the Morse house was conveyed by Mr. Barnes to his grandson Benjamin, 



322 



PLYMOUTH COLOXT. 



who built the house standing on the lot and occupied it many years. In 
187-1 Mr. Barnes built the house now occupied by him on the easterly 
side of Sandwich Street, and sold the house in question to Sarah F. 
Tedesco. 

The remainder of the land sold by Amasiah Harlow to Benjamin 
Barnes was set off in the division of the estate of Mr. Barnes to his 
daughter Deborah, the wife of John Gooding, and was sold by her heirs 
in 1877 to William S*?ars, its present owner. 

The Stephens lot next in order was granted by the town to William 
Harlow in 1665. In the words of the grant "a quarter of an acre of 
land was granted to William Harlow, being a little knowl or small 
parcel of land, lying near his now dwelling-house, on the westerly side 
of the road to sett a new house upon." After the close of King Philip's 
war the fort and watch-house on Burial Hill were abandoned, and a 
grant of the timbers of the fort was made to William Harlow, and of the 
material of the watch-house to Samuel Jenney. It has long been known, 
as stated in Thacher's History of Plymouth, that Mr. Harlow used these 
timbers in the construction of a house, and the writer has entertained 
during his investigations a hope of its discovery, which has been fully 
satisfied in tracing the pedigree of the house standing on the lot. In 
running down this pedigree he has found in deeds and divisions of estates 
an almost invariable reference to this house as standing by the watering- 
place, and he has satisfied himself that the spot bearing this designation 
is what is now a ditch on the southerly border of the estate, now nearly, 
if not quite dry, but within the memory of many now living a deep 
water-hole used for watering cattle. There can be no doubt that William 
Harlow, who came to Plymouth in 1637. built the house now standing, 
and it is not an unwarrantable inference from known facts that the 
timbers of the fort were used in its construction. At the death of Mr. 
Harlow in 1691 the estate came into the hands of his son, Samuel Har- 
low, under a division made in 1692. At the death of Samuel Harlow 
his son Samuel released in 1728 his interest in the estate to his brothers, 
William and John, and in the same year John released his interest to 
William. In 1765 John Harlow, one of the sons of William, sold it to 
Robert Hosea, who sold it in 1778 to Eleazer Stephens. In 1784 Mr. 
Stephens sold it to Seth Luce, who sold it in 1795 to Joseph Doten. 
After the death of Mr. Doten his widow Betsey married Sylvanus 
Stephens, and in 1822 Sylvanus Stephens and his wife Betsey sold it to 
Lemuel Stephens, whose daughter Sarah, the wife of Charles Burton, is 
now its owner. 

The land adjoining, as far as the estate on the north side of Hobbs- 
hole Brook owned by Amasa Holmes, was called, in early times, Alcar- 
mus and Alkarmus field. The first allusion to this field is under date of 
1667, though it is probable that Alkerman's field, mentioned under date 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



323 



of 1641, was the same spot The possible derivation of this name, sug- 
gested in the list of ancient local names in Chapter V. is not wholly 
satisfactory, and its explanation may be fonnd in some Dutch reference 
of which the town of Alkmaar, between Amsterdam, the first residence 
of the Pilgrims in Holland, and Leyden, their final resting-place, fur- 
nishes an illustration. 

That part of the field bounded on the south by Mount Pleasant Street, 
and extending westerly to the South Pond road, was granted, in different 
parcels, in 1667-1G70, and 1672, to Jonathan Barnes, John Waterman, and 
Thomas Dotey. In 1678 Mr. Waterman sold his land to Mr. Dotey, with 
a house, which has long since disappeared. Mr. Dotey came also into the 
possession of the land of Mr. Barnes, and thus became the owner of 
the whole tract. He built a house on the land, which is probably now 
standing, and which will be described when reached. That part of the 
land which includes the house-lots on Sandwich Street he sold, with his 
house, in 1709, to Lemuel Drew. The remainder, in the rear, was taken 
on execution by Joseph Miller, attorney of John Gray, Ebenezer Nick- 
erson, and Deborah Nickereon of Harwich, and sold by him, in 1725, to 
Mr. Drew, who thus became the owner of the whole. The rear land 
was afterwards sold by the heirs of Mr. Drew to Sylvanus Bartlett 
whose son, Jesse Bartlett, sold it, in 1817, to Benjamin Barnes, by 
whose heirs it was sold, in 1880, to Adoniram Whiting, its present 
owner. The lot next south of the watering-place, on which the Wads- 
worth house stands, was sold, in 1824, by Polly, the granddaughter of 
Lemuel Drew, to John Harlow, who built the house, since enlarged, 
now standing, and sold it, in 1826, to Solomon Sylvester. In 1842 Mr. 
Sylvester sold it to John Ferry, whose administrator sold it, in 1848, to 
James Wadsworth. In 1853 Mr. Wadsworth sold it to his sons, James 
T., and George E. Wadsworth, and it is still owned by the Wadsworth 
family. The next lot was also sold by Polly Drew, in 1824, to John 
Harlow, who sold it, in 1830, to Melzar Pierce. In 1841 Mr. Pierce, 
after building the house now standing, sold it to Mendall Pierce, who 
sold it, in 1845, to Thomas Ellis, its present occupant 

The next lot was inherited from Lemuel Drew by Seth, son of John 
Rider, who married Mary, daughter of Mr. Drew. In 1836 Esther, 
wife of Joseph Holmes, and daughter of Seth Rider, sold it to Melzar 
Pierce. Mr. Pierce built the house now standing, which he still owns 
and occupies. The next lot was inherited with the last by Seth Rider, 
and sold, in 1857 and 1867, by the heirs of Lot Stetson, who married 
Hannah, daughter of Seth Rider, to Benjamin Dillard, who sold it in 
1869, to Richard Atwood. In 1872 Mr. Atwood sold it to THUa and J. C. 
Barnes, who moved to the lot the house now standing. The adjoining 
lot on which the house probably built by Thomas Dotey stands, to 
which reference has been made above, was also inherited by Seth Rider. 



324 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



In the division of the estate of Mr. Rider it was set off to his daughter, 
Hannah Stetson, whose heirs sold the westerly half, in 1857 and 1867, to 
Benjamin Dillard. It was again sold, with the last lot, in 1869, by Mr. 
Dillard to Richard Atwood, who sold it, in 1872, to Ellis and J. C. 
Barnes, its present owners. The easterly half was sold, in 1842, by Lot 
Stetson to John King, who sold it, in I860, to Nancy R. Savery. In 
1866 Nancy R. Savery sold it to Deborah W. Perkins, its present owner. 

The next lot, a vacant one, came with the last into the possession of 
Seth Rider, and was taken, in 1827, on an execution against Mr. Rider 
by the county of Plymouth. In 1839 it was sold by the county to the 
trustees of the Fuller Ministerial Fund, and again by them in the same 
year to Henry Raymond. In 1841 Mr. Raymond sold it to Sidney Bur- 
gess, who sold it, in 1844, to Lemuel R Wood. In 1878 it was sold by 
Mr. Wood to Curtis Holmes,- its present owner. The next lot, after the 
death of James Drew, son of Lemuel Drew, was set off to his daughter 
Priscilla, the wife of Jonathan Tufts. In 1825 it was sold by the heirs 
of Mr. Tufts to Lot Stetson, who sold it, in 1834, to James Wadsworth. 
Mr.'Wadsworth built the house now standing, and sold it, in 1845, to 
Joseph Allen. In 1857 Joseph Allen sold it to Truman C. Holmes, Jr., 
whose widow, Betsey Holmes, sold it, in 1875, to Curtis Holmes, its 
present owner. 

The next two lots, extending to the corner of Mount Pleasant Street, 
were assigned, in the division of the estate of James Drew, to his daugh- 
ter Lydia, the wife of Matthew Cushing. In 1801 Mrs. Cushing sold 
them to Moses Hoyt, who sold the first lot, in 1844, to his son, John F. 
Hoyt, who built the house which he now occupies, and the corner lot, in 
the same year, to his son, Curtis Hoyt, who built the house now stand- 
ing. Curtis Hoyt sold his house and lot, in 1853, to Albert M. Sears, 
who bequeathed it at his death by his wilf to his widow, Mary A. Sears, 
who afterwards married Patrick Kerwin. In 1866 Mrs. Kerwin sold it 
to Seth Finney, its present occupant. These two lots of John F. and 
Curtis Hoyt were enlarged by additions in the following manner. 
Joseph Holmes and his wife Esther, the daughter of Seth Rider, above- 
mentioned, sold a lot, in 1829, in Mount Pleasant Street to Phineas 
King. In 1841 Mr. King sold the westerly half of the lot to Adoniram 
Whiting, who built a house on the lot, which he now occupies. The 
remainder he sold to Lewis King, who in 1844 sold one-third to Adoni- 
ram Whiting, one-third to Curtis Hoyt, and one-third to John F. Hoyt, 
to enlarge their respective lots. 

The first allusion to Mount Pleasant Street in the records is under 
date of 1722, when it was called the lane leading to Jordan, or, as has 
been previously stated, to the land of Baruck Jourdain, lying at some 
point on the South Pond road, probably not far from the house of the 
late John Brailey. In 1706 the land on the south side of the street was 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



325 



bounded in the deeds by the land of Thomas Dotey, above described. 
It is probable, therefore, that it was opened between 1709 and 1722, and 
built upon soon after, as at least two houses, known by older readers as 
the Faunce and Thomas houses, on the south side of the street, have run 
through their careers and long since been demolished. As the street 
runs directly through the old Alcarmus field, the name of Alcarmus 
Street might with propriety be adopted as its future designation. 

That part of Alcarmus field lying south of Mount Pleasant Street, 
and extending southerly as far as the northerly boundary of the estate of 
Amasa Holmes, was granted in three parcels: to John Morton, four 
acres, in 1670; to George Watson, four acres, in 1672; and to Giles 
Rickard, Jr., two acres, in 1677. The two acres of Mr. Rickard included 
all the land lying on Sandwich Street, and were bequeathed by him at 
his death to his son Josiah. In 1707 Josiah Rickard sold the lot to 
Ebenezer Eaton, who married his sister, and in 1709 Mr. Eaton sold it to 
John Faunce, a son of Elder Faunce. During its ownership by Mr. 
Faunce, he built and occupied the house, which many readers will 
remember as standing at the corner of Mount Pleasant and Sandwich 
Streets, on the site now occupied by the house of Mary Wood. In 1722 
John Faunce sold the house, with the two acres of land, to his cousin, 
Eleazer Faunce, son of Joseph, and in his deed he described them as 
bounded north by the lane. From Eleazer Faunce the corner house and 
lot passed into the hands of Barnabas Churchill, who occupied the 
whole house until 1773, when he sold the westerly half to Robert Davie. 
In the division of the estate of Mr. Churchill, the easterly half was 
assigned to his son Barnabas, the grandfather of Barnabas now living, 
who sold it, in 1784, to Seth Churchill. In 1790 Seth Churchill sold it to 
Robert Davie, who thus became the owner of the whole. In 1798 the 
heirs of Robert Davie sold it to Robert Davie, Jr., their co-heir. Mr. 
Davie was already the owner of the vacant lot on the south, by its pur- 
chase, in 1794, of Zephaniah Harlow. Mr. Harlow had bought it, in 
1760, of Joseph Bramhall, the heir of Sylvanus Bramhall, who had pur- 
chased it, in 1774, of Joseph Johnson, the representative of its previous 
owner in the Faunce family. In 1830 Fannie Davie sold one-half of the 
estate to Samuel Talbot, whose wife, the daughter of Robert Davie, had 
become the owner of the other half by inheritance. In 1847 and 1851 
Mr. Talbot sold the estate, in two lots, to George H. Wood, who took 
down the old Faunce house, and built that now owned and occupied by 
his widow. 

The next lot, on which the Luce house, so called, stands, including 
the vacant lot adjoining it on the south, was a part of the land sold by 
John Faunce to Eleazer Faunce in 1722, and was again sold by Thomas 
Faunce, brother of Eleazer, in 1730, to Benjamin Morton, as stated in 
the deed, to build a house upon. The house now standing was built by 



326 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Mr. Morton, and occupied by him during his life. In 1784 it was sold 
by his son Benjamin to Crosby Luce, who also made it his residence. It 
is probable that the house built by Mr Morton included only the south- 
erly half of that now standing, and the tradition to this effect is abun- 
dantly confirmed by the appearance of the two parts, varying as they do 
both in style and marks of age. In 1804 Crosby Luce sold the north 
half to his son-in-law, Moses Hoyt, whose son, John F. Hoyt, sold it, in 
1878", to Cornelius Bartlett, its present occupant. The south half was 
sold, in 1852, by Betsey Luce to John F. Hoyt, who sold it, in 1855, to 
Prince Doten, its present occupant. Previous to the sale of the south 
half to John F. Hoyt, Betsey Luce sold, in 1840, the lot on the south 
side of the house to Joseph Allen, who sold it, in 1857, to Truman C. 
Holmes, Jr. In 1875 Betsey Holmes, the widow of Truman, sold it to 
Curtis Holmes, its present owner. 

The next lot, a part of the estate of Amasa Holmes, was granted in 
1702 and 1710 to Joseph Faunce, whose son Thomas sold it in 1743 to 
Eleazer Holmes, who was then the owner of the lot on the south, which 
is the remainder of the estate of Amasa Holmes. This remainder, on 
which the house of Amasa Holmes stands, was a part of land granted in 
two parcels in 1658 and 1668 to Nathaniel Morton, the secretary of the 
colony, who built a house on the lot which he occupied as a residence. 
In 1698 Eleazer Morton, son of Ephraim, and nephew of the secretary, 
sold it to Giles Rickard, and in his deed he describes the house on 
the lot as that of his honored uncle, Nathaniel Morton. At the death of 
Mr. Rickard a part was sold in 1718 by Samuel Rickard to Edward 
Stephens, and in the same year by Mr. Stephens to Eleazer Holmes, who 
bought the remainder in 1720 of Desire Doten, an adopted daughter 
of Giles Rickard. After the death of Mr. Holmes it passed to his 
son Eleazer, who built the house now standing. In 1817 the heirs of 
Eleazer Holmes sold it to Thomas Atwood, whose heirs sold it in 1839 to 
Joseph Allen. In 1872 Winslow Rickard, administrator of Mr. Allen, 
sold it to Amasa Holmes, who sold it in the same year to his son, 
Frederick L. Holmes, who resold it to his father in 1878. 

Hobshole, on Wellingslet. — The remaining lots between Hobs- 
hole Brook and the southerly line of the mile-and-a-half tract lie within 
the district of Hobshole, or Wellingsley. The derivation of these names 
has always puzzled antiquarians, and has been subjected to a somewhat 
critical examination by the writer. The first appearance of the name of 
Hobshole is in the division of lands in 1623, in which, under the caption 
of " these butt on Hobeshole," may be found a list of grants to Nicholas 
Snow, Anthony Dix, servants of Mr. Pierce, and Ralfe Wallen. Its next 
appearance is under date of 1629, when " Abraham Pierce sold to Thomas 
Clarck one acre of land lying on ye south side of the towne abutting on 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



327 



Hobshole." In a deed dated 1640, from Anthony Snow to John Jenkins, 
it is called Hobbshole, and again in 1643, in a deed from Widow Joyce 
Wallen to Edward Bangs, it is called Hobshole. These are the earliest 
and only instances of the use of the name up to 1643. It has been sug- 
gested by some that the name was derived from Hobamak, who perhaps 
used the creek to which it was at first applied as a landing-place for his 
fishing- canoe, or had his residence near it. While, however, there Is 
no evidence that Hobamak was ever iD any way connected with the 
locality, it is known that Hobamak's ground was on Watson's Hill, 
remote from Hobshole, and so near the creek, which now forms the 
ropewalk pond, that it is far from probable that he kept his canoe so far 
from his residence. Besides, if a derivation in some surname is sought 
a more plausible one is at hand. The writer finds in Bailey's dictionary 
the word " Hobs " recognized as meaning " belonging to Robert." 
There were four Roberts mentioned in the division of 1623, two of whom, 
Robert Bartlett and Robert Ratliffe, had lands south of Hobshole Brook, 
and it is a question at least worthy of consideration whether one or both 
of these did not occupy lands in that vicinity before the division, and 
thus originate the name. A still more probable derivation, however, 
has occurred to the writer. The peculiar character of the spot originally 
called Hobshole is well known to readers, though perhaps better to the 
last generation, who remember it as it was before the road, now wider 
than formerly, had encroached upon its borders. It was a large, wet 
meadow, with small pools of standing water scattered among compara- 
tively dry tussocks of grass difficult to cross except by jumping from one 
tussock to another, and thus avoiding the muddy channels between. 
These tussocks are described in some dictionaries as " hobs," and if no 
further evidence were at hand a derivation from this word would seem 
possible. But the writer has discovered that this word was not only 
known but used by the Pilgrims precisely in the sense above referred to. 
Under date of 1641 it was ordered by the colony court " that John 
Dunham, the younger, is granted twenty acres of upland about the north- 
easterly side of Josiah Cook and Haystack Pond, and the odd ' hobs ' of 
meadowing he desireth thereabouts." Persons in search of derivations 
often extend their explorations to distant fields, when the object of their 
search lies at their feet in some circumstance,or local feature almost too 
insignificant to be remembered or even noticed. "Hobbly Hole," a 
" hole full of hubbies or hobs," was perhaps the spot which, as early as 
1623, was called Hobshole, and which gave its name to the brook and 
the hamlet lying on its southern borders. 

The name of Wellingsley first appears in the records under date of 
1639, in a deed from Elizabeth, the widow of Richard Warren, to her 
daughter Abigail, the wife of Anthony Snow, as a marriage portion, "of 
her house, situated near the place called Wellingsley (alis) Hobshole, 



328 



PLYMOUTH COLOXY. 



with the eight acres of land thereunto adjoining." It appears next in 
1640, with the same spelling, and in the same year, again as "Wil- 
lingsly." 

The question of the derivation of the name Wellingsley is less diffi- 
cult of solution than that of its application to the spot bearing the des- 
ignation. It has been thought to have some connection with Ralph 
Wallen, who had lands within its limits, and in some way to owe its 
origin to him. A simple circumstance, however 1 , destroys the plausibility 
of this theory. Under date of 1636 it was ordered by the colony court 
that "John Jenkins be allowed to enlarge at the ends of the grounds of 
Ralph Wallen at Willingsley, as the range of those lands do butt." It 
is not possible that during the life of Mr. Wallen his name and a 
place named after him could have been differently spelled in the same 
sentence. The name must at that time have been recently applied, as 
that is its first appearance in the records, and consequently it could not 
have been so early corrupted. It is clearly a Saxon word, and its final 
syllable, variously spelled "ly," "ley," "lea," "leah," and "lygh," sig- 
nifies a field or district. The middle syllable, " ing," means offspring, 
and words containing the above middle and final syllables mean the 
place of residence of the offspring of the family designated by the first 
syllable. The final syllables of "ton," "ham," "don," and "tun," are 
practically the same as that of " ly," and thus a satisfactory etymology 
is obtained of such names of towns as Chiddingly, Killingley, Wellings- 
ley, Arlington, Wilmington, Birmingham, and Bellingham. Thus the 
name under consideration is really the same as that of Wellington in its 
original signification, and was probably introduced into Plymouth, like 
many other names from England, without any more special application 
than Plymouth, the mouth of the Plym, and Falmouth, the mouth of the 
Fal, had when wrested from their appropriate surroundings in the old 
country. 

The land now occupied by the mill of Manter and Blackmer over 
Hobshole Brook was a part of the Eleazer Holmes estate on the north 
side of the brook, and was sold, in 1826, by Mary Spooner, wife of 
Nathaniel Spooner, and granddaughter of Eleazer Holmes, to James 
Wadsworth. The building now standing was erected at different times 
by owners and tenants, arM was sold by Mr. Wadsworth to Adoniram 
Whiting and others, who sold it, in 1858, to Henry and Winslow 
Whiting. It is believed to be owned at present by Manter and 
Blackmer. 

The next lot, on which the house owned and occupied by Ezekiel 
Rider stands, passed from the original grantees through the hands of 
various paities, and finally came into the possession of John Bartlett, the 
father of the late John Bartlett of Wellingsley, with a house built at an 
early period, which he occupied. After the partial destruction of the 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



329 



house by a severe gale the lot was sold by Mr. Bartlett to Thomas 
Atwood, who sold it, in 1832, to Mr. Rider. Mr. Rider built the house 
now standing, and enlarged his lot by purchase at various times of dif- 
ferent parcels of land from Ellis Holmes and Andrew Bessie in 1832 and 
1841. The larger part of one of these parcels, bounded by the street, 
has been recently sold by him to Thomas E. Cornish, Jr., who is its 
present owner. 

The next vacant lot on the south has a record of no special interest. 
It was at one time owned by Eleazer Sears, who sold it, in 1814, to 
Thaddeus Churchill, with an old house standing on the lot. In 1816 Mr. 
Churchill sold it to Isaac Barnes, whose daughter Mary, the wife of 
George W. Virgin, sold it, in 1873, to Frederick L. Holmes. In 1874 Mr. 
Holmes sold it to Franklin Lewis, who sold it, in the next year, to Mary 
A. Sylvester. In 1877 it was bought by Mr. Fuller, who has recently 
sold it to Thomas E. Cornish. 

The next estate, which includes the shop altered into a dwelling- 
house, and the house in the rear, was very early in the possession of 
the Morton family, and an old house which formerly stood directly in 
the rear of the shop building was occupied by them. Thomas Morton, 
its last occupant, had a son Thomas, who built the house now standing 
on the back part of the lot, owned and occupied by Marcia, widow of 
Cornelius Bartlett. The last Thomas had a daughter Betsey, who had 
two husbands, Joshua Perkins and Abraham Hobart. Mr. Perkins 
built the shop above referred to, and his daughter Marcia, now living on 
the estate, married first Joseph Sturtevant, and afterwards Cornelius 
Bartlett, whose widow she now is. 

The next estate, owned and occupied by the family of the late John 
Bartlett, was, in the early part of the last century, in the possession of 
Nathaniel Holmes. In 1740 Mr. Holmes sold the land to Zephaniah 
Holmes, who built the house now standing, and sold it in 1750 to Lemuel 
Churchill. In 1762 Mr. Churchill sold it to Solomon Sylvester, who sold 
it in 1772 to Eleazer Churchill. In 1792 Abigail, the widow and adminis- 
tratrix of Eleazer Churchill, sold it to Andrew Croswell, who sold it in 
1795 to Nathaniel Holmes. In 1798 Mr. Holmes sold it to James Morton 
and Nathan Reed, who sold it in 1833 to John Bartlett, whose family 
now own and occupy it. 

The next estate, on which the houses of Lemuel C. Howland and 
Alonzo Warren stand, was a part of the last-mentioned estate until- 1850, 
when it was sold by John Bartlett to Manuel A. Diaz, who built a barn 
on the land, and sold it in 1852 to Ichabod Morton. After the construc- 
tion of the house on the back part of the lot, the house on the front of the 
lot was built and sold in 1864 by the heirs of Ichabod Morton to his son 
Ichabod, who sold it in 1869 to Mr. Howland, its present owner. The 
house in the rear, with the land belonging to the same, was sold in 1864 



330 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



by the administrator of Ichabod Morton to Benjamin Hathaway, who 
sold it in 1865 to Mr. Warren, its present owner. 

The next lot was also a part of the Bartlett lot above mentioned until 
it came into the possession of Eleazer Churchill, in 1773. After the death 
of Mr. Churchill it was setoff in the division of his estate to his daughter 
Mercy, the wife of Rufus Bartlett, who sold it in 1801 to Barnabas 
Holmes. Mr. Holmes sold it in 1816 to Bartlett Holmes, who took down 
an old house on the lot and built that now standing. In 1864 and 1867 
the various heirs of Bartlett Holmes sold it to Abby H., the widow of 
Winslow Whiting, and Betsey P., the wife of George Whiting, who are 
its present owners and occupants. The next estate was also originally 
a part of the Bartlett lot, and has the same record as the last until it 
came into the hands of Bartlett Holmes. It afterwards came into the 
possession of Bartlett Holmes, Jr., who built the house now standing, 
and sold it to Frederick Bartlett. 

The next lot, on which the house of Benjamin Whitmore stands, was 
connected with the last until it came into the hands of Barnabas Holmes, 
who sold it in 1801 to David Cornish. Mr. Cornish built the house now 
standing, and sold it in 1811 to Samuel Lewis. In 1855 Samuel Lewis 
sold it to Freeman W. and Winslow Rickard, who sold it in the same 
year to William Lewis. In 1875 William Lewis sold it to Mr. Whitmore, 
its present owner. 

The land from this point to the corner was at an early date in the 
possession of Giles Rickard, who sold it with a house built by John 
Rickard to Ephraim Little. In 1717 Mr. Little sold it to Eleazer 
Churchill, from whom the lots owned and occupied by F. W. and Wins- 
low Rickard descended through the Churchill family, and were sold in 
1797 to Susanna, the wife of Lothrop Turner. In 1803 Mrs. Turner sold 
them to Elkanah Finney, who sold them in 1808 to Ansel Bartlett. In 
1834 Charles Bartlett sold them to Nathaniel Harlow, who built the 
northerly house standing on the land, and sold them with the house in 
1849 to Freeman W. Rickard. In 1854 Mr. Rickard sold one-half of the 
estate to his brother, Winslow Rickard, and in 1858 the Messrs. Rickard 
sold the southerly lot to Harvey H. Hoyt, who built the house standing 
on the lot, and sold it to the Messrs. Rickard in 1862. In 1866, in a 
division made by the Messrs. Rickard, the northerly house was set off to 
Freeman W., and the southerly one to Winslow. 

The two next estates descended through the Churchill family until 
they came into the hands of Peleg Churchill, who sold them in 1797 to 
Jacob Howland. The more northerly one, with the house built by Mr. 
Howland, was sold by Jacob Howland. Jr., in 1824 to Lewis Bartlett, 
whose widow still owns it. The southerly one was set off in the division 
of the estate of Jacob Howland, Sr., to his daughter Sally, the wife of 
Ephraim Morton, who built the house now standing, and sold it in 1820 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



331 



to William Stephens. In 1836 Mr. Stephens sold it to David Robertson, 
who sold it to Kimball R. Bartlett. In 1855 Mr. Bartlett sold it to Free- 
man W. Rickard, who gave a deed back to Mr. Bartlett in 1865. In the 
latter year Mr. Bartlett sold it to Henry and Abby W. Burgess, who sold 
it in the same year to Thomas B. Sears. In 1874 Mr. Sears sold it to. 
Winslow Rickard, in whom the record title now stands. 

The next estate, with the ancient house built by John Rickard before 
1700, passed from the Churchill family into the hands of Lemuel Morton, 
whose executor sold it in 1791 to Susanna Turner. In 1803 Mrs. Turner 
sold it to Elkanah Finney, who sold it in 1808 to Ansel Bartlett, the 
father of Harvey Bartlett, who built the house and store now standing on 
the lot. 

The corner lot, on which the school-house stands, descended from 
Eleazer Churchill, the grantee of Ephraim Little, to his son Elkanah and 
grandson Elkanah, and from the last Elkanah to his son Jabez, whose 
shop, standing on the lot, gave the name by which the corner has since 
been known. In 1831 Mr. Churchill sold the lot to his son Jabez, whose 
son, Jabez, Jr., sold it to the town in 1871. 

Having arrived at this point near the limit of the *' mile-and-a-half 
tract " granted by the proprietors to the town in 1701, the writer will 
retrace his steps and describe the lots and houses on the easterly side of 
the street. 

John Churchill, the progenitor of the Churchill family, who appeared in 
Plymouth in 1643, settled in Hobshole. His land was on the easterly side 
of the street, and extended from the southerly line of the field opposite 
to "Jabez Corner," to a point thirty feet distant from the southerly line of 
the estate of Branch Blackmer. Here he lived and died, but no tradition 
exists concerning the precise spot on which his house was situated. 
There are some indications, however, in the records that the old house 
owned by Thomas B. Sears and Amos Leshure, which was built by 
Elkanah Churchill, the grandson of John, occupies the site of the an- 
cient dwelling. After the death of Mr. Churchill, in 1663, the estate fell 
into the hands of his son Eleazer, who probably built and occupied as a 
residence the building taken down within a few years, which for many 
years was occupied as a shop by Messrs. Ichabod and Edwin Morton. 
During the possession of the estate by Eleazer Churchill a' grant was 
made to him by the town in 1709 of the strip of land thirty feet wide, 
above referred to, adjoining the estate of Mr. Blackmer, to erect a ware- 
house upon. This warehouse, if ever built, occupied, of course, a part of 
the site now occupied by the house of the late Edwin Morton. 

After the death of Eleazer Churchill, in 1716, the estate was divided 
between his two sons, Elkanah and Eleazer. To Elkanah was given the 
southerly half of the land bounded by the estate of the late Ichabod 
Morton on the north, and to Eleazer the remainder, as far as the line of 
the land of Branch Blackmer. 



332 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



After the death of Elkanah Churchill, in 1764, the half of the above 
belonging to him was divided between his two sons, Amasiah and 
Elkanah, Amasiah taking the southerly half and Elkanah the northerly 
half, including the old house, as far as the line of the estate of the late 
Ichabod Morton. 

In 1771 Amasiah Churchill sold the field composing his share to 
Thomas Davis, whose son, Isaac P. Davis, who had inherited it, sold it, 
in 1814, to William Davis. In 1815 Mr. Davis sold it to Benjamin 
Barnes, after whose death it came into the possession of his daughter 
Deborah, the wife of John Gooding. In 1853 Mrs. Gooding sold it to 
Thomas Morton, Thomas B. Sears, and Alvin G. Morton. Thomas 
Morton sold his share in 1855 to Hiram B. Sears, and Alvin G. Morton 
sold his in 18C0 to Thomas B. Sears. In 1876 the Messrs. Sears sold the 
whole to Prince Manter and Ivory Blackmer, its present owners. 

After the death of Elkanah Churchill, his share of the land, including 
the old house, came into the hands of his son Jabez, whose daughter 
Mercy, the wife of William Sears, sold the south half of the house to 
Amos Leshure in 1872, after a continuous ownership in the Churchill 
family of about two hundred and Miirty years. The northerly half of 
the house, with the remainder of the land, the heirs of Jabez Churchill 
sold, in 1821 and 1824, to Ansel Bartlett. Ansel Bartlett built the house 
now owned and occupied by Tliomas B. Sears, and sold the northerly 
half of the old house to his brother, Charles Bartlett. In 1865 George 
Branihall, administrator of Ansel Bartlett, sold the new house to Mr. 
Sears, who also bought, in 1869, of the town, acting as guardian of 
Charles Bartlett, the part of the old house of which he had died seized. 

The remainder of the original Churchill land, after the death of the 
second Eleazer, in 1754, was divided between his sons, Jonathan and 
Eleazer, Jonathan taking what is now the Ichabod Morton estate, and 
Eleazer the Edwin Morton estate. Jonathan Churchill built the house 
owned by the heirs of Ichabod Morton, and sold it, in 1769, to Thomas 
Davis. In 1774 Mr. Davis sold it to Nathaniel Morton, whose daughter 
Rebecca, the wife of William Davis, and grandmother of the writer, 
was born in the house. After the death of the widow of Mr. Morton, 
who by his will had a life-estate in the premises, it was set off to his 
daughter Meriah, the wife of John Torrey, and after the death of Mr. 
Torrey it was set off to his daughter Meriah, the wife of Woodworth 
Jackson, who was for a short time its occupant, In 1829, after the 
death of Mr. Jackson and wife, it was sold by his daughter, Maria T. 
Jackson, to Ichabod Morton, its late owner. 

Eleazer Churchill, brother of Jonathan, sold his share of his father's 
estate in 1777 to Solomon Sylvester, whose heirs sold it, in 1786, to 
George Watson, with the old house, afterwards converted into the shop 
of I. and E. Morton. In 1791 Mr. Watson sold it to Ichabod Morton, 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



333 



Sr., who built and occupied the Edwin Morton house. In 1812 it was 
taken on execution by Daniel and Charles Jackson, who sold it, in 1813, 
to Ichabod Morton, Jr., from whom, by subsequent divisions and trans- 
fers, it became the property of his brother, the late Edwin Morton. 

The land from this point to the brook was granted in 1668, by the 
colony court, to Nathaniel Morton, the secretary of the colony. The 
residence of Mr. Morton, as has been stated, was on the north side of 
the brook, and he soon disposed of this land to Nathaniel Harlow, son 
of William Harlow, who in turn sold it, in 1696, to his nephew, Robert 
Bartlett, son of Robert Bartlett, the progenitor of the Bartlett family. 
From that date it has been as closely associated with the Bartlett family 
as the land above described has been with the Churchill family, and a 
portion of it, as will be seen hereafter, is still in possession of one of its 
branches. In 1741 Robert Bartlett sold the lot on which the Blackmer 
house stands to his son, Lemuel Bartlett, who built the house now 
standing. From Lemuel Bartlett it descended to his son William, who 
sold it, in 1788, to John Gray. In 1801 Mr. Gray sold it to Thomas 
Sears, the father of Thomas B. Sears, whose administrators sold it, in 
1856, to Branch Blackmer, its present occupant. 

The next estate descended from Robert Bartlett to his son Joseph, 
who built the house now standing. At the death of Joseph it descended 
to his son Samuel, and from Samuel to his son Nathaniel, who was the 
father of Harriet, the widow of Samuel M. Whitten, and Mary, the 
widow of Henry Seymour, who are its present occupants. 

The next estate descended to Joseph Bartlett, one of the descendants 
of Robert Bartlett, who built the house now standing. In 1789 it was 
taken on execution by Hannah Rowe, who sold it in 1791 to Solomon 
Churchill and Nathaniel Holmes. In 1794 Mr. Holmes sold his interest 
to Mr. Churchill, who sold it in 1817 to Nathaniel Carver. In the same 
year Mr. Carver sold it to David Cornish and his son-in-law, Joseph 
Sturtevant, and it is now owned and occupied by Thomas E. Cornish, a 
grandson of David, above mentioned. 

The vacant lot, as far as the line of the land of George Fuller, de- 
scended to William and Joseph Bartlett. That part belonging to William 
Bartlett was taken on execution in 1788 by William Drew, who sold it 
in 1793 to Amasiah Morton. In 1794 the representatives of Mr. Morton 
sold it to Sylvanus Bartlett, who sold it to Isaac Barnes. After the 
death of Mr. Barnes it came into the possession of his daughter Mary, 
the wife of George W. Virgin, who sold it in 1872 to Alonzo Warren, its 
present owner. That part belonging to Joseph Bartlett was sold by him 
in 1793 to Isaac Barnes, by whose daughter, Mrs. Virgin, it was sold 
with the last lot in 1872 to Mr. Warren. 

The land which composes the estate of George Fuller, as far as the 
brook, descended to Joseph Bartlett, and from him to his son Samuel 



334 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



At the death of Samuel Bartlett it was set off to his son William, who 
sold it in 1794 to Sylvanus Bartlett. In 1816 Jesse Bartlett, son of 
Sylvanus, sold it to Benjamin Barnes, whose grandson, Bradford Barnes, 
sold it by two deeds, one in 1841 and one in 1849, to Ezekiel Rider. In 
1849 Mr. Rider sold it, with the blacksmith-shop standing on the land, to 
George Fuller, who built the house, which he still occupies. 

The first lot north of the brook, owned by Ezekiel Rider, and the next, 
on which the house stands owned and occupied by Helen L. Shaw and 
Augusta M. Morton, wife of Levi P. Morton, are a part of the land once 
belonging to Nathaniel Morton. That land it will be remembered was 
sold by Eleazer Morton in 1698 to Giles Rickard, whose heirs sold it in 
1718 to Edward Stephens, who sold it to Eleazer Holmes. After the 
death of Mr. Holmes it came into the possession of his son Ichabod, in 
the division of whose estate the two lots in question were set off to his 
daughter Rebecca, the wife of Nathaniel Bradford. In 1835 Rebecca 
Doten, wife of Samuel Doten, who had inherited them from her mother, 
Rebecca Bradford, sold them to Joseph Allen. In 1855 Mr. Allen sold 
them to Atwood Holmes, who sold them in the same year to Ezekiel 
Rider. Mr. Rider built the carriage-factory standing on the first lot, 
which is still owned by him, and sold the second lot in 1857 to his 
daughter Hannah, wife of Alexander O. Nelson. Mrs. Nelson built the 
house standing on the lot, and sold it to Freeman W. and Winslow 
Rickard, who sold it in 1860 to Leavitt T. Robbins. In 1866 Mr. Robbins 
sold it to Freeman W. Rickard, who sold it in the same year to Augusta 
M. Morton and Helen L. Shaw, its present occupants. 

The next estate, owned and occupied by the heirs of Pelham Whiting, 
is a part of the land of Secretary Morton which was sold in 1698 by his 
nephew Eleazer to Giles Rickard. Together with the land on the 
westerly side of the street already traced, it came into the possession of 
Eleazer Holmes, who probably built the house now standing. After the 
death of Eleazer it came into the possession of Ichabod Holmes, and was 
occupied by him and his son Chandler. In 1857 it was sold by the heirs 
of Chandler Holmes to Pelham Whiting. 

The next estate, owned and occupied by Henry Whiting, Jr., together 
with the estate on the corner of Winter Street, recently owned and 
occupied by the late Henry Whiting, Sr., were granted by the town in 
1672 to Benjamin Bartlett. In 1704 Mr. Bartlett sold them to Nathaniel 
Holmes, the father of Eleazer Holmes, who, as above mentioned, after- 
wards became the owner of the adjoining estate. At the death of 
Nathaniel Holmes they were inherited by his son, Eleazer Holmes, in 
the division of whose estate, after his death, the land now of Henry 
Whiting, Jr., was set off to his daughter Elizabeth, the wife of John 
Bradford, and the homestead lot of the late Henry Whiting, Sr., was set 
off to his daughter Lydia, the wife of Barnabas Churchill. Elizabeth 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



335 



Bradford sold her land in 1794 to Ichabod Holmes, in the division of 
whose estate it was set off to his daughter Esther, the wife of Ichabod 
Shaw. In 1844 it was sold by Mrs. Shaw to Henry Whiting, Sr., who 
afterwards sold it to his son Henry. Henry Whiting, Jr., bought of the 
State the gun-house standing on the northerly corner of Training Green, 
which had been used by the Plymouth Artillery Company, then dis- 
banded, and moving it on his land converted it into the house which he 
now occupies. 

The lot on the corner of Winter Street passed, at the death of Lydia 
Churchill, into the possession of her son, Seth Churchill, whose widow 
and administratrix, Elizabeth Churchill, sold it in 1799 to Ichabod 
Holmes. Mr. Holmes sold it to his son Ellis, who built the house now 
standing, and occupied it during his life. At his death an interest in the 
estate was inherited by his daughter Grace, the wife of Henry Whiting, 
Sr., who bought the interest of the other heirs, and became, with his wife, 
the owner of the whole. In 1876, after the death of Mr. Whiting, it was 
sold, with the exception of a parcel sold in the same year to Henry O. 
Whiting, by the administrators of Mr. Whiting to Job T. Cole, its 
present owner. 

Winter Street, which leaves Sandwich Street at this point and leads 
to the shore, is one of the ancient streets. It is referred to in a deed 
from Samuel Harlow to John Rider under date of 1693, and there called 
the highway to distinguish it from the King's highway, referred to in the 
same deed. The estate on the northerly corner of this street is a part of 
land granted by the town in 1709 to Menassah Morton. At the death of 
Mr. Morton it was inherited by his son George, in the division of whose 
estate in 1753 it was set off to his son Zephaniah. In 1759 Zephaniah 
Morton sold it to Abner Sylvester, with the house now standing, which 
his father, George Morton, had built. In 1793 Mr. Sylvester sold it to 
his two sons, John and Nathaniel. In 1801, by a division made by John 
and Nathaniel Sylvester, the easterly half was set off to John and the 
westerly half to Nathaniel. After the death of John his half was inherited 
by his son, the late Captain John Sylvester, whose heirs sold it to Frank- 
lin Lewis. In 1875 Mr. Lewis sold it to Mary A. Sylvester, wife of 
Solomon Sylvester, who with her husband now occupies it. A portion 
of the westerly half was sold by the heirs of Nathaniel Sylvester to 
William Stephens, who sold it in 1844 to Henry Raymond. In 1854 Mr. 
Raymond sold it to Barnabas Ellis, who mortgaged it in the same year 
to William L. and Henry Finney. It was afterwards sold by the assignee 
of the Messrs. Finney, under their mortgage, to Arthur Hoxie and others, 
who sold it in 1866 to Rebecca E. Burgess. In 1871 the heirs of Mrs. 
Burgess sold it to Samuel N. Dunham, its present owner. The other 
portion of the westerly half was sold by Abner Sylvester, son of Nathaniel, 
in 1856 to Henry Carter, who sold it in the same year to Southwortb 



336 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Barnes. In 1861 it was sold by the administrators of Mr. Barnes to 
Rebecca E. Burgess, who sold it with the other portion in 1871 to Samuel 
N. Dunham. 

The next lot, on which stands what has been known for many years 
as the Doten house, is one of unusual interest to antiquarians. It is a 
part of a tract of land granted by the town to William Harlow in 1G60, 
and the house now standing was built by him soon after that date. After 
the death of Mr. Harlow, which occurred in 1691, his son, Samuel Har- 
low, sold the house in question and adjoining land to John Rider, who 
afterwards bought of the town other land near it, both on the north and 
south. At the death of John Rider it passed into the hands of his son 
Ebenezer, by whose heirs it was sold in 1773 to Nathaniel Doten. The 
record of the house is fortified by traditions in the Doten family that it 
was an old house when bought by Mr. Doten at the date above men- 
tioned. After the death of Nathaniel Doten it was bought by his son, the 
late Prince Doten, who afterwards sold the northerly half to his brother 
Nathaniel. Under a mortgage given by Nathaniel to Prince the latter 
took possession of the half belonging to his brother, and at the time of 
his death was the owner of the whole. After the death of Prince Doten 
it was bought by the heirs of David Holmes, who married Esther, 
daughter of Mr. Doten, and it is now owned by Hannah J., daughter of 
David Holmes, and wife of Alfred Holmes, by purchase from the other 
heirs. This house is not only the oldest yet found by the writer, but 
retains also more than any other of the original shape and material. 
There is, however, sufficient difference in the appearance of the two ends 
to suggest the possibility that the northerly end is an addition to the 
ancient structure. It is the belief of the writer that the earliest houses 
were built with a chimney on one side, with an oven opening on the out- 
side of the house, protected from exposure by a low shed, in which the 
family baking was done. The inference therefore is that wherever a 
chimney is found in tLo middle of an ancient house, one end or the oiher 
is of comparatively modern construction. 

The next three lots were also a part of the old Harlow land sold to 
John Rider, and finally to Eleazer Stephens. The house on the first of 
these was built by William Stephens, father of the late Lemuel, and 
sold by him, in 1811, to William Allen, whose son William is its present 
owner. The house on the second lot has been recently built by Charles 
Burton, who married Sarah, daughter of Lemuel Stephens, and the old 
house on the third lot was built by Eleazer Stephens, and is still owned 
by the Stephens family. 

From this point as far north as the house of John S. Dunbar the land 
was, at an early date, in the possession of the Rider family. The vacant 
lot adjoining the Stephens lots above described came into the possession 
of William Morton, who sold it, in 1790, to William LeBaron. In the 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



337 



same year Mr. LeBaron sold it to William Jackson, whose son, Leavitt 
T. Jackson, sold it, in 1839, to Elias Cox. In 1873 Mr. Cox sold it to 
Job T. Cole, its present owner. The remainder of the Rider land was 
sold by Abigail Holmes and William Jackson, in 1797 and 1803, to John 
Paty, who built the house adjoining the vacant Cole lot for the occupa- 
tion of his son Seth. After the death of Mr. Paty it was sold to William 
Holmes, whose heirs sold it, in 1842, to Jacob Swift. In this house 
Bathsheba, wife of William Holmes, was killed, as her gravestone 
states, "by the electric fluid of lightning," July 6, 1830. In 1850 Mr. 
Swift sold it to Ezekiel C. Turner, who sold it, in 1865, to William Allen. 
In 1878 Mr. Allen sold it to his brother Winslow, who is its present 
owner and occupant. The vacant lot adjoining was sold, in 1865, by 
Thomas M. Paty, grandson of John Paty, to Francis Ambler, who sold 
it, in 1872, to Job T. Cole, its present owner. The next house, a double 
one, was built by John Paty for his sons Ephraim and John. The 
whole finally came into the possession of Ephraim, the heirs of whose 
son Thomas M. now own the southerly half. The northerly end was 
sold by Ephraim Paty to William, son of his brother John, who sold it 
to his mother, Asenath Paty. It is now owned by Edwin Morey, whose 
wife, Caroline, daughter of Edward Taylor Cooper, is granddaughter of 
Asenath Paty, Mr. Morey having purchased the interest of the other 
heirs. 

The next lot, on which the house stands occupied by Franklin B. 
Cobb, was a part of the homestead of John Paty, Sr., which adjoins it 
on the north. At the death of John Paty, the whole estate descended 
to his son Thomas, who occupied it until his death. The lot in question 
was sold, in 1850, by the heirs of Nathaniel Carver, who held a mort- 
gage on the estate, and bought by Thomas M. Paty. Mr. Paty built the 
house now standing, and sold it, in 1860, to Abraham Hobart. In 1871 
it was sold by the heirs of Mr. Hobart to Betsey B. Hobart, who sold it, 
in 1878, to Arthur L. Hobart. In the same year Mr. Hobart sold it to 
Freeman W. Rickard. The homestead of John Paty was sold, in 1860, 
by the heirs of Nathaniel Carver, and bought by Maria Paty, widow 
of Thomas Paty, who sold it, in 1871, to William Sears, its present 
owner. 

The remainder of the land, as far as Fremont Street, came into the 
Stephens family through Phebe (Harlow) Stephens, wife of Edward 
Stephens, and great-granddaughter of William Harlow. It was sold, in 
1854, by Lemuel Stephens to Edwin Lewis, who built the house standing 
on the most southerly lot, and mortgaged it, in 1855, to the Plymouth 
Loan Fund Association. In 1872 Nathaniel Brown, assignee of the 
mortgage, sold it, under possession, to John S. Dunbar, its present 
owner. The next lot Mr. Lewis sold, in 1854, to David V. Pool, who 
built the house now standing, of which he is still the occupant. The 



338 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



corner lot was sold, in 1854, to Eli H. Minter, whose heirs built, after 
his death, the house now standing, and are still its occupants. 

The lot on the northerly corner of Fremont Street, on which the 
Perry house stands, is a part of the land granted to William Harlow. 
It remained in the Harlow family until 1783, when it was sold by Samuel 
Harlow to Edward Stephens. In 1837 it was sold by William Stephens, 
grandson of Edward, to Lewis Perry, who built the house now standing. 
At the death of Mr. Perry it was devised by his will to Mary B. C, the 
wife of James Morton, and daughter of his sister Hannah, the wife of 
Isaac Davie, who is its present owner. The land from this point to 
Bradford Street was granted, at an early date, to John Barnes, the pro- 
genitor of the Barnes family, who resided on the land. The grant was 
made before 1666, as, in the laying out of the highway in that year, the 
corner of his land was referred to at what is now the corner of the estate 
of Samuel Bradford. Three estates within its original limits are now 
in the possession of his descendants. The first lot, on which the Zacheus 
Stephens house stands, remained in the Barnes family until it passed 
into the hands of Alice, the daughter of Benjamin Barnes, and wife of 
Samuel Battles, who added the northerly portion to the house now 
standing, which was built either b)' her father Benjamin or grandfather 
William. From Alice Battles it descended to her daughter Elizabeth, 
who married John Stephens, and finally to her son, Zacheus Stevens, 
son of John, who married Jane Perkins, granddaughter of Alice Battles, 
and daughter of George Perkins, who married Experience, the daughter 
of Alice Battles. The estate is now owned by Ezekiel Cushing Turner, 
and wife Pella, also daughter of George Perkins, who inherited one- 
half from her sister, Jane Stephens, and purchased of her sister, Rebecca 
Sampson, in 1876, the other half, inherited by her. 

The next lot, on which the house of Benjamin Barnes stands, has 
continued up to date in the possession of the Barnes family. Until 
within a few years an old house stood on the southerly part of this lot, 
which was occupied for a long time by Benjamin and Bradford Barnes. 
The house now standing has been recently built by Benjamin Barnes, 
who is its owner and occupant. The next lot also remained in the pos- 
session of the Barnes family until a recent date. The house now stand- 
ing was built by the late Bradford Barnes, father of Bradford, now 
living, and after his death his son sold his interest, in 1861, to his sister 
Nancy, wife of John Washburn, who sold the whole, in 1866, to Lemuel 
R. Wood, its present occupant. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and occupied by Ellis 
Barnes, was owned by his grandfather Benjamin, who built the house 
now standing. After the death of Benjamin it came into the possession 
of his son Ellis, whose son Ellis now owns it. 

The next lot remained in the Barnes family until it came into the 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



339 



possession of Corban Barnes, the father of Corbau now living. In 1828 
he sold it to John Perry, who sold it, in 1829, to Ansel H. Harlow. Mr. 
Harlow built the house now standing, and sold it, in 1845, to Harvey 
Weston, whose widow still owns and occupies it. 

The next lot, on which the house stands occupied by Corban Barnes, 
has never passed out of the hands of the Barnes family. The house 
standing on the lot was built by the late Corban Barnes, and is now 
owned and occupied by his son. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and occupied by Wil- 
liam S. Robbins, also descended to the late Corban Barnes, who sold it 
to Eleazer Holmes. Mr. Holmes built a store on the lot, which was for 
a time occupied by Bourne Spooner, and afterwards by Crosby Luce and 
Ansel Holmes. In 1854 Betsey Holmes sold it to Corban Barnes, who 
converted the store into the house now standing, and sold it, in 1871, to 
Mr. Robbins. 

The next lot, on which the house stands owned and occupied by 
Ebenezer Cobb, descended to Corban Barnes, uncle of the late Corban 
above mentioned. At that time a double house, probably built by Jon- 
athan Barnes, son of the first John, stood on the lot, covering the ground 
now occupied by the houses of Mrs. Samuel Rogers and Mr. Cobb. In 
1825 Betsey Mayhew, Deborah Lucas, Abigail Carver, and Rebecca, 
Charlotte, and Mary Barnes, children of Corban, sold the southerly half 
of the double house to Ansel Holmes. In 1872 it was sold by the heirs 
of Mr. Holmes to William S. Robbins, who sold it, in the same year, to 
Ebenezer Cobb. Mr. Cobb took down the southerly half of the house, 
and built the new house which he now owns and occupies. 

The northerly half of the house descended from Jonathan, who built 
it, to his son John, who sold it, in 1738, to his son Jonathan, who, at his 
death, in 1748, devised it to his son Jonathan. In the division of the 
estate of the last Jonathan, who died unmarried, it was set off to his 
brother Nathaniel, who sold it, in 1772, to Benjamin Barnes. In 1830 
Benjamin Barnes of Boston, son of the last Benjamin, and father of the 
late Seth and Hilman Barnes of Boston, sold it to Isaac Barnes, who 
took down the old structure, and built the house now standing, which he 
sold, in the same year, to Samuel Rogers, whose widow now occupies it. 

The lot in the rear of the last-mentioned estate, on which the house 
stands owned and occupied by James Simmons, is a part of the land 
which descended to the late Corban Barnes. In 1825 Mr. Barnes sold it 
to Crosby Luce, who built the house now standing on the lot. In 1853 
Betsey Luce, widow of Crosby, sold it to Mehitabel J. Rogers, who sold 
it, in 1866, to Mr. Simmons. 

The next lot on Sandwich Street, owned and occupied by the heirs of 
the late Elkanah Bartlett, descended to Seth Barnes, who built the 
house now standing. In 1753 Mr. Barnes sold it to his son Seth, whose 



340 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



heirs, Elizabeth, wife of Samuel Sheldon Pool of Nova Scotia, and 
Polly, wife of James Cain, sold it, in 1787, to Thomas and William 
Davis. In 1805 William Davis and the executors of Thomas Davis sold 
it to Gideon Holbrook, who sold it, in 1817, to John Burgess. In 1830 
Mr. Burgess sold it to Isaac Tribble, who sold it, in 1831, to Elkanah 
Bartlett. 

The next lot, on which the double house stands, the southerly half of 
which is occupied b\ T Leavitt Finney as a bake-house, was also sold, in 
1738. by John Barnes, son of the first Jonathan, to his son Jonathan. 
At the death of Jonathan it was inherited by his daughter Hannah, the 
wife of Stephen Churchill, who built a house on the lot, the northerly 
part of which is still standing. At the death of Mr. Churchill it passed 
into the possession of his son Stephen, who sold it, in 1817, to his sons 
Daniel and Heman. The southerly half was set off to Heman, anil sold, 
after his death, by his widow, Jane Churchill, to Jabez Churchill, whose 
heirs sold it, in 1874, to Mr. Finney. Mr. Finney took down the old 
structure, and built the bake-house now standing on the lot. The 
northerly part of the old house, which was set off to Daniel Churchill, is 
still >tanding, and owned and occupied by his descendants. 

The lot on the corner of Bradford Street, on which the house stands 
owned and partially occupied by Samuel Bradford, was also sold, in 
173S, by John Barnes to his son Jonathan. At the death of Jonathan it 
was inherited by his son Nathaniel, who built the house now standing. 
In 1782 the executor of Nathaniel Barnes sold it to James McCarter, 
who sold the southerly part, in 1783, to Jeremiah Holmes. In 1785 Mr. 
Holmes sold it to Samuel Bartlett, who sold it, in 1797, to William 
Brewster. In 1846 Elizabeth T. Brewster, widow of William Brewster, 
sold it to the late Samuel Bradford, whose son is now its owner. The 
northerly part passed from Mr. McCarter, in 1783, under an execution, 
into the hands of Jonathan Sampson, who sold it, in 1784, to Thonias 
Davis. From Mr. Davis it passed into the hands of Thomas Sampson, 
who«e widow, Lucy Sampson, sold it, in 1835, to Mr. Bradford, who, as 
above mentioned, became, in 1846, the owner of the whole estate. 

The remainder of the lands between Fremont and Bradford Streets, 
lyinsc easterly of those already described, includes the whole of the lots 
assigned, in the division of lands in 1623, to William Bradford, Richard 
Gardener, and Francis Cook, and a portion of the lot assigned to Elder 
Brewster. That part now included in the two Stephens estates at the 
foot of Fremont Street, seems, by the record, to have afterwards passed 
into the possession of Thomas Prence. There is no record of any con- 
veyance to him, but it is alluded to as belonging to him in a deed of 

.' DO 

adjoining land bearing date of 1639. It was probably abandoned by Mr. 
Prence, under the non-resident law, when he removed to Eastham, in 
1644, and afterwards came into the possession of William Harlow. It 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



341 



remained in the Harlow family until 1783, when it was sold by Samuel 
Harlow to Edward aud William Stephens, the grandfather and father of 
the late Lemuel Stephens. The more northerly of the two Stephens 
houses was built by Edward Stephens, and afterwards enlarged by his 
son William, who occupied it for many years. William Stephens after- 
wards built the southerly house, which was occupied by his two sons, 
William and Lemuel, until the death of their mother, when the old 
house was occupied by William, whose daughter, Maiy Ann, wife of 
Charles B. Rice, is still its occupant. The new house was occupied by 
Lemuel, with whom his father lived until his death, and is now occupied 
by his daughter Sarah, the wife of Charles Burton. 

The land between the Stephens estates and the Doten's Wharf lands 
passed into the possession of John Barnes, and has remained, for the 
most part, until a recent date, in the hands of his descendants^ as a part 
of the various estates on Sandwich Street. 

The Doten's Wharf estate is a part of the land allotted to Governor 
Bradford in 1623. It was sold by him in 1639 to George Watson, with 
enough land lying contiguous to it to make three acres. It remained in 
the hands of George Watson and his descendants until 1784, when it 
was sold by Elkanah Watson to Thomas and William Davis. In 1819 
William Davis sold it to John Burgess, who sold it, in 1825, to the late 
Samuel Doten. The wharf was built by Mr. Doten, and has always 
borne his name. 

The writer will omit the pedigree of vacant lots within the limits 
under consideration, and, passing those also on which recent houses have 
been built on Bradford and Union St. _ets, content himself with a de- 
scription of those on which more ancient structures stand. It is suffi- 
cient to say that a part of the Watson land bought of Governor Brad- 
ford lies on the westerly side of Union Street, and that the houses on 
the southerly side of Bradford Street along its easterly half were built 
on land which was a part of the tract purchased by Ansel H. Harlow in 
1842, through which that street was extended by him. 

The lot on which the house stands owned by the estate of George 
Rider, adjoining the estate of Samuel Bradford on the east, was a part 
of the old Barnes land. In 1741 Thomas Foster, administrator of Jon- 
athan Barnes, sold it to Ebenezer Phinney, who sold it, in the same year, 
to Stephen Churchill. In 1809 Stephen Churchill, son of Stephen, sold 
it to his son Daniel, who built the house now standing, and, in 1859, the 
heirs of Daniel Churchill sold it to Mr. Rider. 

The next lot, also a part of the Barnes land, was sold, in 1742, by 
Lemuel Barnes to Joseph Smith, with a house standing on the lot. In 
1771 Mr. Smith sold it to his daughter Sarah, who sold it, in 1816, to 
Jesse Bartlett. In 1817 Mr. Bartlett sold it to Daniel Churchill, who 
sold it to Polly Holmes. In 1846 Polly Holmes sold it to Henry 



342 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Gibbs, who built the house now standing, and whose widow still 
occupies it. 

The next lot was sold by Jonathan Barnes, son of the first John, to 
his grandson Jonathan, in 1705. The last Jonathan built a house on the 
lot, and in 1775 his son Zacheus sold it to Zacheus Bartlett, his brother- 
in-law, who sold it, in 1797, to Sylvanus Paty. In the same year Mr. 
Paty sold it to Thomas Farmer, who built the house now standing, and 
whose heirs sold it, in 1827 and 1828 and 1829, to Nancy Randall. At 
the death of Nancy Randall one-quarter of the estate was inherited by 
her daughter Jane, wife of Abner H. Harlow, and the other three- 
quarters by her daughter, Margaret P., wife of Henry Matta, and her 
sons, William T., and Enoch Randall. In 1844 Mrs. Harlow bought the 
shares of the other heirs, and sold it, in 1847, to Ansel H. Harlow. In 
1852 Mr. Harlow sold it to Nathaniel Brown, its present owner. 

The writer has seen an ancient memorandum, which states that " the 
first framed house built in Plymouth stood on Smith's Lane, leading 
from Training Green to the shore." It will be remembered that De 
Rasieres, in his letter describing a visit to Plymouth in 1627, states that 
the houses at that time were constructed of hewn plank. Whether 
Smith's Lane was Fremont Street, Barnes' Lane, or Bradford Street he 
was at a loss to decide, until he found, in running down the titles of the 
estates on Commercial Street, that one of them, as above described, was 
in the possession of Joseph Smith and his family for seventy-four years. 
Until 1842 Bradford Street ran no farther, in a straight line, than the 
entrance to Emerald Street. It was in old deeds sometimes called the 
lane to the house of Ephraim Churchill, and sometimes the lane to the 
house of Joseph Smith. It doubtless turned round the corner of the 
Ephraim Churchill, afterwards the Amasa Bartlett, and at present the 
Joseph Churchill house, into Emerald Street, which was a part of it, 
and ran directly to the swing-bridge at the mill-pond, or, in other 
words, to the shore, as stated in the memorandum above alluded to. 
The pedigree of the houses on Emerald Street is an ancient one, and 
leads to the conclusion that the street must have been laid out at an 
early period. On what precise spot this framed house stood it is diffi- 
cult to determine. It is thought by the writer to have been built by 
Richard Masterson, who died in 1633. After his death his house and 
land were sold to John Jenny, who sold them, in 1635, to George Wat- 
son. His lot was bounded by Sandwich, Water, and Bradford Streets on 
three sides, and by a line running along the southwesterly boundary of 
the Joseph Churchill estate to Water Street on the fourth, including, on 
the latter street, the southwesterly half of the lot now owned by George 
Fisher. It was probably the lot assigned to Robert Cushman in the 
division of lands in 1623, and sold by the heirs of Robert Cushman to 
Masterson by a deed which has escaped record. The house was alluded 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



343 



to in the deed from William Bradford, in 1639, to George Watson, of the 
three acres on the other side of Bradford Street, above referred to, 
which included what is now the Doten's Wharf property. That deed 
described the three acres " lying beyond a small creek or slough to ye 
eastward of ye street, where his now dwelling-house is, being part of ye 
acres that were allotted to ye said William Bradford, and part of which 
he bought of Francis Cooke, bounded as followeth, with the said creek 
or slough westward, and with a parcel of land bought of Mr. Brewster 
by John Barnes on ye north, aud ye lands of Mr. Thomas Prence to ye 
southward, and abnting on bay eastward." The street above referred 
to, on which Mr. Watson's house stood, and eastward of which lay the 
three acres of land conveyed, was doubtless Bradford Street or Smith's 
Lane; and all that can be stated with any degree of accuracy is 
that the ancient house probably stood near where the double house 
stands now occupied by George II. Harlow, and his son, George Harlow. 

The remainder of the land lying between the Cushman lot and the 
shore, extending as far south as the Bradford land, constituted the six 
acres allotted to Elder Brewster, in the first division in 1623. That part 
remaining to be described passed out of his hands in three parcels. One 
parcel on Bradford Street, where the Joseph Churchill house now 
stands, passed into the hands of John Cole ; a second parcel on Water 
Street, immediately in its rear, passed into the hands of Edward Hol- 
man ; and the remainder was sold, as stated in the deed of William 
Bradford, by Elder Brewster to John Barnes. These different parcels of 
the Brewster land will be considered in order after describing the Cush- 
man lot, which passed through the hands of Richard Masterson and 
John Jenny to George Watson. This parcel remained in the Watson 
family until 1791, when it was sold by George Watson to Eliphalet Hol- 
brook. At that time it was vacant land, the old house having disap- 
peared probably long before. Mr. Holbrook built the Holbrook house 
now standing on Sandwich Street, which, at his death, passed into the 
hands of his son, the late Gideon Holbrook. In 1843, after the death of 
Eliphalet Holbrook, his heirs sold a strip of land extending from the 
Joseph Churchill lot to the lot of the late Nathaniel Carver Barnes on 
Bradford Street, and running through to Water Street, to John Bartlett, 
who sold it, in the same year, to Ezra Finney, Mary H. H. Wood, and 
Henry Foster Jackson. By a division in 1845 the vacant lot adjoining 
the Joseph Churchill estate was set off to Mr. Jackson, whose brother, 
Edwin Jackson, is now its owner. The next estate on Commercial 
Street was set off to Mr. Finney, who sold it, in 1853, to George Har- 
low, who built the double house, now standing, owned by his sons, 
George H. and Samuel. The estate on Water Street, in the rear of the 
last, was set off to Mary H. H. Wood, who sold it, in 1845, to James 
Doten. Mr. Doten built the house now standing, which his widow still 



344 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



owns and occupies. The remainder of the land lying on Water Street 

was set off to Mr. Finney. The southwesterly part of this lot Mr. 
Finney sold, in 1850, to Richard Bagnall, who bought the old house 
which had previously stood on the lot of William Nye, on the opposite 
side of Water Street, and moved it on the lot. This house Mr. Bagnall 
occupied until his death, and it is now owned and occupied by his 
widow. The northeasterly part of the lot Mr. Finney sold, in 1854, to 
Richard W. Bagnall, who sold it, in 1861, to Rufus Churchill. In 1864 
Mr. Churchill sold it to George Fisher to enlarge his homestead. 

The remainder of the estate of Eliphalet Hoi brook passed, at his 
death, into the possession of his son Gideon. In 1849 Gideon Holbrook 
sold the lot on the corner of Sandwich and Bradford Streets to Samuel 
Rogers, who sold it, in 1854, to Nathaniel C. Barnes. Mr. Barnes built 
the house on the lot, which is now owned and occupied by his widow, 
The homestead continued in the possession of Gideon Holbrook until his 
death. In 1872 the southerly half was sold by his son Gideon to Lea- 
vitt Finney, its present owner, and the remainder by his son Eliphalet, 
in 1877, to Barnabas H. Holmes, who conveyed it, in 1882, to Helen 
May Sherman. The lot north of the homestead, on which, for many 
years, a carpenter's shop stood occupied by Job Rider, was sold, after 
the death of the late Gideon Holbrook, in 1868, by his son Eliphalet, to 
Abner H. Harlow, who converted the old shop into a dwelling-house, 
and sold it, in 1872, to his son Abner. In the same year Abner, Jr., 
sold it to his mother, Jane Harlow, who is now its owner. The lot on 
the corner of Water Street was sold, in 1863, by the late Gideon Hol- 
brook, to Victorine A., wife of his son Gideon, who sold it, in 1873, 
to George A. Barnes. Mr. Barnes built the house now standing on 
the lot, and sold it, in 1874, to George Shaw, its present owner and 
occupant. 

The parcel of the Elder Brewster land which passed into the hands 
of John Cole, lying on Bradford Street above Emerald Street, was sold 
by Mr. Cole to Joshua Morse, who built the house now standing, and 
sold it, in 1706, to Hezekiah Bosworth. In 1711 Mr. Bosworth sold it to 
Ephraim Little, who sold it, in 1722, to Joseph Holmes. In 1732 Mr. 
Holmes sold it to John Barnes, who sold it, in 1737, to Ephraim 
Churchill. In 1749 Stephen Churchill, administrator of Ephraim 
Churchill, sold it to Edward Doty, who sold it, in 1757, to Perez Tilson 
and Thomas Doten. In 1762 Mr. Tilson sold his half to William Bart- 
lett, who bought the other half, in 1778, of Nathaniel Morton, attorney 
of Thomas Doten. In 1798 William Bartlett sold the estate to his son, 
Amasa Bartlett, who repaired and enlarged the house, and occupied it 
during his life. In 1839 Sarah T. Bartlett, the widow of Mr. Bartlett, 
sold it to Joseph Churchill, whose widow now owns and occupies it. 

The parcel in the rear of the last, extending to Water Street, which 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



345 



passed from Elder Brewster into the possession of Edward Holnian, 
came afterwards into the possession of Eleazer Rogers, who sold it, in 
1699, to Richard Sears. This lot included also the lots on Water Street 
as far east as a point opposite the lands of the Plymouth Foundry. In 
1708 Mr. Sears sold it to Jonathan Barnes, who sold it, in 1719, reserving 
what is now the Mayo lot, to Samuel Marshall. In 1731 Mr. Marshall 
sold it to Ephraim Churchill, who built the Hueston house, as it is 
called, on the westerly side of Emerald Street, and whose heirs sold it, 
in 1769 and 1771, to George Watson, who sold it, in 1780, to William 
Hueston. In 1841 the heirs of Mr. Hueston sold the lot on the corner of 
Emerald Street to Priscilla Morton, who built the house now standing, 
and sold it, in the same year, to William H. Morton. In 1864 Mr. 
Morton sold it to George Fisher, its present owner and occupant. The 
Hueston house was sold by the heirs of William Hueston, in 1841, to 
Horatio Robbins, who sold the northerly end, in the same year, to Mel- 
tiah Howard. In 1860 Mr. Howard sold it to Robert Cowen, who sold 
it, in 1865, to Christopher Stoddard. In 1875 Mr. Stoddard sold it to 
Matthias Pratt, its present owner. The southerly end was sold, in 1865, 
by Mr. Robbins to Bridget Devine, who is its present owner. 

The land on the easterly side of Emerald Street it is hardly necessary 
to describe in detail. Most of it was sold by Elder Brewster to John 
Barnes, and remained for many years in the Barnes family. The house 
known as the Rufus Churchill house, on Emerald Street, was built by 
Charles Churchill, son of Ephraim, on land bought by his father of 
Samuel Marshall, in 1731, and sold by him, in 1788, to Stephen 
Churchill. In 1794 Stephen Churchill sold it to Rufus Churchill, the 
father of Rufus now living, who made it his residence. At a later date 
a part of it came into the hands of William Churchill, son of Rufus, 
and a part into the hands of James Morton. The Mayo house, on 
Water Street, was built by Thomas Mayo, on the lot reserved in the sale 
of Jonathan Barnes to Samuel Marshall, in 1719, and bought by Mr. 
Mayo, in 1805, of the heirs of Joseph Barnes, one of the descendants of 
Jonathan, its early owner. The strip of land extending along Water 
Street, which was a part of the land purchased by Ephraim Churchill of 
Samuel Marshall in 1731, was sold by his son Zacheus, in 1769, to John 
Kempton. In 1773 Mr. Kempton sold it to Josiah Johnson, who sold it 
to William Hueston. Tn 1828 the heirs of Mr. Hueston sold it to Ansel 
II. Harlow, who bought, in 1842, a tract of land in its rear belonging to 
the heirs of Isaac Lothrop, and extended Bradford Street through it, 
from the opening of Emerald Street to Union Street. Freedom and 
Water Streets were also laid out by Mr. Harlow through the lot, and 
finally the whole tract was disposed of in lots, which it is needless to 
describe. 



346 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



Outlying Estates. — Having traced in their order the pedigrees of 
lands lying within the limits of the mile-and-a-half tract, the writer 
proposes to add a description of certain outlying tracts which may be 
interesting to the reader. 

It will be remembered that the southerly line of the mile-and-a-half 
tract was bounded by the farm of Joseph Churchill, lying on the south- 
erly side of Wellingsley. This farm extended from Oberry, or Woe- 
berry, as it was sometimes called in the early records, across the Chil- 
tonville road near Sandy Gutter, to the harbor, and was owned first by 
John Churchill, the progenitor of the Churchill family, and afterwards 
by his son Joseph. The house built by Joseph Churchill before 1700 is 
still standing, on the easterly side of the curve in the road opposite the 
Sandy Gutter road. The house, with the land immediately surrounding 
it. was sold, in 1715, by Joseph Churchill, to his son Barnabas. Lemuel 
Churchill, son of Barnabas, sold a part of the estate to Thomas Faunce, 
who sold it, in 1767, to Jonathan Churchill, by whom it was sold, in the 
same year, to John Faunce. In 1773 Charles Churchill and his wife, 
Sarah, who had acquired an interest in the estate through her first hus- 
band, Isaac Churchill, son of Barnabas, sold the other part to John 
Faunce, making him the owner of the whole. In 1782 John Faunce 
sold it to William Davis, who sold it, in the next year, to John Paty. 
Mr. Paty occupied the estate until he built the house on Spring Lane 
adjoining Burial Hill, and owned it until his death. In 1822 Thomas 
and Ephraim Paty, sons of John, sold it to Freeman Morton, who occu- 
pied it during his life. At the time of its purchase by Mi - . Morton the 
shape and character of the house were ancient. Its roof was afterwards 
raised by him, its chimney reconstructed, and the modern expression 
given to its exterior which it now wears. Its interior, however, still 
bears the marks of extreme age, and is worthy of a visit by antiqua- 
rians. It is now owned by Alvin G. Morton, son of Freeman, who 
remembers the Dutch oven which it once had, with its opening in the 
yard, covered by a small shed-like structure, protecting it from exposure. 

The next outlying tract of land worthy of description is that which, 
in the early records, was called " Playne Dealing." This tract extended 
from Hi"-h Cliff to the Kingston line, and was bounded on the east and 
west by the harbor and the highway. High Cliff is first found in the 
records under date of 1633, and next in 1637, in a deed from Edward 
Dotey to Richard Derby, whose family gave the name to Derby Pond in 
consequence of lands purchased by them in that vicinity. In that deed 
High Cliff is called Heigh Cliffe, or Skeart Hill, the latter name having 
been evidently misread by historians, and called Steart Hill. This error 
has led to the erroneous supposition that the place derived its name 
from one of the headlands in the south of Devonshire, England, called the 
Start. It is barely possible, however, that the new reading of the text 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



347 



may be wrong, but it rests upon the authority of David Pulsifer, the 
careful translator of the records for their publication by the State, and 
of the late Nathaniel B. Shurtleff, by whom the publication underwent 
a critical comparison and review. The derivation and meaning of 
" Playne Dealing " have always been a puzzle to the student of Pilgrim 
history. No author, so far as the writer knows, has ever attempted their 
solution. It is probable, as has been before stated, that the fields of 
search have been too remote, and that the character of the locality, if 
properly studied, would have disclosed the secret. Some confusion, too, 
has been added to the question by the fact that a book was published in 
England, in 1641, entitled " Plaine Dealing, or News from New Eng- 
land," by Thomas Lechford, who had returned from a four years' visit 
to the New England colonies. Any supposed connection between the 
book and the locality is clearly unfounded, as, aside from the fact that 
the name, as applied to the locality in Plymouth, was spelled "Playne 
Dealing/' while the name of the book was " Plaine Dealing," there is 
the additional fact that the book appeared four years after the date of 
the first use of the word in the records. There are to be found in early 
deeds references to Woeberry Playne, Mounts Hill Playne, and other 
Playnes, indicating that the word, with that spelling, was applied to 
tracts of land, and was not the adjective used in the name of the book. 
If the reader will turn to Bailey's Dictionary he will find the word deal, 
meaning a "dale or plaine by the sea," coming from the Welch word 
dole. Thus the town of Deal, lying along the beach, on the English 
Channel, opposite the Goodwin Sands, derived its name. In the opinion 
of the writer the name "Playne Dealing" means simply the plain 
lying along the sea, and was applied to the locality in question because 
it was that part of the shore, a little outside of the harbor, open to the 
winds and waves of the sea. The appropriateness of the name, with 
this meaning, has been strikingly recognized in later times by the adop- 
tion of "Seaside" as the modern name, without any reference to the 
ancient appellation. 

That part of Playne Dealing included within the limits of the Hedge 
farm appears to have been at first in the possession of Cuthbert Cuth- 
bertson, and at his death to have passed into the possession of his 
daughter Sarah, the wife of John Coombs. In 1632 Mr. Coombs and 
his wife sold it to Thomas Prence, who probably abandoned it under the 
non-resident law, when he removed to Eastham. In 1665 Mr. Prence 
returned to Plymouth, and occupied the same land by permission of the 
colony court, and built a house, which he occupied until his death, in 
1673. As nearly as can be ascertained, this l»ouse stood in the south- 
west corner of the field, on the easterly side of the road, opposite the 
house of Barnabas Hedge, Jr. In 1668 Constant Southworth, treasurer 
of the colony, was authorized to sell the estate to Mr. Prence for one 



348 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



hundred and fifty pounds, payable in three equal instalments, in three, 
six, and nine years. It is probable that the sale was never consum- 
mated, as Mr. Southworth sold it, in 1674, the year after the death of 
Mr. Prence, to Nathaniel Southworth. In 1701 Nathaniel Southworth 
sold it to John Holmes, who sold it, in 1711, to Isaac Lothrop. It 
remained in the Lothrop family through three generations, and finally 
came into the possession of the late Barnabas Hedge from the third 
Isaac Lothrop and his brother Nathaniel. From Barnabas Hedge it 
came into the possession of the late Isaac L. Hedge, and from him to 
his son Barnabas, who is its present owner and occupant. The present 
house on the farm was built by Mr. Isaac L. Hedge, substantially on the 
site of a former house, which was built after the old house of Governor 
Prence had disappeared. 

The land north of the original Lothrop farm, extending as far as the 
northerly line of the estate of the late Thomas Jackson, was at a very 
early period in the possession of Eleanor, wife of John Billington. 
John Billington came in the Mayflower in 1620, with his wife and two 
sons, John and Francis. John died soon after 1627, and Francis has 
given his name perpetual distinction by the discovery of Billington Sea. 
There are several rocks lying off the shore near the Billington lands 
beyond High Cliff, which are still known by the name of Billington 
Rocks. The estate of the late Charles W. Spooner, and the lands of the 
Plymouth Cordage Company, came partly from the Billington estate 
and partly from the Prence estate, most of the latter, however, remain- 
ing within the limits of the Hedge farm. In 1637 Eleanor Billington 
sold her land to her son Francis, reserving the right to occupy a tene- 
ment on the premises during her life. In 1638 Widow Eleanor Bil- 
lington married Gregory Armstrong, and a copy of the contract made 
between the marital parties may interest readers as illustrative of the 
simple methods and customs of the time : — 

"Articles of agreement made and concluded upon the 28th of August 1638 Betweene 
Gregory Armestrong of thone pry and Ellenor Billington, widdow of thother pty 
concerning a marreage to be, solemnized betweene the said pties as followeth vis 
" Imprimis it is concluded and agreed upon betweene the said pties to these prnts 
and in consideration of the said Marriage That whereas the said Ellenor hath two 
Cowes which the said Gregory is presently to enter upon The said Gregory doth cove- 
nant and graunt by these presents that if it please God that he happen to outlive the 
said Ellenor that then he shall and will at his decease give two heiffers of a year old 
and advantage apiece to the benefitt of the naturall children of Francis Billington the 
said Ellenor's naturall sonn out of the estate that he shall then have left, and if it 
happen that the said Gregory dept this life before the said Ellenor that then the estate 
shall be at the disposing of the said Ellenor except some things to his friends at his 
death according to his estate at his death. 

Item It is also concluded upon that the said two heiffers shall be put forth when 
they fall to the benefitt of the said Children by the direction of the Governor and 



TITLES OF ESTATES. 



349 



Assistants of New Plymouth for the tyme being Alwayes provided that the said 
Francis Billington have the use of them before any other if he be living. 

Item It is concluded upon betweene the said pties and the said Ellenor doth 
consent and graunt to and with the said Gregory That if he the said Gregory shall 
survive and outlive the said Ellenor that then the said Gregory shall enjoy the house 
they now live in and the lands they occupy during his life." 

The end of the matter was that Gregory died in 1650, leaving 
Eleanor a widow for the second time. In the meantime Francis Bil- 
lington sold, in 1643, the southerly part of his estate to John Atwood, 
with the reservation of the right of his mother to occupy the tenement 
in which she then lived during her life. Mr. Atwood died in the fol- 
lowing year, and left his estate to his nephew, William Crow, who 
appeared in Plymouth as early as 1643, and married, in 1664, Hannah, 
daughter of the first Josiah Winslow. There were settlers bearing the 
name of Crow at about the date above mentioned in Plymouth, Charles- 
town, and Hartford. A member of the Charlestown family moved to 
Yarmouth, and in the third generation the name of that family became 
Crowell, and is now largely represented on Cape Cod. The Plymouth 
family disappeared with William, who died in 1684, leaving no issue 
In 1665 Francis Billington sold the northerly part of his estate to Wil- 
liam Crow, and that part was probably the field lying north of the 
Jackson farm, extended to the shore. In the deed of Mr. Billington he 
bounds the land by the estate "on which Mr. Crow now lives." The 
house built by Mr. Crow, probably in 1664, when his marriage took 
place, still stands, forming the rear portion of the Jackson house. It is 
apparent that this rear portion was once a house by itself, distinct from 
the two-story addition on its front, and the record leaves no doubt that it 
was standing in 1665. The widow of Mr. Crow afterwards married 
John Sturtevant, and had a daughter, Hannah, who married Josiah 
Cotton, son of Rev. John Cotton, of Plymouth, and grandson of Rev. 
John Cotton, who was the first minister of Boston. In 1709 Mr. Stur- 
tevant and wife sold to their son-in-law, Josiah Cotton, that part of the 
estate on which the Crow house stood, and in the same year, at the 
death of her mother, Mrs. Cotton inherited the remainder. Mr. Cotton 
describes it, in his yet unpublished diary, as a small habitation, illus- 
trating his ideal of a home, and well portrayed in an extract from Pom- 
fret's poem called the " Choice : " — 

" If Heaven the grateful liberty would give, 
That I might choose my method how to live, 
Near some fair town I'd have a private seat, 
Built uniform, not little nor too great; 
Better if on a rising ground it stood, 
Fields on this side, on that a neighboring wood." 



350 



PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



After a short occupancy of the house Mr. Cotton moved to the village, 
where he remained until 1723, when lie returned and built the addition, 
which constitutes the main part of the building. At the death of Mr. 
Cotton the estate was inherited by his sons, Theophilus and John, the 
former taking the northerly end of the Crow farm, with the house, and 
the latter the southerly end. The part inherited by John was sold by 
his heirs, partly to Thomas Jackson, and partly to the Cordage Com- 
pany, and that inherited by Theophilus was sold to Mr. Jackson in 1797. 
Mr. Jackson lived, at that date, in the Winslow house on North Street, 
then owned by him, where he continued to reside until 1813, when he 
removed to the estate in question at Playne Dealing. In 1815 his son, 
Cornelius Jackson, gave a deed of the property to Barnabas Hedge, who 
held it until 1825, when he conveyed it to Frederick Jackson, with 
whom his father, Thomas, continued to live. At the death of Frederick 
Jackson it was devised by his will to his brother, the late Thomas Jack- 
son, who by his will gave the house in trust, for the benefit of his widow 
during her life, and at his death the south part to his daughter Caroline, 
and the north to his children, George F. and Betsey Ann. 

This house closes the list of ancient houses in Plymouth north of 
Chiltonville It is possible that the list might be enlarged by an investi- 
gation into the titles of estates in that district, and quite certain that if 
South Plymouth were included, the Bartlett house, in what is called the 
Brook neighborhood, possibly built in 1660, would claim a place in the 
catalogue. 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER 

OF 

PLYMOUTH FAMILIES. 



Part II. 

OF ANCIENT LANDMARKS OF PLYMOUTH. 



En JEetnortam JHajorum. 



GENEALOGICAL REGISTER. 



[In moat cases where the residence is not stated, it may be presumed to have been 

Plymouth.] 



Abbot, Joseph, m. Mary Kempton, 1740. 

Adams, Chakles, Kingston, son of Ebenezer, m. Mary C. Sampson, and 
had James, 1S06, m. Martha A. Murray; William S., 1808, m. Lucy Eveline, 
d. of Joseph Holmes; Henry L., 1810, m. Elizabeth H. Fish; Nathaniel, 1812, 
m. Harriet M. Hendley of Boxboro' ; Albert, 1815; Charles C, 1817; Edwin, 
1819, m. Frances H. Frost of Charlestown. Ebenezer, Kingston, son of 3d 
John, m. Lydia Cook, and had George, 1766; Mary, 1769; Caleb, 1770; Na- 
thaniel, 1778; Lydia, 1775, m. William Holmes of Peacham, Vt. ; James, 1777; 
Charles, 1779; Lucy, 1784; Christiana, 1787; George, 1791, m. Hannah T. 
Brewer and Susan Brigham; Caleb, 1792, m. Pauline Butts and wid. Martha 
Harding. Francis, son of Richard, came to America about 1692, at the age 
of fifteen, with a sister Jemima, who afterwards returned. (Their father 
had preceded them, and died before their arrival.) He settled in Plymouth 
about 1700, and m., about that time, Mary, d. of Thomas Buck of Scituate, 
by whom he had Mary, 1704, m. Nathaniel Atwood; Jemima, 1707, m. Barna- 
bas Shurtleff; Thomas, 1709; Francis, 1711, m. Kesiah, d. of John Atwood; 
John, 1714; Richard, 1719, m. Mary Carver; and Sarah, 1721, m. Elisha Stet- 
son. Francis, son of above, m. Kesiah, d. of John Atwood, 1737, and had 
Francis, 1738; Samuel, 1740; Samuel, 1742; Lydia, 1744, m. Jonathan Crane 
of Bridgewater; Kesiah, 1746, m. Nathaniel Little; Francis, 1750, m. Mercy 
Adams. George, Kingston, son of Ebenezer, m. Hannah T. Brewster, and 
had George T., 1820, m. Lydia T. Bradford; Frederick C, 1821, m. Eveline, 
wid. of Horatio Adams; Horatio, 1823, m. Eveline Holmes; and Hannah T., 
m. Azel W. Washburn. George, son of 2d Thomas, m., 1829, Hannah Sturte- 
vant, d. of Ephraim Harlow, and had George W., 1830, m. Mary Holland of 
Boston; Hannah, 1832, m. Dr. Edward A. Spoonerof Philadelphia; Sarah S., 
1840 ; and Theodore Parker, 1845, m. Nellie, d. of Joseph Cushman. George, 
m. Lucy Nye, 1811. James, son of 1st John, removed to Marshfield and 
Scituate, and m., 1646, Frances, d. of Wm. Vassall, by whom he had William, 
1647; Ann, 1649; Richard, 1651, Mary, 1653; and Margaret, 1654. John, 
who came to Plymouth in the Fortune, 1621, m. Eleanor Newton, who came 
in the Ann, 1623. His children were James, John, and Susanna. John, 
Marshfield, son of above, m. 1654, Jane James, and had Joseph, Martha, and 
perhaps others. John, son of 1st Francis, m. Thankful Washburn, and had 
Joseph, 1740, m. Eleanor Carney; Francis, 1741, m. Rebecca Cook; John, 



4 



ALBERTSOX. ALDEN. 



1743, m. Sarah Drew; Ebenezer, 1744; Jemima, 1746, m. Joseph Holmes; 
Melzar, 1750, m. Deborah Bradford of Duxbury; Sarah, 1752, m. Jedediah 
Holmes; Mercy, 1753, m. Francis Adams, Lydia, 1755, m. Robert Cook; 
Susanna, 1759, m. Eleazar Faunce. John or William (both names are in 
the records), a foreigner, m. Sophia Eddy, 1808. Joshua, son of 1st Thomas, 
m. Mary Godfrey, and had Sarah, 1760, m. John Perkins of Plympton; Saba, 
1762, m. Zacb. Cushman; Joshua, 1767, m. Nancy Gray of Barnstable; 
Thomas, 1770, m. Mercy, d. of Thomas Savery of Carver; Mary, 1772, 
m. Seth Perkins of Plympton; Bathsheba, 1775, m. Daniel Bradford of 
Plympton. Lyman of Albany m. Elizabeth Goddard, 1805. Richard 
probably came from Chester, England, about 1680, and was afterward killed 
by the Indians. Mention is made of three children — Richard, Francis, and 
Jemima, of whom the first never came to America, and the last returned to 
England shortly after her arrival. Samuel, Kingston, born 1790, was son of 
Francis and Mercy Adams, and grandson of 2d Francis above mentioned. 
His brothers and sisters were Lydia H., born 1786, m. Luther Phillips; 
Jemima, 17S8, m. Joshua Peterson; Eleanor, 1792, and Sarah, 1794. He m. 
Priseilla Ford of Marshfield, and Abigail Bruce of Kingston, and had no 
children. Thomas, son of 1st Francis, m. Bathsheba, d. of Israel Bradford, 
and had Sarah, 1732, m. Caleb Cook and Gershom Cobb; Joshua, 1735; 
Bartlett, 1738; Nathaniel, 1740; Mary, 1744; Deborah, 1747. Thomas, son of 
Joshua, m. Mercy, d. of Thomas Savery of Carver, and had Thomas, 1794; 
Thomas, 1795; John, 1797, m. Nancy Pratt of Carver; George, 1800; Thomas, 
1802; Mary, 1805, m. John Bent of Middleboro' and Watson Goward of 
Croyden, N. H. ; George, 1S07; Ann Maria, 1809. Thomas, son of above, 
m. Eunice H. Bugbee of Pomfret, Vt., and had Mary E., 1832, m. R. F. 
Briggs of Boston; Thomas H., 1834; Frederick E. and Frank W., twins, 1836; 
Luther B. and Ellen, twins, 1837; Miranda B., 1839; Harriet E., 1841; James 

O. and , twins, 1841; David B., 1845; Walter S. and , twins, 

1848; and Adelaide V., 1849. (See Adams Genealogy.) 

Albertson, Jacob, of Swedish descent, probably grandson of John of 
Yarmouth, who was son of Nicholas of Scituate, 1636, m. Margaret Nicolson, 
1750, and had Jacob, 1752; William, Elizabeth, and Rufus. Jacob, son of 
above, m., 1775, Lydia Rider, and had Martha, 1779, m. Amaziah Harlow; 
Joseph Rider, 1781; Lydia Gardner. 1783; Margaret, 1785. Rufus, son of 
1st Jacob, m. a wife Martha, and had Polly, 1787; Margaret, 1789; Sally, 
1790; Betsey, 1794; Rufus, 1797; Martha, 1801; Sophronia, 1S04; William, 
1806. 

Alden, Francis L., from New Bedford, m., 1828, Eudora, d. of Zabdiel 
Sampson. Gideon S., of New Bedford, m. Priseilla, d. of William Le Baron, 
1803. John, came in the Mayflower, 1620, and m., 1623, Priseilla, d. of Wil- 
liam Mullins. His children were, John of Boston, m. Elizabeth, wid. of 
Abiel Ewrill and d. of William Phillips; Joseph, m. Mary. d. of Moses Sim- 
mons; David, m. Mary, d. of Constant Southworth; Jonathan, m. Abigail, 
d. of Andrew Hallet; Elizabeth, m. William Peabody; Sarah, ni. Alexander 
Standish; Ruth, m. John Bass of Braintree; and Mary. m. Thomas Delano. 
John, from Middleboro', pub., 1790, to Susanna Dunham. 



ALEXANDER. ALLEN. 



5 



Alexander, Benjamin Franklin, son of 2d James, died at Rose 
Hill, Va., 1841. Charles Edward, son of Edward, place of residence un- 
known to the writer, ni. Lucia M. Hart, 1860, and had Mary Lilly, 1860; Nannie, 
1863; and Frederick William, 1870. Edward, son of 1st James, m. Nancy 
Young, 1832, and had Charles Edward, 1833; and Frederick William, 1835. 
His place of residence is unknown to the writer. Giles, Boston, son of 1st 
William, m. three wives, one of whom was Catherine Knapp of Vermont, by 
whom he had Catherine, about 1813, m. in Vergennes, Vt. Isaac Bemis, 
Provincetown, son of 1st James, m. Elizabeth Gillespie, 1831, and 
had Elizabeth, m. in Ohio; Robert, m. in Provincetown; Mary; Martha. 
James, Boston, son of 2d William, m. Elizabeth Williston, 1803, 
and had James, 1804; Edward, 1805; Isaac Bemis, 1810. James, 
son of above, Abingdon, Virginia, m., 1832, R. Ann Wills of Rose Hill, 
Va., and had Lillie Helen, 1833, m. William M. Norris; James B. S., 
1836; William Wills, 1838; Benjamin Franklin, 1840; Nannie E., 1843, m. 
Horace H. George of Charlotteville, Va. ; and Nellie T., 1846. James B. S., 
son of above, Charlotteville, graduated at West Point, 1856, a major-general 
in the Confederate army, died at Alleghany Springs, 1861. Samuel, 
Plymouth, son of 2d William, m. Deborah, d. of John Paty, 1804, and had 
Maria Paty, 1805, m. Thomas Tribble; Mary Ann, 1806, m. Solomon Sylvester; 
Samuel Lewis, 1808; John Thomas, 1810, m. Lavinia Harlow; Fanny, 1812; 
Sylvan us, 1814; Sophronia, 1819, m. John Nickerson ; Sylvia Cooper, 1821; 
m. William T. Savery; George, 1823; Charles, 1825; William Bemis, 1828, m. 
Mary, d. of Thomas Atwood. Samuel Lewis, son of above, m., 1830, 
Charlotte S. Faunce, and had Catherine Elizabeth, 1830; Samuel Thomas, 
1833; John Knowles, 1837. William of Sherburne, Mass., afterward 
Boston, during the Revolution, had Giles, William, and others. William, 
son of above, Boston, m. Ann, d. of James McMillan, and had William, bap- 
tized 1768; Giles, 1770; Ann, 1772; Polly, 1775; James, 1777; Samuel, 1780; 
Benjamin, 1790. 

Allen, Anthony Sherman, m. Marcia Finney, 1838. Benjamin, m. 
Beza Delano, 1755, and had Benjamin, 1755. Ezra, m. Mary Durfey, 1745. 
Francis, m. Jane Kirk, 1725, and had Francis, 1728; Jenny, 1733. James, 
m. Elizabeth Cotton, 1690. James of Boston, m. Priscilla Brown, 1804. 
John, who came from England about 1760, m. Esther, d. of Thomas Savery, 
1768, and had Esther, 1769, m. Benjamin Robbins of Kingston; Elizabeth, 
1772, m. Joseph Doten; John, 1774; William, 1779. John, son of above, m. 
Maria Smith, 1796, and had John, 1798; Maria, 1803, m. Timothy Berry ; 
George, 1806; Susan, 1808, m. Ezra Churchill; Louisa, 1813, m. Lewis G. 
Bradford; Thomas, 1816. John, from Middleboro', m. Susanna Dunham, 
1790, and had Joseph, m. Mary Sherman, d. of Lewis Holmes; Timothy; 
Samuel, m. Naomi Leach; Betsy B., m. Ezra Allen, and Jenette, m. Truman 
Cook Holmes. John of Salem, m. Mary Nicholson, 1801. Thomas, son of 
2d John, m. Betsy, d. of William Drew, and had Thomas Jefferson, 1839; 
George, Maria, and Ella. Timothy, son of 3d John, m., 1814, Thankful 
Snow, and Rebecca Blackmer, 1836, and had Betsy, m. Calvin Ripley. 
William, son of 1st John, m. Betsy Holmes, 1798, and had Esther, m. 



6 



ALLEHTOX. AXXABLE. 



Southworth A. ITowland of Brookfield; Eliza, m. Washington Heald; Caro- 
line, m. Enos Dorr; Susan Holmes, m. James Harvey Drew; Betsey William 
in. John Gates; Jane B., m. Charles Whittemore; Winslow, m. Louisa Xash, 
William, m., 1st, Mary C. Gilmore; 2d, Emeline Huntington; 3d, Emeline 
Whittemore, and 4th, Rosamond (Washburn) Rider, wid. of Caleb Rider of 
Plymouth, and d. of Alden Washburn of Tarn worth, X. H. 

Allerton, Isaac, of London, m. in Leyden, 1611, Mary Xorris of 
Xewbury, England, and came in the Mayflower with wife and three children 
— Bartholomew, Remember, m. Moses Maverick of Salem, and Mary, m. 
Thomas Cushman. He m. 2d, 1626, Fear, d. of William Brewster, and had 
Isaac, who moved to Xew Haven. He had a third wife, Joanna, and a 
child, Sarah, by one of the wives. Isaac, Xew Haven, son of the above, 
had Elizabeth, m. Benjamin Starr and Simeon Eyre; and Isaac. John came 
a sailor in the Mayflower, and died during the first winter. 

Allyn, Joseph, son of Samuel of Barnstable, m. Mary, d. of Edward 
Doty, and had Elizabeth, 1700; Mary, 1702, m. James Otis, father of the 
patriot. He removed to Wethersfield. 

Ames, Jonathan, m. Rebecca Stanford, 1713. Oliver, born in 
Plymouth, was descended from Richard Ames of Bruten, Somersetshire, 
England, whose son William, born in 1605, came to Braintree about 
1639. By wife Hannah, William had Hannah, 1641; Rebecca. 1642; 
Lydia, 1645; John, 1647; Sarah, 1651, and Deliverance, 1654. Of these, 
John, m. Sarah, d. of John Willis, and settled in West Bridgewater. His 
children were: John, 1672; William, 1673; Xathaniel, 1677, the ancestor of 
Fisher Ames; Elizabeth, 1680; Thomas, 1682; Sarah, 16S5; David, 
16S8, and Hannah. Of these, Thomas, m. Mary, d. of Joseph Hay- 
ward, 170(5, and had Thomas, 1707; Solomon, 1709; Joseph, 1711; 
Ebenezer, 1715; Mary, 1717; Susanna, 1720; Xathaniel, 1722; Sarah, 1724, and 
Betty, 1727. Of these, Thomas, m. Keziah, d. of Jonathan Hayward. 1731, 
and had Keziah, 1732; Susanna, 1734; Thomas, 1736; John, 1738; Mehitabel, 
1740, and Sylvanus, 1744. Of these, John m. Susanna, d. of Ephraim 
Howard, 1759, and had David, 1760; Keziah, Susanna, Huldah. 176S; 
Abigail, 1769; Cynthia, 1772; John, 1775, and Oliver, 1777. Oliver, m. 
Susanna, d. of Oakes Angier of West Bridgewater, and had Horatio, 
Oakes Angier, Angier, Oliver, Sarah. William, Harriet, and John. He 
carried on business for a time in Plymouth, where his son Oliver was 
born, and afterwards removed to Easton. 

Anderson, Alexander, m., 1755, Jean Seller. Andrew, m.. 1787, 
Elizabeth Raymond. John m., 1795, Elizabeth Anderson. John, m., 1804, 
wid. Sarah Fish. William, m., 1778, Priscilla Tinkham. 

Andrews, Samuel, m., 1819, Jerusha Bearse. 

Andros, John, by wife Mary, had Sarah, 1696; Joanna, 1697; John, 1699; 
Mary, 1701 ; Ebenezer, 1704. 

Angel, Thomas C, m., 1825, Julia Ann Robbins. 

Annable, Anthony, came in the Ann, 1623, with wife Jane and chil- 
dren, Sarah, m. Heury Ewell, and Hannah, m. Thomas Freeman. After 
arrival he had Susanna born in Barnstable. He m., 2d, 1645, Ann Clark, 



APPLING . ATWOOD. 



7 



and had Samuel, 1646, m. Mehitabel, d. of Thomas Allyn; Ezekiel, 1649. He 
m., 3d, Ann Barker, and had Desire, 1653. 

Appling, William Thomas, from Carver, m. Deborah Barrows, 1813. 

Armitage, Thomas, came in the James from Bristol, 1635, settled in 
Lynn, but owned an estate in Plymouth, 1637. 

Armor, George, in., 1804, Catherine Hubbard. 

Armstrong, Gregory, m., 1638, Eleanor, wid. of John Billington. 

Arnold, Gamaliel, from Duxbury, m., 1766, Hannah Wait. 

Ashley, Joseph, m. a wife Elizabeth, and had Thomas, 1704. Joseph 
m. Elizabeth Swift, 1749. 

Atkins, Henry, by wife Elizabeth had Mary, 1647; Samuel, 1651, born in 
Plymouth; Isaac, 1657, in Eastham. He m., 2d, at Eastham, 1664, Bethiah 
Linnell, and had Desire, 1655; John, 1666, Nathaniel, 1667; Joseph, 1669; 
Thomas, 1671; John, 1674; Mercy, 1676; Samuel, 1679. Joseph m., 1822, 
Sarah Cooper. 

Atkinson, Thomas, at Plymouth, 1635. 

Attequin, Jeremiah, and Moll Simons, Indians, published 1736. 

Atwood. The various branches of the Atwood family in Plymouth are 
descended from John Wood of Plymouth, 1643. There was a John Atwood 
in Plymouth, 1636, who died without children. Barnabas, Plympton, son 
of 2d Nathaniel, m. Lydia Shurtleff, 1723, and had Hannah, 1724, m. a 
Barrows; Elizabeth, 1726, m. a Shaw; Isaac, 1728; Lydia, m. a Cobb; Mary, 
m. a Shaw; Abigail, Lucy, Barnabas, and John. Elijah D., came to 
Plymouth from Carver, and m., 1853, Catherine Robbins Cotton, d. of Josiah, 
and had Catherine P., m. Elijah Dunham and Wilson Leroy. Isaac, son of 
2d John, m. Lydia Wait, 1740, and had Thomas, 1744; Isaac, 1747; Wait, 
1749; Zacheus, 1752; Lydia, 1754; Hannah, 1756, m. Lemuel Taber. Isaac, 
son of above, by wife Hannah, had Isaac, 1772. Jesse, R. son of Thomas 
of Wellfleet, m. Miriam, d. of Richard Atwood of same, and had 
Anthony, m., 1868, Susan T. Holmes; Edward B., m., 1868, Deborah C.,d. 
of Lucius Pratt; Abby F., m. Henry H. Cole of Taunton, and Hettie S.. m, 
1880, Peleg S. B. Bartlett. John, Plymouth, 1643, called Wood, alias 
Atwood, m. Sarah, d. of Richard Masterson, and had John, 1650; Nathaniel, 
1652; Isaac, 1654; Sarah, m. John Fallowell; Abigail, m. Samuel Leonard; 
Mercy, Elizabeth, Hannah, m. Richard Cooper; Mary, m. Rev. John Holmes 
of Duxbury, and Major William Bradford. John, son of 2d Nathaniel, 
assumed or received the name of Atwood, and is called sometimes in the 
records John Wood, alias Atwood. He m. Sarah, d. of Josiah Leavitt of 
Hingham, 1709, and had Sarah, 1709, m. Nehemiah Ripley; Mary, 1711, m. 
Jacob Taylor; John, 1713; Lydia, 1715, m. James Hovey; Solomon, 1717; 
Isaac, 1719;Keziah, 1721, m. Francis Adams; Hannah, 1723, and Experience, 
1724. He married 2d, Experience Pierce, 1730, and had Experience, 1731 ; 
Elizabeth, 1733, m. Samuel Pierce; Experience again, 1734, m. Samuel 
Jackson; George, 1738; Priscilla, 1740, m. Ichabod Shaw; and Margaret, m. 
Joshua Shaw. John, son of above, m. Hannah Drew, 1735, and had Rebecca, 
1737, m. Corban Barnes; John, 1739; George, 1741, m Joanna Bartlett; 
Elijah, 1743; Abigail, 1745, m. Joseph Rider; Micah, 1747; William, 1749; 



8 



ATWOOD. 



Saran, 1751; Elizabeth, ra. David Drew, and Mary, m. Lemuel Robbins. 
Jonx, son of above, ra. Deborali Doten, 1771, and had Deborah, m. Samuel 
Battles; Sarah, m. Experience Everson, and John, 1778. He probably had a 
1st wife, Lydia Holmes, without children. John, son of above, m. Nancy 
Churchill, 1799, and had John, William, Maria Shaw, m. Ignatius Pierce; 
Mary Ann, m. Ephraim Holmes, and Nancy. John, son of above, m. Hannah 
Wiswell, 1828, and had Xancy Churchill, 1829, m. Lorenzo Tribble; John 
Murray, 1835, m. Aurina, d. of Aurin Bugbee; Miranda B., m. Christopher 
T. Harris; Paulina W., m. James H. Simmons; Adoniram J., 1837, m. Helen, 
d. of Ellis Barnes, and Hannah Tufts, 1839, m. Van Buren Holmes. John, 
m. Hannah Richmond, 1806. Joux B. came to Plymouth with wife Martha 
B., and had Rebecca W., ni., 1851, Josiah A. Robbins; Martha B., m., 1856, 
Ainory T. Skerry, and Alexander P., m., 1S59, Mercy Ann, d. of Truman 
Bartlett. Nathaniel, Plympton, m. Lydia Boult, 1776, and had Abner, 
Zenas, Levi, Nathaniel, Joshua, Mary, ra. a Shurtleff; Joanna, m. Aaron 
Carey; Mercy, m. David Shurtleff, and Huldah, m. a Vaughn. Nathaniel, 
son of 1st John, called Wood, by wife Mary had John, 16S4; Elizabeth, 16S7; 
Joanna, 1689; Mary, 1691; Nathaniel, 1693; Isaac, 1693; Barnabas, 1697; 
Joanna, 1700. Nathaniel, Plympton, son of above, m. Mary, d. of 
Francis Adams, and had Mary, 1723, m. Benjamin Shaw; Nathaniel, 1725, 
m. Susanna, d. of Barnabas Shurtleff and Elizabeth Timberlake ; Francis, 172S. 
By a second wife, Abigail, he had Sarah, m. Joseph Barrows ; Mercy, m. Joseph 
Warren; Ebenezer, 1735; Keziah, 1737; William, 1740; Joseph, 1741, and 
Ichabod. Solomon, son of 2d John, m. Lydia, d. of Job Cushman, 1749, 
and had Solomon, who in. Hannah Rogers, 1773. Thomas, son of 1st Wait, 
m. Mehitabel Shaw, 1799, and had Polly Shaw, 1800, m. Ezra Collier; Thomas, 
1805; Darius, 1808, and Mehitabel Shaw. He m., 2d, Elizabeth Tufts, 1S10, 
and had William Tufts. He m., 3d, Lydia (Savery) Holmes, wid. of Eleazer, 
1814. and had George, Charles, and Elizabeth. Thomas, son of above, m. 
Hannah R. Bartlett, 1827, and had Thomas B., 1829; Mary Frances, 1834, m. 
William B. Alexander; Timothy S., 1837; George H., m. Fanny H. Danforth, 
and Lydia, m. Martin F. Benson. Thomas, brother of Jesse, came from 
Wellfleet and m., 1857, Lucy A., d. of Richard Pope. Thomas B., son of 2d 
Thomas, m. Rebecca M. Holmes, and had Thomas H., 1S49, m. Ada V. King, 
and Hettie S., m. Alvin S. Hallet. Thomas C, son of 2d William, m. 
Betsey, d. of Samuel Lanman, 1840, and had William T., 1842; Charles H., 
1844, m. Miranda Burgess; Mary E., 1848, m. Isaac T. Hall ; Laura A. , m. 
Samuel McHenry; Robert Winslow; Eldon Russell, 1855, m. Sarah J. Heath; 
Ella, and Martha. Wait, son of 1st Isaac, by wife Susanna, had Thomas, 
1769; Wait, and Phebe, m. Chandler Holmes. He m., 2d, Rebecca Bartlett, 
1786. Wait, son of above, m. Polly, d. of Joseph Tribble, 1802, and had 
Mary Wait, in. Sylvanus Bramhall. William, son of 3d John, m. 
Lydia (Holmes) Savery, wid. of William, and d. of George Holmes, and 
had William. William, son of above, m. Temperance, d. of Thomas 
Churchill, 1804, and had William, Nancy, m. Branch Johnson and 
Anthony Morse; Thomas C; Henry; Isaac, m. Ann Brown; and Eunice, 
m. Charles Raymond. William, son of above, m. Sarah Jane Brown, and 



AUSTIN. BAGNALL. 



9 



had Abby J., 1848; William B., 1850; George H., 1852; Joseph B., 1854. 
William, son of 5th John, m. Harriet, d. of Seth Morton, 1835, and had 
Edward Winslow, 1835, m. Georgiana, d. of Elias Thomas; Harriet Elizabeth, 
1837; and James M., 1841, m. Helen M., d. of Benjamin F. Field. 

Austin, Isaac, m. Bethiah Johnson, d. of John Ridgebi, 1824, and had 
Isaac L., 1824; Alva C, 1826; Elizabeth Owen, 1829; Selden, 1833; Henry 
Carter, 1836. Richard, from Kingston, m. Rebecca Atwood, 1789. 

Avery, John H., m. Harriet G. Whitmore, 1839. Joseph, from Holden, 
m. Sarah Thaxter of Worcester, 1815. 

Babb, Richard, m. Martha Bartlett, 1769, and had Betsey, m. 
Samuel Rogers. 

Bacon, David, son of Jacob, m., 1777, Abigail, d. of Stephen Sampson, 
and had Lucy, 1778; David, 1779; Abigail, 1782; Elizabeth, 1784; Henry 
Sampson, 1787; Jacob, 1788; Rufus, 1792; Mary, 1794; Charles Henry, 1797. 
George, son of Nathan, m., 1798, Elizabeth, d. of Job Rider, and had 
George Taylor, 1801; George Taylor, 1804; Betsey, 1808; Mary, 1810; Rebecca, 
1812; Nathan, 1814; George Taylor, 1817; Lucretia Ann, 1819, m. Sylvanus 
H. Churchill, and Leavitt Taylor, 1823. Jacob, probably great-grandson of 
Jacob of Newton, 1677, bora in Wrenthain, m. Mary Wood of Boxford, 1749, 
and had Mary, 1750, m. David Thurston of Rowley; Jacob, 1751, m. Mrs. 
Mary Whitney of Dorchester; Thomaf, 1753; David, 1754; OUver, 1755, 
Samuel, 1758; Charles, 1759. John, Barnstable, son of Nathaniel, m., 1686, 
Mary Howes, and had Hannah, 1687; Desire, 1689, m. William Green; 
Nathaniel, 1692; Patience, 1694; John, 1697; Isaac, 1699; Solomon, 1701 ; Jude, 
1703. John, son of above, m., 1726, Sarah Warren of Plymouth, and had 
Nathan, Jonathan, and Rebecca. John of Barnstable m. Joanna Foster, 1754. 
John of Barnstable m. Priscilla Holmes, 1789. Nathan, son of 2d John, m. 
Mary Taylor of Plymouth, and had Nathan, 1767; Molly, 1771, m. Charles 
Robbins, and George, 1773. Nathaniel, Barnstable, m., 1642, Hannah, d. 
of Rev. John Mayo, and had Hannah, 1643; Nathaniel, 1646; Mary, 1648; 
Samuel, 1651; Elizabeth, 1654; Jeremiah, 1657; Mercy, 1660, m. John Otis, 
and John. 

Badger, Josiah, m. Mary Raymond, 1782. 

Bagnall, Benjamin, son of 1st Richard, m. Hannah Jackson, 1751, and 
had Richard, 1752; Benjamin, 1755. He m., 2d, Sarah, d. of Elkanah Totman, 
1758, and had Lydia, m. Oliver Keyes; Hannah, 1761, m. James Harlow, and 
Diman Bartlett; Benjamin, 1762; Elizabeth, 1766, m. John Douglass; Nich- 
olas Spinks, 1767; and Nellie, m. Nathaniel Holmes. Benjamin, son of 2d 
Richard, m. Lucy Churchill, 1821, and had Lucy Emily, 1822 ; Betsey Crocker, 
1825, and Elizabeth. George, son of Joseph, m. Catherine, wid. of Lewis 
Morton, and had Joseph W., m. Melinda Longfellow of Belfast, Maine. 
Joseph, son of 2d Richard, m. Betsey Rickard, 1820, and had George. 
Nicholas Spinks, son of 1st Benjamin, m., 1st, Nancy Crocker, and 2d, 
Mehitabel Finney, 1792, and had Frederick, m. Betsey Cushman, and removed 
to Kingston; Oliver, m. wid. Phebe Jones; Ichabod P., m. Caroline Fisher, 
Edna G. Burbank, and Ellen Devine; Sally, m. Josiah Holmes; Nancy, m. 
Lemuel Rickard; Deborah, m. Jesse Lucas, and Susan, m. William Hall. 



10 



BAILEY. BARNES. 



Richard appeared in Plymouth, 1723, in which year hem. Elizabeth Poland, 
and had Benjamin, 1724, and ITannah. Richard, son of 1st Benjamin, 
m. Bethiah West, and had Samuel West, 1787; Hannah Jackson, 1790, m. 
Jesse Dunham; Benjamin, 1792; Joseph, 1795; Nancy Ellis, 1799, m. 
Nathaniel Cobb Laman; Richard, 1802. Richard, son of above, m. Lydia, 
d. of Ebenezer Sampson, 1819, and had Susan Sampson, 1819, m. William 
Weston; Richard William, 1822, m. Harriet Allen, and Lydia, m. Horace A. 
Jenks. Samuel West, son of 2d Richard, m. Lois, d. of James Thomas of 
Middleboro', 1811, and had Benjamin, 1812, m. Sally Burgess, and Eleanor P. 
Kimball; Samuel West, 1815, m. Harriet N. Faunce; Bethiah, 1817, m. H. O. 
Steward. He m., 2d, Minerva Thomas, sister of his first wife, 1S22, and had 
Lois Thomas, 1823, m. Ellis Barnes; Martha Jane, 1S26, m. John Churchill; 
Ann Minerva, 1829, m. Stephen Cook of Mendon, and Sarah Frances, 1833. 

Bailey, Clift, m. Nancy Ellis, 1807. Ika, m. Phebe Bartlett, 1818. 
John, m. Polly Wood, 1813. Melvin, m. Maria Paty, 1820. 

Baker, Abner, from Rochester, m., 1778, Hannah Morton. William, 
Plymouth, 1643, and afterwards Portsmouth, R. I. 

Ballard, Roswell, from Plympton, m., 1816, Hannah Sampson. 

Banden, Stephen, m., 1725, Deborah Pratt. 

Bangs, Edward, came in the Ann, 1623, and prob. m. Lydia, d. of 
Robert Hicks, and had Rebecca, John, Sarah, m. Thomas Howes; Jonathan, 
1640, m. Maiy, d. of Samuel Mayo of Barnstable; Lydia, m. Benjamin 
Higgins; Hannah, m. John Doane; Joshua, m. Hannah, d. of John Scudder; 
Bethiah, 1650, m. Gersham Hall; Mercy, ni. Stephen Herrick, and Apphia, m. 
John Knowles, and Joseph Atwood. 

Banks, Isaac, in., 1798, Abigail Babb. Lilliston had a wife Sarah, 
and the following children, prob. between 1820 and 1830: Sarah Cutton, 
Lilliston, and Clark Johnson. 

Barker, Isaac, m., 1665, Judith, d. of Thomas Prence, and had Rebecca, 
Lydia, Judith, Martha, Francis, Thomas, Isaac, Jabez, Robert, and Samuel. 
Thomas, son of above, m., 1712, Bethiah Little. 

Barnaby, James, m. Lydia, d. of Robert Bartlett, 1647, and had Stephen 
and James, 1670. J.lmes, son of above, m. Joanna, d. of Win. Harlow, and 
moved to Freetown. His children were James, 1628; Ambrose, 1706, m. 
Elizabeth, d. of Samuel Gardner of Swanzey. Stephen, son of 1st James, 
m., 1696, Ruth, d. of George Morton, and had Lydia, 1697, m. Thomas 
Faunce; Ruth, 1699; Elizabeth, 1701; Timothy, 1706; Hannah, 1709. He m., 
2d, 1710, Judith, wid. of Joseph Church and d. of William Harlow, and had 
Joseph, 1712. Timothy, son of above, m. a wife Martha, and had Stephen, 
1728; Ruth, 1735, and so far as the writer knows this branch disappears. 

Baknel, Stephen, m. Judith Church, 1710. 

Barnes, Benjamin, son of 1st William, m., 1742, Experience, d. of Josiah 
Rider, and had Alice, 1743, m. Samuel Battles; Mercy, 1745, m. Richard 
Holmes; Bradford, 1747; Benjamin, 1750; Josiah, 1752; Isaac, 1754; 
Experience, 1756, m. Elisha Corban of Dudley; Sarah, 1760. Benjamin, 
son of above, m., 1774, Deborah, d. of Ichabod Holmes, and had Benjamin; 
Bradford, 1777; Samuel; Deborah, m. John Gooding; Ellis. Benja_min, son 



BARNES. 



ii 



of above, m., 1800, Rebecca Shurtleff, and had Benjamin. He m. 2d, 1828, 
Eliza Foster, wid. of John Lewis, and d. of William Dunham. Benjamin, 
son of above, m. Deborah, d. of Robert Hutchinson, and had Robert 
Hutchinson, 1834, m. Rebecca Holmes; Rebecca B., 1838, m. Lysander L. 
Dunham; Laura E., m. Richard Holmes; Benjamin F. Benjamin, son of 
Seth, m., 1762, Elizabeth Holmes, and had Elizabeth, 1762; Benjamin, 1764. 
Benjamin, son of above, removed from Plymouth, and was the father of 
Seth and Hilburn, twins, of Boston, and James II. of Springfield. Brad- 
ford, son of 2d Benjamin, in., 1799, Jane Holmes, and had Bradford ; Nancy, 
m. John Washburn. Bradford, son of above, m., 1827, Mary Wood- 
ward, and had Martha Jane, 1828, m. Samuel Talbot; Winslow Bradford, 
1830, m. Emily P. Sweetser; Mary Woodward, 1833, m. A. W. B. Gooding of 
Boston; Caroline Dorr, 1S35, ui. James W. Bicknell; Deborah Fanny, 1837; 
Hannah Elizabeth, 1840, m. John McDonough; Nancy Agnes, 1840, m. 
Pomroy Briggs; Ann Maynard, 1852. Corban, son of 3d John, ni., 1755, 
Rebecca Atwood. He m. 2d, 1765, Mary, d. of Jeremiah Finney of Bristol, 
and had Mary, 1766, m. Eleazar Holmes; Rebecca, 1768; Betsey, 1771, m. 
Thomas Davie, Levi Lucas, and a Mayhew; Charlotte, 1774, m. Stephen 
Harlow; Corban, 1778; Patty, 1781, m. Ansel Holmes; Deborah, 1785, m. 
Alden Lucas; Abigail, 1789, m. William Keen and Josiah Carver. Corban, 
son of 1st Lemuel, m., 1783, Phebe Holmes, and had Lemuel, 1785, m. Lucy 
Covington ; Nathaniel ; Elkanah ; Betsey, m. Barnabas Dunham ; Sarah Holmes, 
m. John Parker Ellis; Joanna, m. Joseph Bradford and William Nickerson; 
Phebe, m. Seth Paty and James G. Gleason; Corban. Corban, son of 
above, m. Susan, d. of Hamblin Tilson, and had Susan, 1834, m. Charles 
Hayden. He m. 2d, 1836, Mary Ann, d. of Ephraim Holmes, and wid. of 
Sylvester Davie, and had Albert Corban, 1838; Corban, Lemuel, Mary; Mary 
again, m. Amos Locke; Albert, George, and Frances, m. Daniel Critchenson. 
Ellis, son of 2d Benjamin, m., 1814, Mary Holmes, and had Eleazar H., 
1815, m., Deborah L., d. of Putnam Kimball; Ellis, 1817, m. Lois T. Bagnall; 
Mary E., 1823, m. Daniel F. Goddard; Josiah W., 1826; John C, 1828, m., 
Elizabeth Saunders; Helen, 1836, m. Adoniram J. Atwood. Elkanah, son of 
1st Lemuel, m. Eliza Clark, and had Elkanah, John, Eliza, m. Bela Cushing; 
Hannah, m. a Tirrell. Elkanah, son of above, m., 1813, Cynthia Davis, 
d. of Lemuel Simmons, and had Alexina Carlowitz, 1813, m. Sylvanus 
Paulding; Lorenzo, 1816, m. Lucy Bonney and Betsey Brown; Catherine 
Harriet, 1813, m. Stephen Faunce; Charles Elkanah, 1820, m. Betsey Ishmael, 
George R. S., m. Sarah E. Meyer; Moses Simmons, m. Louisa W. Burgess; 
Francilia A., m. Charles P. Leach. Henry, son of 4th William, m., 1836, 
Catherine W. Bradford, and had Charles Henry, 1837; Luther R. and Clara 
E. Ichabod, m., 1794, Jerusha Doten. Isaac, son of 1st Benjamin, m., 
1780, Lucy Harlow, and had Lucy, 1784, m. Ivory Harlow; Polly, 1789, m. 
George W. Virgin; Sally, 1793, m. James Collins; Isaac, 1796. Isaac, son of 
above, m., 1819, Betsey, d. of Thomas Davie, and had Isaac, 1820; Thomas 
Davie, 1822; Samuel Davis, 1829; Winslow, and Betsey W. He in. 2d, 1830, 
Lucy C, d. of Lewis Harlow, and had George Winslow, 1832; James Frank- 
lin, 1834; Betsey Davie, 1836, m. William S. Kirk of Penn. ; Mary Frances, 



12 



BARNES. 



1839, m. Franklin B. Cobb; Harrison O., 1845, m. Mary A., d. of Andrew 
Blanchard. James, son of Seth, ra., 1750, Sarah Nash, and had James, 
1755. James, son of 4th William, m., 1827, Mary Weston, lie in., 2d, 
Elizabeth Cobb, wid. of Isaac Swift, and d. of John Battles. Joux appeared 
in Plymouth 1G31. He in., 1033, Mary Plummer, and had Esther, m. John 
Rickard; John, 1039; Jonathan, 1043; Lydia, 1047; Hannah; Mary, m. 
Kobert Marshall. He m., 2d, a wife Jane. John, son of 1st Jonathan, m., 
1093, Mary Bartlett, and had John, 1094; Hannah, 1090, m. Lemuel Drew; 
William, 1697; Seth, 1099; Mary, 1701; Jonathan, 1703; Thankful, 1705, m. 
Jonathan Bartlett; Elizabeth, 1707, m. Francis Curtis; Lydia, 1713, in. 
Lemuel Barnes. John, son of above, m., 1725, Dorcas Corban of Haverhill, 
and had John, 1720; Lemuel, 1729; Corban, 1732; Mary, 1730, m. John Dyer; 
Hannah, 1740, m. Ezra Corban; Elkanah, 1742, m. Hannah Bartlett. Jona- 
than, son of 1st John, m., 1000, Elizabeth, d. of William Hedge of Yarmouth, 
and had Mary, 1007, m. John Carver; John, 1609; William, 1070; Hannah, 
1672, m. Benjamin Rider; Lydia, 1674, m. Abiel Shurtleff; Elizabeth, 
1677, m. Isaac Lathrop; Sarah, 1080, m. Benjamin Bartlett; Esther, 1082, m. 
Elkanah Cushman; Jonathan, 1684. Jonathan, son of above, m. Sarah 
Bradford, and had Sarah, 1709; Rebecca, 1711; Lydia, 1715. Hem., 2d, wid. 
Mercy Doten, and had Hannah, 1718, m. Stephen Churchill, and Jeremiah 
Howes; Lydia, m. Joseph Smith; Sarah, m. Thomas Doane. Jonathan, 
son of 2d John, m., 1720, Phebe, d. of Josiah Finney, and had Mary. 1728; 
Margaret, 1732, m. Zacheus Bartlett; Jonathan, 1735; Nathaniel, 1740, m. 
Jerusha Blackmar; Zacheus, 1743. Jonathan, son of 1st Zacheus, m. Lydia 
Curtis of Maine, and had Zacheus. Joseph, son of 1st Seth, m.,"1760, 
Hannah Rider, and had Hannah, 1700, m. Isaac Thomas; Joseph, 1703; 
William, 1765; Nathaniel, 1771; Elizabeth, 1773, m. Thomas Rogers; Sarah, 
1775, m. William Goddard; Thomas, 1779; Nancy, 1781. Joseph, son of 
above, m., 1787, Elizabeth, d. of Joseph Tribble, and had Joseph; Betsey, m. 
Bartlett Ellis. Joseph, son of above, m., 1808, Jane, d. of Job Brewster, 
and had Rosilla Lessington, 1809; William Brewster, 1811 ; Jane Emily, 1813, 
m. Simon R. Burgess; Hannah Ellis, 1817, m. Joseph W. Burgess; Betsey, 
1819, m. William Nickerson; Ellis, 1*23; Nancy Cotton, 1826. m. Charles H. 
Weston; Fanny, 1828, m. Augustus Norwood; Mary Ann Newman. Lemuel, 
son of 3d John, m., 1751, Sarah, d. of Francis L. Baron, and had Sarah, 
1751; John, 1752; Lemuel, 1754, m. Jedidah Harlow; Dorcas, 1750, m. 
Jonathan Farnum; Isaac, 1756; Corban, 1761; Betsey, m. Caleb Bryant; 
Elkanah. Lemuel, m., 1802, Laura Stetson. Lemuel, m., 1810, Susanna 
Marshall. Lemuel, son of 1st William, m., 1735, Lydia, d. of John Barnes, 
and had Hannah, 1735, m. James Tbomas; Lydia, 1737, m. Nathaniel Bartlett 
William, 1740, m. Jane Fish; Alice, 1744, m. Josiah Finney; Lemuel, 1740; 
John, 1748, m. Margaret Rider; Isaac, 1750. Levi, son of 4th William, m., 
1827, Martha, d. of Ansel Holmes, and had George Orville; Albert, m. Sarah 
W., d. of Ebenezer Davie; Edward L., m. Agnes Gordon Chamberlin of 
Roxlmry. Nathai iel, son of 2d Corban, ra., 1816, Hannah, d. of Benjamin 
Goddard, and had Betsey Goddard, 1821; John Ellis, 1S20, m. Mary 
Antoinette, d. of Lemuel D. Holmes; Nathaniel, 1829. Nathaniel Carver, 



BARNEY. BARKOW. 



13 



son of 5th William, ra., 1832, Betsey W., d. of William Tribble, and had 
Betsey W., 1833; Nathaniel Franklin, 1835, m. Anna M. Churchill; Nancy 
Carver, 1837, m. Cfiarles S. Bobbins; George A., m. Katie C. Burgess. 
Samuel, son of 2d Benjamin, m. Lucy Perkins, and had Samuel, 1803. 
Samuel, son of above, m., 1833, Sarah Barrows of Middleboro', and had 
Sarab, m. Nathaniel B. Bradford; Lucy P., ni. Charles Fuller. Seth, son of 
2d John, m., 1722, Sarah Wooden, and had Elizabeth, 1722; Sarah, 1727, m. 
John Jones; Seth, 1726, m. Hannah Williams, and Elizabeth Rider; James, 
1728 ; Mary, 1730 ; William, 1732 ; Joseph, 1737 ; Benjamin, 1737 ; Peter Wooden, 
1742; Lucy, 1745, m. Ephraim Holmes. Seth, son of above, m., 1751, Hannah 
Williams. He m. 2d, 1754, Elizabeth Rider, and had Elizabeth, 1754. 
Southworth, son of 5th William, m., 1833, Lucy, d. of John Burbank, and 
had Georgiana, 1834, m. Albert G. Hedge. William, son of 1st Jonathan, 
m., 1704, Alice, d. of William Bradford, and had William, 1706; Lemuel, 1707; 
Mercy, 1708, m. Samuel Cole, and Barnabas Hedge; Benjamin, 1711; Benja- 
min again, 1717. William, son of 3d Lemuel, m. 1764, Mary Rider, and 
had William, 1767. He m., 2d. Jane, d. of Lemuel Fish, and had Lemuel. 
William, son of 1st Seth, m., 1755, Mercy, d. of Matthew Lemote, and had 
Abigail, 1755, m. Richard Pierce; Mercy, 1757, m. Levi Harlow; William, 
1760. William, son of 2d William, m., 1794, Sarah, d. of Joseph Tribble, 
and had William, m. a Hayden, and wid. Sarah Goddard; Levi, James, 
Henry; Lydia, m. Luther Ripley; Mary, m. Andrew Bartlett ; Sarah, m. Joseph 
W. Hodgkins. William, son of 3d William, m., 1790, Mercy, d. of Nathaniel 
Carver, and had William, Southworth; Ellen, m. John Sherman; Nathaniel 
Carver. William, son of above, m. Phebe, d. of John Dickson, and had 
William M., 1822, m. Anna E. Holbrook; Winslow C, 1829, m. Eliza Diman; 
Ellis D., 1831; Caroline F., 1834, m. Thomas W. Hayden; Charles C, 1838, 
m. Alice G. Rowland. William Brewster, son of 3d Joseph, m. Harriet 
G., d. of Joshua Brewster, and had William E., m. Martha, d. of David 
Turner; Charles E., m. Eleanor N. Chase, and Hannah T. Chad wick; Joseph 
m. Ella R., d. of William Nightingale, and Harriet May. Zacheus, son of 
3d Jonathan, m., 1765, Hannah Curtis, and had Phebe, 1766, m. a Morse of 
Portland; Hannah, 1768, m. Sylvanus Paty; Lydia, 1771, m. a Jordan of 
Portland; Jonathan; Jerusha, m. Thomas Paty. Zacheus, son of 4th Jona- 
than, m., 1821, Mary, d. of Lewis Churchill, and had Nancy Paty, m. Ozen 
Bates. 

Barney, Hosea, from Taunton, m., 1837, Hannah C. Nichols. 

Barrett, John, m. nannah Holmes, 1786, and had William. William, 
son of above, m., 1812, Ruth, d. of Benjamin Westgate, and had William, m. 
Nancy Sherman of Rochester; John, m. Ann Gore, and a second wife now 
living; Clarissa, m. Edward Haley; Ruth, m. William Savery; Charles; Susan; 
Benjamin, m. Catherine A. Cosgrove. 

Barrow (or Barrows), Andrew, Plympton, son of 1st James, m. Sarah 
Perkins, and had Joshua, 1772; James, 1773; Andrew, 1775; Ezra, 1777; 
Sarah, 1779, m. Jabez Sherman; Mary, 1781, m. Thomas Tilson; Hannah, 
1784, m. Thomas Cobb; Elizabeth, 1785; Lothrop, 1788; George, 1790; 
Charles, 1793; John, 1796. Ansel, Carver, son of 3d Moses, m. Hannah 



14 



BAKKOW. 



Elliot of Sutton, and removed to Vermont. His children were Ansel, m. 
Lois Warren of Plymouth, now living in Cambridge; Asa, Harvey, in. Han- 
nah Beckley of Maine; Moses, m. Mercy Maxim of Wareham; Betsey, m. 
Calvin Perkins; Sarah, m. Samuel Barnes of Plymouth; Esther, m. George 
Gibbs of Middleboro'; Thomas, and Deborah. Asa, son of Zadock, m. 
Deborah Dewey, 1789, and had Lydia, 1790; Wendell, 1791; Deborah, 1793; 
Betsey, 1795, m. Ezra Lucas; Asa, 1798; Mira, 1S00; Lucy, 1802; Jane, 1S04; 
Rebecca Drew, 1S0G; Anna, 1S09; Sally, 1811; Isaac X., 1814. Asa, Carver, 
son of- Ansel, m. Fanny Dunham, and had Simeon Harvey, 1829. m. Priscilla 
Ann, d. of William S. Burbank; Samuel; William; and Abigail, m. George 
Atwood. Charles, Carver, son of Andrew, m. Mary Cobb, and had 
Charles, 1815; James, 1821; Horatio, 1823; Mary Ann, 1830. Elisha, son 
of 2d Robert by wife Thankful, had Zacheus, 1720; Lydia, 1723; Elisha, 
1724; Patience, 1729. George, son of 1st Robert, m. Patience Simmons, 
1695, and had Moses, 1097; George, 1698, m. Desire Doty, and Samuel. 
George, Carver, son of Peleg, m. Sophia Washburn, 1808, and had Sophia 
Washburn, 1809; Louisa, 1811; Lucy, 1813; Mary Ann, 1817; George D., 
1820. James, Plympton, m. Tabitha Rickard, and had Lydia, Kesiah, 1732; 
James, 1734; Ebenezer, 1736; Eleazar, 173S; Andrew, 1748; George, 1751. 
James, Carver, son of Andrew, m. Agatha Cobb, and had Mary Cobb, 1795; 
Nancy, 1802. James, Carver, by wife Elizabeth, had Mehitabel, 1785; 
Levina, 1789; Ruth, 1791; James, 1794; David, 1796; John, 1799; Elias 
Shaw, 1801; Elkanah Shaw, 1804; Moses Shaw, 1808; Alfred, 1810. John, 
who died 1692, had by wife Deborah, Robert, Benajah, Joshua, Ebenezer, 
and perhaps Mary, Deborah and John. John - , perhaps son of above by wife 
Sarah, had Hannah, 1700; Samuel, 1703; Ruth, 1705. He m., 2d, Bethiah 
King, 1714. John, by wife Sarah, had John, 1768; William, 1770; Thomas, 
1772. John, from Cambridge, m. Sarah Manning of Cambridge, at an unknown 
date. John, Carver, m. Deborah C. Doten, and had Deborah, 1818; Mary, 
1820; Edward D., 1822; George, 1824; Nathan Cobb, 1827; Sarah P.. 1830, 
and Deborah. Jonathan, Plympton, son of a Peleg, m. Lydia, d. of Nathan 
Perkins, and had Priscilla, 1772; Olive, 1774; Jonathan, 1777. Joshua, Car- 
ver, son of Andrew, m. Molly Sherman, and had Nathaniel Sherman. 1796; 
Sally Sherman, 1799, m. Lamed Brown, Eliab Ward, and Noah Prince; 
Polly, 1802, m. Ebenezer Rogerson; Betsey, 1804; Joshua, and Maria, 1807. 
Loturop, Carver, son of Andrew, m. Sally Shaw, and had Andrew, 1813; 
Lothrop, 1815; Wilson, 1817; Sally, 1819; Mercy, 1821; Louisa, 1823; Wins- 
low, 1827; Pelham Winslow, 1S29, and others. He had a second wife, Mar- 
garet. Lothrop, Carver, son of above, m. Lucinda Sherman, and had 
Sally Shaw, 1840. Moses, Plympton, son of George by wife Mary, had Seth, 
1719, and Moses. Moses, Plympton, son of above, m. Deborah Totman, 
1748, and had Moses. By a second wife, Mary, he had Carver, 1752, and 
Mary, 1755. Moses, Plympton, son of above, had Ansel. Nathaniel 
Sherman, son of Joshua, m. Abigail Newell, and had Nathaniel Sherman, 
1818, m. Clyntha Cobb: Abigail Newell, 1821, m. George W. Nelson; Larned 
Swallow Brown, 1824, m. Marie E., d. of Timothy Barn-; Oliver Newell, 
1828, in. Eleanor Varnum, and Mary Jane, 1831. Nelson*, Carver, son of 



BARSTOW. BARTLETT. 



15 



Peleg, m. Mary Bisbee, and had Arad, 1819; Jonathan, 1822; Olive, 1825; 
Nelson, 1828. Peleg, Carver, by wife Jemima, had Thomas, 1776; William, 
1778; Mary, 1780; George, 1783; Stephen, 1785; Nelson, 1787; Abigail, 1789; 
Joseph, 1792. Robert, perhaps brother of 1st John, m. 1666, Ruth, d. of 
George Bonum, and had Eleazer, 1669; Samuel, John, Mehitable, m. Adam 
Wright, and probably George. Robekt, son of 1st John, m. Lydia Dunham, 
and had Elisha, 1686; Robert, 1689; Thankful, 1692, m. Isaac King; Elisha, 
1695; Thomas, 1697; Lydia, 1699, m. Thomas Branch. Robert, son of 
above, m. Bethiah Ford, 1711, and had Jabez, 1711; Samuel, 1714; Thomas, 
1716; Lydia, 1718. Robert, by wife Rebecca, had Robert, 1765; Ebenezer, 
1767, m. Clarissa Bartlett. Samuel, son of 3d Robert, m. Desire Rogers, 
1744, and had Lucy, 1746; Willis, 1748; Isaac, 1750; Elizabeth, 1752; Lazarus, 
1754; Samuel, 1762. Samuel, Plympton, m. Lydia Barrows, and had 
Samuel, 1724; John, 1727; Hannah, 1729; Abner, 1732; Zadock, 1734; 
Robert, 1738; Ebenezer, 1740; Lydia, 1745. Seth, Carver, by wife Abigail, 
had Ruth, 1771; Seth, 1773; Isaac, 1776. Seth, Carver, son of above, m. 
Ruth Atwood, and had Roxy, 1802; Isaac, 1804; Abigail Cobb, 1805; Seth, 
1807; Enos, 1809; Mary, 1811; Ruth, 1813. Thomas, Carver, by wife Mary, 
had Sarah, 1801; Thomas, 1804; John Jay, 1810; James Lloyd, 1816; Peleg, 
1822. William, Carver, m. Betsy Tillson, and had William DeLamater, 
1832; GustavusH., 1837; Andrew, 1839. He had a first wife, Mary. Wilson, 
Carver, son of 1st Lathrop, m. Elizabeth D. Sherman, and had Hannah S., 
1S41; Mercy F., 1843. Zadock, son of 2d Samuel, had Asa. 

Barstow, Ichabod Weston, from Pembroke, m. Sarah Roberts, d. of 
John Clark, 1818. 

Bartlett, Abner, son of 1st Sylvanus, m. Anna, d. of Ivory Hovey, 
1774, and had Abner, 1776, m. Sarah Burgess; Anna, 1777, m. Ellis Bartlett; 
Betsey, 1779, m. Amasa Holmes; Martha, 1782, m. Meltiah Bartlett; Olive, 
1783, m. Samuel Bartlett; Ellen, 1786, m. Thomas Clark; Fanny, 1790, m. 
Daniel Montague; Harriet, 1792, m. Isaac Manchester; Ivory Hovey, 1794; 
Eliza, 1801, m. Freeman P. Howland. Amasa, m. Hannah Morton, 1787. 
Amasa, son of 1st William, m. Sarah Taylor, 1788, and had Amasa; 
William Sampson, 1807; Hannah, 1792, m. Bourne Spooner; Sally T., 1794, 
m. William Bishop and Schuyler Sampson; and Mary Ann, m. Schuyler 
Sampson. Amasa, son of above, m. Esther, d. of Nathaniel Spooner, 1833, 
and had Amasa S. ; Mary Ann, m. James D. Thurber, and Schuyler S. 
Andrew, son of 1st Nathaniel, m. Lydia Churchill, 1764, and had Andrew, 
1765; Caleb, 1767; Henry, 1768; Stephen, 1770; Hosea, 1772; Rebecca, m. 
Stephen Holmes; Lydia, 1779, m. Ezra Finney; Polly, m. Joseph Prior; 
Euphany, m. Nathan Holmes, and Lucy, m. Lemuel Bartlett. Andrew, 
son of above, m. Sarah Holbrook, 1790, and had Sarah, m. David P. Rey- 
nolds; Andrew, and Orrin. Andrew, son of above, m. Mary, d. of William 
Barnes, 1830, and had Victor A., 1841; Mary E., 1843; Andrew P. 1848. 
He m., 2d, Phebe J. Tenney, 1866. Ansel, son of 2d Judah, m. Elizabeth 
Churchill, 1789, and had Ansel; Charles, m. Ellen Rider; Lewis, m. Mary 
Corbin Holmes, and Alexander Dewsbury; Harvey; Caroline, m. Marston 
Sampson, Betsey, m. Zacheus Parker; Elkanah, and Nancy, m. Zacheus 



16 



BARTLETT. 



Sherman. Ansel, son of 6th Benjamin, m. Polly Lanman, 1801, and had 
Polly, 1802, m. Joel Randall; Thomas Burgess, 1805, m. Bethiah, d. of John 
Churchill, and Rebecca \\\, d. of Avery Dean; Ansel, 1807; Jean, 1S09, m. 
Alexander V. Harvey; Lucy E., 1813, m. William Packard, and Susan, 1816, 
m. William H. Inglis. Ansel, son of 1st Ansel, m. Abigail Ripley, 1813, and 
had Kimball R. ; Abigail W., m. Henry Burgess; Nancy, m. Samuel Savery; 
Rebecca; and Mary, m. Sylvester R. Swett. Arena, m. Remember Holmes, 
1796, and had Temperance, 1797; Aruna, 1799; Rufus, 1802; Spencer, 18U4; Re- 
member, 1807; Sophia, 1809, and Hiram, 1811. Benjamin, son of 1st Robert, 
m. Sarah, d. of Love Brewster, 1656, and had Benjamin; Samuel; Ichabod, 
Ebeuezer, who had a wife, Hannah; Rebecca, m. William Bradford; and 
Sarah, m. Robert Bartlett. He m. a second wife, Cicily, 1678. Benjamin, 
son of above, m. Ruth Pabodie, 1672, and had Robert, 1679; Benjamin; 
Mercy, m. John Turner; Priscilla, 1697, m. John Sampson; Deborah, m. 
Josiah Thomas; Ruth, m. John Murdock; Abigail, 1703, m. Gamaliel Brad- 
ford; Rebecca, m. John Bradford; Elizabeth, m. Ephraim Bradford; Sarah, 
m. Ismael Bradford, and William. Benjamin, son of 1st Joseph, in. Sarah, 
d. of Jonathan Barnes, 1702, and had Nathaniel, 1703, m. Abigail Clarke, 
Jonathan, 1705, m. Thankful Barnes; Benjamin, 1707; Joseph, 1709; 
Hannah, 1711; Sarah, 1713, m. John Cobb; and Elkanah. Benjamin, son 
of above, m. Hannah Stephens, 1737, and had Stephens. He probably 
m., 2d, Abigail Morton, 1741, and had William, 1742; Priscilla. 1744, 
m. Samuel Calderwood; Elizabeth, 1746, m. Nathaniel Ripley. Benja- 
min, son of 6th Joseph, m. Jemima Holmes, 1759, and had Jane, m. Na- 
thaniel Ellis; Mary; Joanna, m. Ichabod Davie; Jemima; Nancy, m. Ichabod 
Davie; Benjamin; Elizabeth, m. William Rogers; Ansel; Sarah, m. Ansel 
Holmes; and Thomas. Benjamin, in. Jean Ellis, 1751, and had Benjamin, 
1752. Caleb, m. Adrianna B. Holmes, 1837. Caleb, son of 3d Robert, 
m. Elizabeth Holmes, 1778; moved to Yarmouth, Me., and had Caleb; Betsey, 
Isaac; Rebecca, m. Isaac Bartlett; Robert; Susan; George: Charles: and 
Holmes. Caleb, son of above, m. Mary Small, and had Isaac; Elizabeth; 
Mary, in. Flavel Bartlett; and William, m. Jane Gardner, d. of Truman 
Bartlett. Charles, son of 11th Joseph, m. wid. Lucinda (Cornish) Bartlett, 
1820, and had Charles, 1821; Hosea, 1826; Lucinda, 1829; Abigail, 1S37. 
David, son of 1st Elkanah, m. Mary Carver, 1796, and had Mary. 1796'; 
Dolly, m. I. n. Lucas; and Abigail. Dim an. son of 3d Ebenezer. m. 
Lydia Barrow s, 1790, and 2d, 1802, Hannah, wid. of James Harlow, and d. 
of Benjamin Bagnall, and had Lew is and Ephraim. Ebenezeis, Dnxburv. son 
of 1st Benjamin by wife Hannah, had Lydia; Ebenezer, 1794. EBENEZER, 
son of above, m. Mary Rider, and had Rebecca, 1719: Lydia. 1721; and Na- 
thaniel, 1723. He m., 2d, perhaps, Jemsha Sampson. Ebf.nezi:r, son of 2d 
Robert, m. Rebecca Diman, 1732, and had James, 1733; Chloe, 1735; Thomas, 
1737; Phebe, 1740; Rebecca, 1745. He m.. 2d, Abigail Finney. 1749, and 
had Ebenezer, 1754; Thomas, 1757; Diman, 1759; and Abigail. 1762. m. Con- 
sider Robbins. Eleazer Stephens, son of Freeman, m. Betsey Cobb, and 
had William Stephens. He m., 2d, Eveline G., d. of Salisbury Jackson, and 
had Francis J., m. Henrietta C. Shipley; Mary L. ; and Eveline Stephens. 



BARTLETT. 



17 



Ellis, son of 4th John, m. Anna Bartlett, 1796, and had John, m. a Dunbar; 
Mercy, m. Jonas Keith; Anna, m. Humphrey Manchester; Abner, m. Susan 
Case; Martha, m. Obadiah Burgess; Cyrus; Lewis, m. Sylvia Pierce; Ellis, 
1817; and Freeman. Ellis, son of above, m. Sophia Ashmead of Phila- 
delphia, and had Ellis Lehman, 1844, and William Lehman Ashmead, 1846, 
m. Baroness Burdett Coutts. Elkanah, son of 6th Joseph, m. Sarah 
Atwood, 1768, and had Elkanah, 1769, m. Rebecca Holmes; David, 1775; 
John, 1777; Jonathan, 1782; Sally, 1786; and Jennie and Joanna, twins, 
1792. Elkanah, son of 1st Ansel, m. Mary Morton, 1828, and had Mary E., 
m. Joseph Lasinby Brown; and Frank. Elkanah, m. Sarah Code, 1802. 
Elnatuan, son of 1st Joseph, m. Hannah Mansfield, 1712, and had Elnathan, 
1713, moved to New York; and Hannah, 1714. Ephraim, son of 3d Robert, 
m. Mercy Churchill, 1759, and had James, 1760; Sylvanus, 1762; Susanna, 
1764; and Rebecca, the last two of whom m. William Leonard. He m., 2d, 
Elizabeth Kempton, 1774, and had Elizabeth, 1775, m. Ephraim Whiting; 
Ephraim; Isaac; and Mercy, m. Finney Leach. Ephraim, son of Diman, 
m. Martha Cox, 1830, and had William Henry, 1832; Martha Ann, 1835, m. 
George E. Morton. Ephraim, son of 1st Ephraim, m. Abigail, d. of Richard 
Holmes, 1799. Francis, son of Sylvanus, m. Anna Cornish, 1788, and had 
Annie, 1792; Cephas, 1794; Francis, 1797; Alfred, 1799; Anna Cornish, 1802; 
Marcia, 1805; Martha Waite, 1810. Frederick William, Buffalo, son of 
2d Uriah, m. Adelia, d. of Dr. James Hunter of Whitby, Canada, from Hull, 
England, and had George Frederick Hunter, 1856; Daisy Lillian, 1865. 
Freeman, son of Joshua, m. Sarah Stephens, 1797, and had Eleazer 
Stephens; Hannah, m. John Ransom; Sally, m. a Copeland; Mary; Elizabeth 
Thacher. m. William Reed; and William. George, son of 1st Zacheus, m. 
Sylvina Holmes, 1793, and had Phebe, m. Branch Blackmer; Margaret, m. 
Nathaniel Harlow; Triphosa, m. Robert Fitts; George W.; and Jerusha, m. 
Joseph Doten. George W., son of above, m. Sarah Bartlett, 1825, and had 
George W., m. Flora A. Holmes. He m., 2d, Melintha Harlow, and had 
Henry C, m. Emily F. Parker; Winslow, m. Emily, the wid. of his brother; 
William L, m. Marv E. Shaw; and Frank R., m. Anna Bates. George, m. 
Rebecca Lanman, 1798. Harvey, son of 1st Ansel, m. Nancy Holmes, 1828, 
and had Nancy, 1830; Harvey, 1833; Ansel, 1835; Almira, 1837; and George. 
Henry, m. Fanny Churchill, 1817. Henry, m. Prudence Straffin, 1811. 
Hosea, son of 1st Andrew, m. Mercy Bartlett, 1798; and had Abigail, 1799; 
Hosea, 1801; Maria, 1805; John, 1809; Abigail, 1810. Hosea, son of above, 
m. Susan Comish, and had Samuel. He m., 2d, Eliza, d. of Aaron Hovey, 
and 3d, Eleanor, d. of Benjamin Clark, 1840. Ichabod, Marshfield, son of 
1st Benjamin, m. Elizabeth Waterman of Marshfield, 1699, and had Ich- 
abod; Josiah, 1701, m. Mary Chandler; Nathaniel, 1703, m. Abiah Delano; 
Joseph, 1706, m. Dorothy Wadsworth; Elizabeth, 1708; and Mercy. He 
m., 2d, Desire, d. of Seth Arnold, 1709, and had Sarah, 1710, m. Cornelius 
Drew; Josiah; and Seth. Ichabod, son of abo-'e, m. Susanna Spooner, 
1721, and had Ichabod; and Solomon, m., Joanna Holmes. Ichabod, 
son of above, m. Hannah Rogers, 1753, and had Ichabod, 1754; Hannah; 
Jerusha; Mercy; and Peabody. Ichabod, Honolulu, son of 2d Uriah, m., 



18 



BARTLETT. 



1855, Caroline Frances Gould, d. of James Stuart Gould of Maine, and had 
Carrie Adela, 1856, m. Thomas A. Mitchell of Oakland, Cal. ; Laura Frances, 
1857, m. Noah Helsey of Oakland; Lily, 1S59; and George L., 1SG5. Isaac, 
son of 1st Zacheus, m. Mary Bryant, and had Laura Ann; Mary; Elizabeth, 
m. Jason Winnett; Erastus H. ; and Fayette. Isaac, son of 1st Ephraim, 
m. Fear Cobb, 1801, and had Isaac, 1801 ; Eliza Ann, 1807, m. Stephen P. 
Brown; and Ephraim, 1809. He m., 2d, Rebecca, d. of Caleb Bartlett, and 
had Robert, 1817; and Rebecca. 1819. Isaac, m. Sarah Cotton, 1825, and 
had Isaac T., 1826; Catherine C, 1832; Lilliston B., 1834; Henry I., 1S36; 
Anna, 1838. Ivory Hovey, son of Abner, m. Betsey Clark, 1814, and had 
Abner; Ivory; George; William; Robert; Catherine; and Dolor. James, 
m. Emily Bradford, 1825. James, m. Charlotte Covill of Sandwich, about 
1832. James, son of 1st Ephraim, m. Mary Taylor, 17S3, and had Mary 
Taylor, 1784; James; Sylvanus; Mercy B., m. Leander Lovell; Rebecca A., 
1798; Jane, 1800; and Susan, m. Abner S. Taylor. James, son of above, m., 
1807, Sarah Witherell, and had Sarah, m. Isaac Brewster; Margaret, m. 
Ethan Earle; Harriet; Jane Elizabeth, m. Thatcher R. Raymond; Sylvanus 
T., 1808; James T., 1818; Sylvanus Taylor, 1820; James Thomas; Charles T. ; 
Mary A., 1825; and Rebecca T., 1828. Jesse, son of 1st Sylvanus, m. Polly 
Hovey, 1S09, and had Sylvanus; William D. ; and Catherine. John, son of 
2d Robert, m. Sarah, d. of Ebenezer Cobb, 1723, and had Jerusha, 1724; 
Sarah, 1726, m. Thomas Faunce; and Hannah, 1727, m. Stephen Doten; 
Mary, 1731. He m., 2d, wid. Sarah Gray of Falmouth, 1734, and had Jerusha, 
1735, m. George Peckham; John, 1738; Jennie, 1740; Lewis, 1743; Abigail, 
1745, m. Eleazer Churchill; Maria, 174S, m. Richard Babb; Charles, m. 
Abigail Churchill; and George, m. Sarah Churchill. John, son of 2d Samuel, 
m. Sarah Bartlett, 1756, and had Sarah, 1759, m. Thomas Morton; Eunice, 
1761, m. William Morton; John, 1763; and Deborah. John, son of 1st John, 
m. Dorothy Carver, 1768, and had Lewis, 1770, m. Hannah Paty; Dolly ; John 
Lewis; John; and Henry. John, son of 1st Nathaniel, m. Mercy Ellis, 1762, 
and had Abigail, 1763, m. Benjamin Washburn; John, 1766; Ellis, 1770; 
Ivory, 1772; and Sam uel, m. Olive Bartlett. JonN, son of 3d Joseph, m. 
Bathsheba Shurtleff, and had Rufus, 1771; Dorothy, 1774, m. EHis Bradford; 
Sarah, 1776, m. Simeon Chandler; Betsey, 1779, m. Bradford Holmes; 
Olive, 1783, m. Thomas Bates; John, 1786; George, 1789; Bathsheba, 1793, m. 
Lazarus Drew; and Joseph. John, m. Sophronia King, 1S02, and had 
Alonzo Sydney, 1803; and Martha Adelaide, 1806. John, son of 1st Elkanah, 
m. Rebecca Rider, 1799, and had John; Eliza, m. Brackly Gushing; Priscilla, 
m. a Wadleigh; and Joseph. He m. a 2d wife, Jerusha, wid. of Robert Davie, 
and d. of Joseph Trask. John, son of 2d John, m. Polly Morton, 1795, and 
had John; Mary, m. Obadiah King; Rebecca, m. Peter Smith. John, son of 
above, m. Caroline Lawrence, and had Polly Morton, 1823; Caroline Ausrusta, 
1829; and John Edwards, 1S36. John, m. Cynthia Lucas, 1820. John, son 
of 7th John, m. Eliza, d. of Ezra Finney, 1829, and had Caroline; John Bishop, 
m. Eliza, d. of Stephen Smith of Boston; Ezra Finney; Lydia; James Easdell, 
m. Adeline Mullikin of Philadelphia. He m., 2d. wid. (Austin) Robinson 
of Boston. Jonathan, son of 3d Benjamin, m., 1731, Thankful, d. of John 



BARTLETT. 



19 



Barnes, and had James, 1732, m. Elizabeth Bates; Sarah, 1734; Thankful, 
1738; Jonathan, 1742; Lucy, 1744, m. Bartlett Holmes; William, 1747; and 
Thankful, 1750, m. Ansel Harlow. Jonathan, son of 6th Joseph, m. Lydia 
Ellis, 1777, and had Mercy, 1782; Jonathan, 1787. Joseph, son of 1st Robert, 
m. Hannah, d. of Gabriel Fallowell. and had Joseph, 1665; Robert, 1663; 
Elnathan; Benjamin; Hannah, m. Joseph Sylvester; Mary, 1673, m. John 
Barnes; and Sarah, m. Elisha Holmes. Joseph, son of above, m. Lydia 
Griswold, 1692, and had Joseph, 1693; Samuel, 1696; Lydia, 1698, m. Lazarus 
LeBaron; Benjamin, 1699, m. Lydia Morton; and Sarah, 1703, m. Francis 
LeBaron and Joseph Swift. Joseph, son of 1st Ichabod, m. Dorothy Wads- 
worth, 1729, and had Mercy, 1733; Annie, 1735; Ichabod, 1736; Joseph, 1740; 
Dorothy, 1743, m. William Drew; Bathsheba; Uriah; Elizabeth, 1747, m. 
Robert Foster; and John. Joseph, son of 2d Joseph, m. Elizabeth Bartlett, 
1717, and had William, 1718; Sylvanus, 1719; Jerusha, 1721, m. Joseph Cros- 
well; Lydia, 1722, m. Jonathan Parker; Zacheus, 1725; Betty, 1727, m. 
Benjamin Rider; Joseph, 1729, m. Lydia Cobb. Joseph, son of 2d Robert, 
m. Sarah Morton, 1737 and had Sarah, 1737, m. John Bartlett; Joseph, 1738; 
Thomas, 1742; Josiah, 1744; Martha, 1747, m. a Jackson; Hannah, 1749, m. 
Daniel Hosea. Joseph, son of 3d Benjamin, m. Jean Swift, 1735, and had 
Benjamin, 1736; Mercy, 1738, m. Sylvanus Marshall; Jean, 1741, m. Matthew 
Claghorn; Joann, 1742, m. George Atwood; Joseph, 1745; Elkanah, 1747; and 
David and Jonathan, 1753. Joseph, son of 3d Joseph, m. Laurana Drew, 
and had Laurana, 1768; Joseph, 1770, m. Lucy Bradford; Seth, 1772, m. Mary 
Kimball; Ichabod, 1775; Lysander, 1777, m. Harriet Drew; Sarah D., 1780; 
Charles, 17S6. Joseph, son of 5th Joseph, m. Mary Bartlett, 1770, and had 
Joseph; Frederick, m. Lydia Dunham; and Mary, m. Nathaniel Bartlett. 
Joseph, son of 6th Joseph, m. Lucy Holmes, 1770, and had Joseph, 1770; 
Zephaniah, 1772, m. Eliza, d. of Ebenezer Sampson; Lucy, 1775; Bradford, 
1776. Joseph, son of 7th Joseph, m. Lucy Bradford, and had Betsey, 1799, 
m. Anthony E. Glynn; Lucy F.; Nancy, 1804, m. Nathaniel Drew; David B., 
1806, m. Abigail Freeman; Ichabod, 1809; Cornelius A., 1811, m. Mabel Drew; 
Lucy F., 1814, m. Peter Pratt; Walter S., 1818, m. Susan A. Soule. Joseph, 
son of 1st Zacheus, m. Anna Clark, 1784, and had Charles, 1785; Joseph, 
1786; Hannah, 1787, m. Thomas Mayo and Samuel Clark; Thomas, 1789, m. 
Lucinda Cornish; Zacheus, 1793, m. Sylvia Blackwell; Micah, 1793; Isaac, 
1796; Abigail, 1798, m. Seth Clark; and Clark, 1800. Joseph, son of 3d 
Samuel, m. Rebecca Churchill, 1784, and had William, 1786; Rebecca; Susan, 
1795; Joseph; Augustus; John; Samuel; Benjamin; and Eliza Ann, m. Albert 
Goodwin. He m., 2d, Lucy Dyer, 1821. Joseph, m. Grace Cornish, 1813. 
Joseph, Duxbury, son of 1st Samuel, m. Lydia Nelson, and had Isaiah, 1716; 
Patience, 1718; Hannah, 1721; Lydia, 1725. Joshua, son of 3d Robert, m. 
Mary Harlow, 1772, and had Freeman, m. Sarah Stephens; and Joshua, m. 
Elizabeth Goodwin. Judah, son of 1st William, m. Mercy Sylvester, 1788, 
and had William, m. Abiah Parsons. Jttdah, son of 2d Samuel, m. Love 
Sprague, 1763, and had Ansel; Mary, m. John Cronican; Nathaniel; Roxanna, 
m. Rufus Bartlett, and perhaps others. Judah, son of 5th Nathaniel, m. 
Jerusha Holmes, 1824, and had Eliza Ann, 1826. He m., 2d, wid. Eliza Jane 



20 



BARTLETT. 



Lucas, 1S31, and had Jerusha Holmes, 1832; John Franklin, 1835; Martha 
Washington, 1S37; Amasa, 1839. Lazarus, m. Thankful C. Bartlett, 1817. 
Lemuel, son of 2d Robert, m. Mary Doty, 1742, and had Lemuel, 1744; 
William, 1740; Mary, 1749, m. a Sturtevant; Jean, 1754, m. a Doten; Stephen, 
17.56; Rebecca, 1760, m. a Holmes; Rufus, 1762, ra. Mercy ChurchilL Lemuel, 
by wife Lucy, had Lucy, 1807. Lewis, son of Dinian, m. MaryC. Holmes, 
1S25. and had Charles Lewis, 1827; Martha Ann, 1830; William Marston, 
1832; Mary Jane, 1834. Lemuel, m. Lucy Bartlett, 1807. Lemuel Brad- 
ford, m. Mary Holmes. 1785. Nathaniel, son of 3d Benjamin, m. Abigail, 
d. of Thomas Clark, 1725, and had Thomas, 1725; Susanna, 172S, m. Elkanah 
Churchill; Mary. 1730, m. William Bartlett; Nathaniel, 1733, m. Lydia, d. of 
Lemuel Barnes; John, 1736; Andrew, 1738; Abigail, 1740, m. Solomon 
Holmes; Hannah. 1743, m. Elkanah Barnes. Nathaniel, son of 3d Samuel, 
m. Mary Bartlett, 1793, and had Nathaniel; Harriet, m. Samuel M. Whitten: 
Mary, m. Henry Seymour; Almira, m. Nathaniel Churchill; Sophia, m. 
William Straffin; Betsey; Edward; Cornelius, m. wid. Marcia (Perkins) 
Sturtevant. Nathaniel, son of above, m. Lucia, d. of Barnabas Holmes. 
1821, and had Nathaniel, 1822, m. Sarah Soule; Frederick, 1824, m. Harriet 
Martin and Elizabeth G. Thrasher: David C, 1827; Lucia A., 1828; Cornelius, 
1831, m. Deborah A. Hoyt; and Mary J., 1837. Nathaniel, m. Susan 
Diman, 1816. Nathaniel, son of 2d Judah, m. Elizabeth Marshall, 1784, 
and had Susanna; Nathaniel, 1786: Ansel; Peabody; Samuel, m. Lydia Bart- 
lett ; Judah. and Amasa. Nathaniel, son of above, m. Sarah Lucas. 1608, and 
had Susan and Sarah. Nathaniel, son of 2d Solomon, m. Hannah Faunce, 
1787, and had Nathaniel. Nathaniel, son of the last, m. Priscilla. wid. of 
Thomas Pope, 1824. Obrin. Brockton, son of 2d Andrew, m.. 1841, Sarah 
Jane, d. of James C. Drake of Grafton, New Hampshire, and had Cordelia 
Frances, 1843; Henry Murray, 1847. Peabody. son of 3d Ichabod, m. Lucy 
Turner, 1793, and had Deborah, 1794; Ichabod, 1797; Peabody. 1799; Turner 
Kimball, 1801; Coleman, 1803; Lucy. 1804; Hannah Rogers, 1806; Deborah, 
1809; Jerusha, 1812. Robert came in the Ann, 1623, and m., 1626, Man-, d. 
of Richard Warren, by whom he had Benjamin, 1638; Joseph, 1639: Rebecca, 
m. William Harlow; Mary, m. Richard Foster and Jonathan Morey; Sarah, 
m. Samuel Rider; Elizabeth, m. Anthony Sprague; Lydia. 1647. m. James 
Barnaby and John Nelson; Mercy, 1651, m. John Ivey of Boston. 
Robert, son of 1st Joseph, m. Sarah, d. of Benjamin Bartlett. 1687. and Sarah, 
d. of Jacob Cooke, 1691, and had Hannah. 1691, m. Eleazer Churchill: Thomas, 
1694, m., Abigail Finney; John. 1696; Sarah, 1699. m. John Finney: James, 
1701 ; Joseph, 1704; Elizabeth, 1707, m.Thomas Sears; William. 1709^ m. Sarah 
Foster; Ebenezer, 1710; Robert, 1713; Lemuel, 1715. Robert, son of above, 
m. Rebecca Wood, 17:33. and had Robert. 1735: Ephraim. 1737: Rebecca. 1739, 
m. Ephraim Darling; Caleb, 1740; Isaac, 1742, m. Lois Harlow: Lazarus. 
1744; Joshua, 1747; James, 1749; Susanna, 1750; Josiah, 1753, m. Martha 
Holmes. Robert, son of above, m. Jean Spooner, 1770. Rufus. from N. 
H., m., about 1800. Roxanna. d. of Judah Bartlett. and had Rufus. Clark. 
Nancy C. and Thomas. Samuel, son of 1st Benjamin, m. Hannah, d. of 
William Peabodie, 1683, and had Benjamin, 1684; Samuel, 1688; Joseph, 1686, 



BARTLETT. 



21 



m. Lydia Nelson; Ichabod; Lydia, m. Joseph Holmes; Sarah, m. Nathan 
Thomas and Jedediah Bourne; Elizabeth, m.Ephraim Bradford. Samuel, son 
of above, m. Hannah Churchill, 1725, and had Samuel, William, John, and 
Judah. Samuel, son of above, m., in North Carolina, Betsey Moore, and 
had Mary, m. Ephraim Finney; Betty, m. Amaziah Churchill; William; John, 
and Joseph, 17(32. He m. a 2d wife in Plymouth, Elizabeth Jackson, 1766, 
and had Samuel, 1767; Nathaniel, 1769; Cornelius, 1771; Alexander; Truman, 
and Stephen. Samuel, son of above, m. Zilpha Morton, 1794, and had Eliza, 
m. Joseph Holmes. Samuel, son of 1st William, m. Joanna Taylor, 1783, 
and had Samuel, Judah, and others, all of whom removed to Maine. 
Samuel, son of 4th John, m. Olive Bartlett, 1801, and had Samuel, 1802; 
Hiram, 1804, m. Euphany Holmes; Harvey Stetson, 1806; Fanny Hovey, 
1809, m. Alfred Cole; Eliza Thomas, 1811, m. Alden S. Simmons; Bourne, 
Frances, Ann, Harriet, and Abby. Samuel, m. Marcia Bartlett, 1825. 
Samuel, m. Abigail Magoon, 1747. Samuel, son of 2d Joseph, m. Elizabeth, 
d. of Isaac Lothrop, 1721, and had Lothrop, 1723; Elizabeth, 1725; Margaret, 
1728; Hannah, 1731; Margaret, 1737. Hem., 2d, Elizabeth (Lothrop), wid. 
of Thomas Witherell, 1748, and had Samuel, 1749; Samuel, 1751; Elizabeth, 
1753, m. Peleg Wadsworth; Lothrop, 1755; Hannah, 1757; Isaac, 1759. 
Seth S., m. Ann C. Bartlett, 1836. Solomon, m. Clarissa Lindsey, 1817. 
Solomon, m. Joanna Holmes, 1749, and had Solomon, 1751, m. Hannah 
Rogers; James, 1751; Benjamin, 1755; Nathaniel, and Abigail. Stephen, 
son of 1st Andrew, m. Polly Nye, 1799, and had Harriet, 1800; Stephen, 
1801, m. Phebe Reed; Mary, 1804; Thomas Nye, 1806, m. Mercy Taylor 
Wadsworth; Lorenzo, 1809; Lewis L. ; Edward, m. Betsey Beal of Kingston; 
and Harriet, m. Charles T. Holmes. Stephen, son of above, m. Phebe Reed, 
and had Lorenzo; Elizabeth, m. Ezra Sampson Diman; and Mercy White, 
m. James Macy. Sylvanus, son of 4th Joseph, m. Martha Wait, 1743, and 
had Wait, 1744; Elizabeth, 1749, m. Thomas Bartlett; Sylvanus, 1751; Mary, 
1753, in. Joseph Bartlett; Abner, 1755, m. Anna Hovey; Martha, 1757; 
Jerusha, 1759; Joseph, 1761, m. Anna Mary Witherell; Francis; Sophia, m. 
Benjamin Drew; and Jesse, 1772, m. Betsey Drew and Mary Hovey. Syl- 
vanus, son of above, m. Sarah Loring, and had Bathsheba, Martha, Sylvanus, 
Sarah, Isaac, Betsey, Alvin, Joseph, Loring, Ignatius; Jerusha, m. Nathaniel 
Holmes; Isaiah, Lydia, Thomas, and Daniel. Thomas, son of 3d Ebenezer, 
m. Sarah Rider, 1778, and had Ebe